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and were we, at the fame time, ever fo well fatisfied that he had wandered, and wandered far indeed, from the happy medium which he appears, from this extract, to have been fo anxious to preferve; we could not, after tranfcribing it, make use of a harfher expreffion than that we think he has not erred by running into that extreme which he supposes should be moft avoided,' without proclaiming to the world that we pay no regard to the feelings of an author, or that we are unacquainted with them.


The work confifts of 518 pages, and is divided into seven chapters; the firft contains the hiftory of Captain Cook's life previously to his firft voyage round the world. Here we learn that his father was probably a native of Northumberland, and in a very humble fituation in life: that James Cook was born at Marton, a village near Gifborough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, on the 27th of October 1728; and that his early - education extended no farther than reading English, writing, and a few of the firft rules in arithmetic: that he was bound apprentice to a haberdafher, before he was thirteen years of age; but, that bufinefs not fuiting his inclination, he obtained his discharge from his master, and bound himself to the owners of a fhip in the coal trade, in which employment he continued till the beginning of the war in 1755. The fhip to which Cook belonged was then in the Thames, and the prefs was fo hot that he thought there was little chance of escaping it, and therefore determined to enter voluntarily. Accordingly he applied to a rendezvous, the officer of which belonged to the Eagle man of war, foon after commanded by Captain (now Sir Hugh) Pallifer, who found Cook on board her before the maft. His activity, diligence, and abilities as a feaman, had already recommended him to the officers, and foon attracted the notice of his commander; and in May 1759, he was appointed a Master in the Navy, and went out in that ftation, on board the Mercury, to America. He there joined the fleet which was then going against Quebec; and where, through the recommendation of Sir Hugh Pallifer, he was employed in fome of the most difficult, dangerous, and important fervices. He examined the paffage, and laid buoys for the fecurity of the large fhips in proceeding up the river between the island of Orleans, and the North fhore, directly in the front of the French fortified camp at Montmorency and Beauport; of courfe he was obliged to perform this bufinefs in the night: and, notwithstanding this, notwithstanding alfo that he was difcovered, and purfued fo closely by the

* A good print of Capt. Cook is given, by way of frontispiece. It is engraved by Heath, from an original picture, in the poffeffion of Sir Jofeph Banks.


enemy, that they entered the ftern, as he leaped from the bow, of his boat, he preferved his papers, and furnished Admiral Saunders with as correct and complete a draught of the channel and foundings, as could have been made after our people were in poffeffion of Quebec. He alfo piloted the boats to the attack of Montmorency, and conducted the embarkation to the Heights of Abraham. After the place was taken, he furveyed that part of the river St. Laurence which is below Quebec, by order of the Admiral; and his chart of that river was, foon after, published, with directions for failing up it. Of this chart it is fufficient to fay, that, notwithstanding the Author of it is fupposed to have had scarcely ever a pencil in his hand before that time, its accuracy is fuch that it has never been found neceflary to publish any other. In the latter end of this fummer, he was appointed Mafter of Lord Colville's fhip, the Northumberland, which being stationed at Halifax during the fucceeding winter, Mr. Cook availed himself of the leifure it afforded him by his stay there, and ftudied the Elements of Euclid: he also made himfelf acquainted with fome parts of aftronomy and other branches of fcience. The Northumberland being fent in 1762 to affift in the recapture of Newfoundland, and the fleet remaining there fome days after the ifland was recovered, the genius of Cook manifefted itfelf again, in furveying the harbour and heights about Placentia; and the diligence and fkill which he difplayed in doing it, were fuch as attracted the notice of Captain (now Admiral) Graves, who was then Governor of Newfoundland. He afked Cook many queftions; and was fo much pleafed with his anfwers, that, after the peace in 1763, he being continued in the government of Newfoundland, procured an eftablishment for furveying the coafts of that ifland, and took our Navigator out with him for that purpose. In the fummer of that year, he furveyed the islands of Miquelon and St. Pierre, which had been ceded to the French, before they were fuffered to take poffeffion of them; and he returned to England with Capt. Graves, at the end of the feafon.

