Page images
PDF
EPUB

gone material changes by inteftine commotions and violent erupa tions. An Account of Well River Mountain, and the Appearance of there

having been a Volcano in it. By Daniel Jones, Esq. This is a good natural history of the mountain ; and the next memoir is a continuation of the subjeët, by Mr. Caleb Alexander. Observations made at Beverly, Lat. 42° 36' N. Long, 70° 45'w. to determine the Variation of the Needle. By the Rev. Joseph

Willard. Magnetical Observations made at Cambridge. By Mr. Stephen

Sewall. An Historical Register of the Aurora Borealis, from Aug. 8th, 1781,

to Aug. 19, 1783. By Caleb Ganner, A. M. The two next memoirs are Meteorological Diaries for part of 1781, and the whole of 1782 and 1783. Miscellaneous Observations in Natural History. By the Hon.

Benjamin Lincoln, Esq. Accounts of several strata of earth and shells on the banks of York River in Virginia ;-of a fubterraneous paffage, and the sudden de cent of a very large current of water from a mountain, near Carline;--of a very large (pring near Reading in Pennsylvania ; and allo of several remarkable springs in the States of Pennsylvania and Virginia, compose this memoir. An Account of a Fossil Substance, containing Vitriel and Sulphur,

found at Lebanon. By the Rev. Jeremy Belknap. No analysis of this fubstance is given. An Account of a Yellow and Red Pigment found at Norton, with the Process for preparing the Yellow for Use. By Samuel Deane.

This is an earth, probably of iron, which by' fimple washing is used for a yellow paint, and which, when heated to a red heat, retains, after it is cooled, the red colour communicated by the fire. An Account of an Oil Stone found at Salisbury. By the Rev. Sa

muel Webiter. Observations on the Culture of Smyrna Wheat. By Benjamin Gale. Account of an Experiment for raising Indian Corn in poor Land. By

Joséph Greenleaf, Esq. These three memoirs are of a local nature. The next is a mere curiosity, being an account of an apple-tree that brought forth both sweet and sour fruit ac the same time. On ingrafting Fruit Trees, and on the Growth of Vegetables. By

the Hon. Benjamin Lincoln, Eig. We have here some useful hints for ingrafting, and a valuable disquisition on vegetation. The botanist yet laments that many

of the phenomena in the vegetable world are better known than understood, We are in want of experiments to determine some doubtful points in the theory of vegetation; and though much has been done, much yet remains for the curious inquirer to examine. The descent of the rap is a fact which Mr. Lincoln withes to prove. There is no doubt that plants absorb, by their leayes, something from the air. To what purpose then does the absorption tend? To what parts of the plant is the absorbed matter sent? Why have some parasitical plants no leaves? These, with several other questions, remain yet unanswered, and, on the present received theory of vegetation, seem unanswerable. An Account of some Vegetable Productions growing in America, bo

tanically arranged. By the Rev. Manafleh Cutler. This long memoir may be considered as the foundation of a Flora Americana. The plants are arranged according to the Linnean fyltem, with annexed descriptions; with notes and observations relative to their times of flowering, places of growth, medical or economical uses, &c. On the Retreat of House-Swallows in Winter. By Samuel Dexter,

Erg. Mr. Dexter adduces many facts which prove that the houseswallows sink into ponds and rivers in the autumn, and lie there benumbed and morionless until the return of spring. An Account of an Air-pump on a new Construction. By the Rev.

John Prince. It is impossible to convey an adequate idea of this construction without the assistance of plates. The contrivance is as follows: The barrel is covered with a plate furnished with a valve like Mr. Smeaton's. There is a valve also in the pifton; but none at the bottom of the barrel. The cistern on which the barrel is fixed, is deep enough to allow the pitton to descend into it below the barrel; it is also wider than the barrel. When the piston descends into this cistern, the air, if it be too rare to open the valve in the piston, finds a passage into the cavity of the bar. rel; for the piston is of less dimenfions than the cistern, and the air will escape between them. The piston being drawn up, the air will be expelled through the valve on the plate which covers the barrel. Thus it appears that Mr. Prince's air-pump is Mr. Smeaton's without a bottom valve, A Description of a Pump Engine, or an Apparatus to be added to a

common Pump, to answer the Purpose of a Fire Engine. By Benjamin Dearborn.

A Description of a Fire Engine. By the fame. These two engines are the common forcing pump without an air veffc1.

Observations

Сс 4

Observations on the Art of making Steel. By Daniel Little,

Mr. Little recommends, from experience, dried sea weed, pulverized, and mixed with half of its quantity of wood ashes, as an excellent cement for making steel. He describes the whole process with precision, and gives ample directions for the construction of furnaces, and the method of managing the operation.

Part III. MEDICAL PAPERS. An Account of the Horn Difemper in Cattle; with Observations on

that Disease. By the Hon. Cotton Tufts, M. D. The disease nere described affects the internal rubiance of the horn (in cows] called the pith. This spongy bone is sometimes partially and sometimes wholly wasted. The symptoms are, a coldness in the horn, a dulness in the countenance, a fluggishness in moving, a heaviness of the eyes, loss of appetite, an inclination for lying down, and sometimes a giddiness, and frequent tossing of the head. The cure confifts in making an open. ing into the cavity of the horn, near its root, for the evacuation of the sanies. To complete the cure, Dr. Tufts has found an injection of rum, honey, and tincture of myrrh and aloes, highly necessary. Case of a remarkably large Tumor found in the Cavity of the Abda

men. By Joshua Fither. Appears to be a schirrous uterus. Remarks on the Effects of Ragnant Air. By Ebenezer Beardsley,

Surgeon. Stagnant air seems to have been the cause, if not of producing, yet of exacerbating a dysentery which broke out in the American army, in the spring of 1776. A remarkable Cale of a Gun Shot Wound. By Barnabas Binney.

