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perior. Nothing could divert him from the points he aimed at ; and he perfifted in the profecution of them, through difficulties and obftructions which would have deterred minds of very confiderable ftrength and firmness.

What enabled him to perfevere in all his mighty undertakings was the invincible fortitude of his fpirit. Of this, inftances without number occur in the accounts of his expeditions; two of which I fhall take the liberty of recalling to the attention of my readers. The firft is, the undaunted magnanimity with which he profecuted his difcoveries along the whole fouth-east coast of New Holland. Surrounded as he was with the greateft poffible dangers, arifing from the perpetual fucceffion of rocks, fhoals, and breakers, and having a ship that was almoft fhaken to pieces by repeated perils, his vigorous mind had a regard to nothing but what he thought was required of him by his duty to the Public. It will not be eafy to find, in the history of navigation, a parallel example of courageous exertion. The other circumftance I would refer to is the boldness with which, in his fecond voyage, after he left the Cape of Good Hope, he pufhed forwards into unknown feas, and penetrated through innumerable mountains and iflands of ice, in the fearch of a fouthern continent. It was like launching into chaos: all was obfcurity, all was darkness before him; and no event can be compared with it, except the failing of Magelhaens, from the Straits which bear his name into the Pacific Ocean *.


The fortitude of Captain Cook, being founded upon reason, and not upon instinct, was not an impetuous valour, but accompanied with a complete felf-poffeffion. He was mafter of himself on every trying occafion, and feemed to be the more calm and collected, the greater was the exigence of the cafe. In the moft perilous fituations, when our Commander had given the proper directions concerning what was to be done while he went to reft, he could fleep, during the hours he had allotted to himfelf, with perfect compofure and foundnefst. Nothing could be a furer indication of an elevated mind; of a mind that was entirely fatisfied with itself, and with the measures it had taken.

To all thefe great qualities, Captain Cook added the most amiable virtues. That it was impoffible for any one to excel him in humanity, is apparent from his treatment of his men through all his voyages, and from his behaviour to the natives of the countries which were discovered by him. The health, the convenience, and, as far as it could be admitted, the enjoyment of the feamen, were the constant objects of his attention; and he was anxioufly folicitous to meliorate the condition of the inhabitants of the feveral islands and places which he visited. With regard to their thieveries, he candidly apologized for, and overlooked, many offences which others would have fharply punished; and when he was laid under an indifpenfable neceffity of proceeding to any acts of feverity, he never exerted them without feeling much reluctance and concern.

*For the two remarks above mentioned, I am indebted to Mr. Hodges.'


From the information of Captain Dudefton.'

In the private relations of life, Captain Cook was entitled to high commendation. He was excellent as a husband and a father, and fincere and fteady in his friendships: and to this it may be added, that he poffeffed that general fobriety and virtue of character, which will always be found to conftitute the beft fecurity and ornament of every other moral qualification.

With the greatest benevolence and humanity of difpofition, Captain Cook was occafionally fubject to a haftinefs of temper. This, which has been exaggerated by the few (and they are indeed few) who are unfavourable to his memory, is acknowledged by his friends. It is mentioned both by Captain King and Mr. Samwell, in their delineations of his character. Mr. Hayley, in one of his poems, calls him the mild Cook; but, perhaps, that is not the happiest epithet which could have been applied to him. Mere mildness can scarcely be confidered as the most prominent and diftinctive feature in the mind of a man, whofe powers of understanding and of action were fo ftrong and elevated, who had fuch immenfe difficulties to ftruggle with, and who must frequently have been called to the firmest exertions of authority and command.

Lastly, Captain Cook was diftinguifhed by a property which is almost univerfally the concomitant of truly great men, and that is, a fimplicity of manners. In converfation he was unaffected and unaffuming; rather backward in pufhing difcourfe; but obliging and communicative in his anfwers to those who addreffed him for the purposes of information. It was not poffible that, in a mind conftituted like his, fuch a paltry quality as vanity could find an existence.'

To this character of Captain Cook, drawn by his own pen, Dr. Kippis has added thofe of Captain King*, Mr. Samwell †, Admiral Forbes 1, and Dr. Forfter §; every one of which agrees perfectly with that of our Author as far as it goes, but, being lefs copious, they need not be adverted to here.

On the whole, we have received much pleafure from the perufal of this performance; but we will not flatter Dr. Kippis fo far as to fay that we think the compofition is, in every respect, finished in his very beft manner. On the contrary, we imagine that we see feveral marks of hafte in it, too obvious to need pointing out; and which ought to be done away, when the work appears before the Public, in a future edition.

* Vol. iii. p. 48. of Captain Cook's laft Voyage.
Narrative of the Death of Capt. James Cook, p. 25.
Introduction to Capt. Cook's laft Voyage, p. lxxxvii.
Hift. of Voyages and Discoveries in the North, p. 404.

REY. Nov. 1788.