In the enfuing year, his old friend, and fteady patron, Sir Hugh Pallifer, being appointed Governor of Newfoundland, he immediately procured Mr. Cook the appointment of Marine Surveyor on that ftation; in which he continued till he was called upon by the late Sir Edward Hawke to take the command of the Endeavour, the fhip which had been chofen for the purpofe of carrying out the aftronomers appointed by the Royal Society to obferve the Tranfit of Venus over the Sun's difc, in 1769. And on this account, he was made a Lieutenant in the Navy.

It does not appear that Cook was indebted either to friendship or intereft for this promotion, but to his own merit as a feaman and an aftronomer, and perhaps alfo to chance, that FRIEND TO


MANY! In order to make the expence as light as poffible [for the bufinefs happened at a time when ceconomy was much talked of, and when, to crown all, the Prefident of the Royal Society was a Scot, and as frugal a man as ever came out of Scotland], the Royal Society was defirous of getting a perfon appointed to the command of the fhip who was qualified to make the obfervation, and willing to accept that command as a fatisfaction for doing it. In confequence of thefe views, the Society had caft their eyes on Alexander Dalrymple, Efq. a perfon well qualified for the duty, but who had not been brought up in the Royal navy. Fortunately for Cook, there was at that time a profeffional man at the head of the Admiralty; one who poffeffed fo much more of l'efprit du corps, than of fcience and liberality of fentiment for those who were out of it, that he declared he would fuffer his right hand to be cut off before he would fign a commiffion which intrufted one of his Majefty's fhips to the care of a man, who, as he termed it, had not been regularly bred a feaman. Very fortunately alfo for Mr. Cook, he was (we are forry to fay it) at that time perhaps the only man in his profeffion whofe abilities rendered him fit for the employment, and whofe rank was compatible with that which the Admiralty meant to confer; so that when they began to look out for the man they wanted, it was fcarce poffible to mifs him. Such appears to have been the concatenation of events which gave this great Navigator an opportunity of exhibiting his furprifing talents.

Chap. II. relates the hiftory of Captain Cook's life during his firft voyage round the world; and feems wholly extracted from Hawkelworth's account of that voyage: as fuch, we have few remarks to make on it. We cannot, however, avoid noticing a paffage toward the end of this chapter, where, after tranfcribing the fubftance of what Hawkefworth has faid at p. 797, vol. iii. concerning the want of conveniences for eafing the labour of the flaves at the island of St. Helena, and the cruelty of the inhabitants toward them, Dr. Kippis adds, in a note, Near the conclufion of Captain Cook's fecond voyage, there is the following fhort note: "In the account given of St. Helena in the narrative of my former voyage I find fone mistakes. Its inhabitants are far from exercifing a wanton cruelty over their flaves; and they have had wheel carriages and porters knots for many years." [Vol. ii. p. 270.] This note I infert with pleafure. Neverthelefs, I cannot think that the Lieutenant could have given so ftrong a reprefentation of things, if, at the time in which it was written, it had been wholly without foundation.' It is remarkable, that, although this note is faid to be near the conclufion of Captain Cook's fecond voyage, and notwithstanding the volume and page are referred to, as above, no fuch note is to be found there. A note, the fame in every refpect, except that Captain


Cook fays two mistakes, inftead of fame, occurs at p. xxii. of the introduction to that voyage; and the hiftory of that note we are well acquainted with, having heard the Lieutenant declare, that not a word to the effect of what is related by Hawkefworth, to the disadvantage of the people of St. Helena, was contained in any journal of his. And we know that he was much hurt at the paffage.

Chap. III. gives the hiftory of Captain Cook's life from the end of his first to the commencement of his fecond voyage round the world; and the 4th chapter contains his life during that voyage on neither of which have we much to obferve, as the facts they contain are already before the Public. We cannot help, however, making a remark on one paffage in the fourth chapter, which ftands at p. 375, vol. i. of Captain Cook's account of his fecond voyage, thus: "Oreo's laft request was for me to return; and when he faw he could not obtain that promife, he asked the name of my Morai (burying place). As ftrange a question as this was, I hefitated not a moment to tell him Stepney; the parish in which I live when in London: I afterwards found that the fame question had been put to Mr. Forster, by a man on fhore; but he gave a different, and indeed more proper anfwer, by faying, no man, who used the fea, could fay where he should be buried." Captain Cook adds, "It is the cuftom at thefe ifles for all the great families to have burial places of their own, where their remains are interred. Thefe go with the eftate to the next heir."