The man who received this wound was stationed on the maintop. The ball entered the belly about two inches above the left groin, and within one inch of che anterior edge of the ilium, and passed out about two inches on the right of the spine between the two inferior true ribs, touching the inferior angle of the right scapula. When he was brought to the hospital, he had bled much, was weak and cold, had a faultering voice, a cadaverous countenance, a conitant hiccup, an hæmoptosis, and the fæces passing through the wound in his belly, Mr. Binney, suppofing that, under luch deplorable circumstances, neither nature por art could afford any permanent relief, gave his patient an opiate in wine, with the intention of smoothing the path of death. The violence of the symptoms abated: The opiate was continued occasionally for thirteen days, during which time there was a constant discharge of the inicfinal contents through

tha

[ocr errors]

the wound: the other symptoms were removed. On the fourteenth day, a glyfter was adminiftered, the greatest part of which was evacuated through the wound. On the eighteenth, the operation was repeated, when for the first time an alvine dejection was procured. From this time the excretions were restored, the wounds suppurated and healed, and the patient was discharged, perfectly cured.

We have given this abftra&t of the case, because we think it curious, and perhaps the moft extraordinary cure on record. The colon must have been wounded, because the fæces and the glyffer passed through the wound: that the diaphragm must have been perforated, and the lungs lacerated, is evident from the spitting of blood.

Hence it is evident, that a wound in the colon is not always mortal: and that a perforation of the diaphragm is not the absolute cause of death : but, above all, this fingular care plainly proves, that where surgeons are not certain of the utility of their operations, they had better, following Mr. Binney's judicious practice, leave a desperate disorder in the hands of nature, than, through too great an officiousness, proceed on doubiful and precarious grounds. A Bill of Mortality for the Town of Salem, for 1782. By Ed

ward Auguftus Holyoke, M. D. A History of a large Tumor in the Abdomen, containing Hair. By

John Warren, Esq.
As no practical inference can be drawn from this, more curi.'
ous than instructive, case, we shall pass it over.

Experiments on the Waters of Bo/lom. By J. Feron.
Some of the waters in Boston, and its neighbourhood, are here
analyzed.
Observations on the Longevity of the Inhabitants of Ipswich and

Hingham. By the Rev. Edward Wigglesworth.
These observations were made with the laudable intention of
ascertaining facts for the foundation of a true theory for calcu-
lating the values of life estates, or of their reversions. The climate
of different places muft necessarily fomewhat alter the longevity
of men; and it is the duty of public-spirited men, in every coun-
try, to obtain all the knowlege they posibly can on a fubje& which
may materially concern its inhabitants, especially such of them as
are posse fled of property, and are of consequence in the state,

We have now gone through the contents of this large volume, - which, though not replete with many new discoveries in the arts and sciences, may, nevertheless, be considered as a proof, that philofophical pursuits are carried on with vigour in the American States ; and every zealous cultivator of the arts will behold with satisfa&tion the successful progress of Literary and

5

Learned

Learned Institutions, in whatever part of the globe. For TRUTH and philosophic LEARNING are superior to all party, and even national, diftinctions. Their views will ever extend beyond the narrow boundaries of local and separate interests, which divide society from society, and one body of men from another. To promote the common good of mankind, and to increase the general stock of human happiness, by the diffusion of userul knowlege, benevolence, and wisdom, is THEIR great objed, and leading p:inciple :-Prosperity attend them!

Art. II. The Life of Captain James Cook. By Andrew Kippis,

D.D. F.R.S. and S. A. 4to. il. Is. Boards. Nicol. 1788. N the preface to this publication, Dr. Kippis says,

as a writer,

I never did it with so much diffidence and anxiety as on the present occasion. This ariles from the peculiar nature of the work in which I have now engaged. A narrative of the life of Captain Cook must principally conlilt of the voyages and discoveries he made, and the difficulties and dangers to which he was exposed. The private incidents concerning him, though collected with the utmoit diligence, can never coin pare, either in number or importance, with his public transactions. His public transactions are the things that mark the man, that display his mind and his character; and, therefore, they are the grand objects to which the attention of his biographer must be directed. However, the right conduct of this business is a point of no small difficulty and embarrassment. The question will frequently arise, how far the detail should be extended? There is a danger, on the one hand, of being carried to an undue length, and of enlarging, more than is needful, on facts which may be thought already fufficiently known; and, on the other hand, of giving fuch a jejune account, and such a slight enumeration, of important events, as shall disappoint the wishes and expectations of the reader. Of the two extremes, the last seems to be that which should most be avoided; for, unless what Capt. Cook performed, and what he encountered, be related somewhat at large, his life would be im perfectly represented to the world. The proper medium appears to be, to bring forward the things in which he was personally concerned, and to pass slightly over other matters. Even here it is scarcely possible, nor would it be desirable, to avoid the introduction of some of the most striking circumstances which relate to the new countries and inhabitants that were visited by our great Navigator ; since these constitute a part of the knowledge and benefit derived from his undertakings. Whether I have been lo happy as to preserve the due medium, I presume not to determine. I have been anxious to do it, without always being able fully to satisfy my own mind that I have succeeded; on which account I shall not be surpized if different opinions should be formed on the subject. In that case, all that I can offer in my own defence will be, that I have <ted to the best of my judgment."

Were we disposed to set our judgment in competition with that of such a veteran in biographical writing as Dr. Kippis ;

and

« PreviousContinue »