We never read this paffage in Captain Cook's narrative without being furprised at the decifion which he here gives against himfelf: for to us it has always appeared that his was the proper anfwer to Oreo's queftion, and that Mr. Forster's was not at all to the purpose. Oreo did not ask Captain Cook where he would be buried, but what was the name of his family buryingplace; not fuppofing but that he, like all the great men among themselves, had one, though, by accident, it might not fall to the owner's lot to be laid in it. Let the reader judge, then, how our vanity, as profeffional critics, muft have been humbled, when we found Dr. Kippis tranfcribing the paffage, and deciding, in far ftronger terms, against the Captain than he had ufed himself, and in favour of Mr. Forfter: for he adds, Mr. Forfter, to whom the fame question was propofed, replied, with greater wisdom and recollection,' &c. &c.-We muft give up the trade: for, though fpectacles may affift the fight, as we grow older, we know not what can repair the judgment when it begins to fail.


The fifth chapter contains the hiftory of Cook's life from the conclufion of his fecond voyage round the world, to the commencement of his voyage to the Pacific Ocean. This chapter


affords us a confiderable fhare of original and interefting inform399 ation, mixed with much matter which was already before the Public; and the fixth gives the hiftory of his life, from the commencement of that voyage, to the time of his death. Inafmuch as it relates the unfortunate end of this celebrated Navigator, this chapter is the most interefting in the whole book; but as the principal parts of it have been given to our readers in the acCount of Mr. Samwell's narrative *, feventh and laft chapter, which contains the character of Capwe fhall haften to thetain Cook, the effects of his voyages, teftimonies of applaufe, commemorations of his fervices, and an account of what has been done for his family fince his death. From this chapter, we fhall present our Readers with Captain Cook's character, as drawn by Dr. Kippis, because we think it exceedingly accurate; and we well knew the man.


It cannot, I think, be denied, that genius belonged to Captain Cook, in an eminent degree. By genius I do not here understand imagination merely, or that power of culling the flowers of fancy which poetry delights in; but an inventive mind; a mind full of refources; and which, by its own native vigour, can fuggest noble objects of purfuit, and the most effectual methods of attaining them. This faculty was poffeffed by our Navigator in its full energy, as is evident from the uncommon fagacity and penetration which he difcovered in a vaft variety of critical and difficult fituations.

To genius, Capt. Cook added application, without which nothing very valuable or permanent can be accomplished, even by the brightest capacity. For an unremitting attention to whatever related to his profeflion, he was diftinguished in early life. In every affair that was undertaken by him, his affiduity was without interruption, and without abatement. Wherever he came, he fuffered nothing, which was fit for a feaman to know or to practise, to pass unnoticed, or to escape his diligence.

The genius and application of Capt. Cook were followed by a large extent of knowledge; a knowledge, which, befides a confummate acquaintance with navigation, comprehended a number of other fciences. In this refpect, the ardour of his mind rofe above the difadvantages of a very confined education. His progrefs in the different branches of the mathematics, and particularly in aftronomy, became fo eminent, that, at length, he was able to take the lead in making the neceffary obfervations of this kind, in the courfe of his voyages. He attained, likewife, to fuch a degree of proficiency in general learning, and the art of compofition, as to be able to exprefs himself with a manly clearness and propriety, and to become refpectable as the narrator, as well as the performer, of great actions.

Another thing, ftrikingly confpicuous in Capt. Cook, was the perfeverance with which he purfued the noble objects to which his life was devoted. This, indeed, was a moft diftinguished feature in his character in this he scarcely ever had an equal, and never a su

* See Rev. vol. lxxv.


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