ART. III. Ecclefiaftes, in Three Parts. A new Translation, with a Paraphrafe. To which is added, a new Tranflation of other Paffages of Scripture; with Notes and Reflections on the present Fashion of correcting the Hebrew Text by Conjecture. 8vo. 5s. fewed. Lowndes, &c. 1787.

HE two firft parts of this work were published fome time

to the fixty-fixth volume of the Review, p. 315, and the fixty-ninth volume, p. 355. The third part, which is by far of the greateft bulk, is here prefented with the two former attached to it. In this are contained those chapters or verses which had been before omitted, together with many other obfcure and important paffages of Scripture: befide which, it is defigned to prove that the text of the Old Teftament is not to corrupted, as it hath been lately faid to be; and that there is fome ground to believe, that the alterations which have been offered as amendments of it, are indeed corruptions, and leave the text worse than they found it.'

The Author of this volume is a perfect ftranger to us, yet we muft acknowlege, that we find a kind of prejudice in his favour from those marks of fimplicity and piety which appear to ftamp his performance. His zeal may be in fome inftances intemperate, but his fincerity pleases, and his drollery occafionally enlivens us. This little partiality may also perhaps be increased by an etched portrait, which presents honeft though homely features, and beneath which is infcribed, A Shadow in its departure, Etat. 68. 1781. We find that he is a clergyman; his name Greenaway; and we apprehend that the Shadow is not yet departed, though feven years have paffed fince the date of the portrait.

Mr. Greenaway affumes not the rank of an adept in the Hebrew language; he speaks very moderately of his attainments, yet expreffes a hope that, perufing the Scriptures with attention and humility, he may poffibly have been enabled to see what has escaped great mafters.'-Whether this is the cafe or not, we apprehend that he may be allowed to have fome acquaintance with the language in question, as well as with other branches of learning. However, attention may, as he fays, in fome inftances, effect more than deep erudition. A young man, he tells us, knowing no more of the Hebrew than a few of the Pfalms, under the direction of Bithner's rules and Lyra, came to his inftructor, and afked whether the word belo, in the 17th Pfalm, v. 1. might not be read balle (a verb, fignifying to deftroy), which gives a verfion of the text, Hear the right, O Lord; attend unto my cry; give ear unto my prayer; confound the lips of falsehood; and this, perhaps, the more learned reader may efteem preferable to that commonly received. The criticism is queftionable, but the


anecdote is fomewhat to the Author's purpose. He is a profeffed adverfary to the amendment of the facred text on conjecture: and, certainly, conjecture unlimited would be a dangerous inftrument; but the fuggeftions of cautious and upright men, in other refpects well qualified, merit regard, and may prove very ufeful. Kennicott, Lowth, and Houbigant, all país here under examination; the two former are honourably treated, efpecially the firft; the latter is fcouted to the uttermoft. With Dr. Kennicott, this writer appears to have been perfonally and weli acquainted; he expreffes for him a very cordial efsteem, and affectionately laments his death. Bishop Lowth (over whose hearse he may now alfo weep) receives a moft handfome tribute, as justly entitled, with the other, to honour, respect, and love, on account of perfonal merit, as well as fuperior learning. But he thinks it his duty to admonifh his friend where he has failed, and proceeds to point out inftances in which he imagines these two great men may lead each other aftray. If he fometimes deals freely with them, he preferves on the whole his temper and respect. Poor Houbigant finds no quarter; he is conceited, abfurd, impertinent, fevere, fupercilious, malevolent,—and farther, betrays a determined fpite against the purity and honour of the facred text itself; he is at once an object of dread, as capable of } doing mifthief, and of contempt, as efpoufing and maintaining the fuggeftions of infidelity. While therefore it is, generous Lowth, much-admired Lowth, it is at the fame time, deteftable Houbigant. Him this writer feems to confider as the great caufe of leading other and worthier men wide from the track of truth.

If the reader of this volume fhould think the author rather prolix and garrulous, he may yet be at times relieved by a cheerful good humour and fmartnefs; fhould the ftyle be confidered as not perfectly elegant and accurate, Mr. Greenaway is perfuaded that the candid obferver will not be difpleased with a guide who condu&s through an intricate road, because he is not exactly and fmartly drefled;' at the fame time all muft allow that the book bears the marks of diligence and investigation. Numerous paffages of the Scriptures are examined, and fometimes he wanders into criticifms on Horace and Homer. Our narrow limits will hardly allow us to felect fpecimens ; but we may juft infert the varying translations of Ifaiab, liii. 9. And he made his grave with the wicked and with the rich in his death. Kennicott writes, And he was taken up with wicked men in his death; and with a rich man was his fepulchre: Lowth gives us these lines, "And his grave was appointed with the wicked; But with the rich man was his tomb."

Mr. Greenaway, taking the text as it ftands, fubmits another rendering of the paffage to confideration, which is-Yet the wicked allowed him to be buried, and the rich man allowed him his Dd 2


Sepulchre a verfion which, however probable, it may be diffi cult to fupport.

This writer's zeal for the facred text, and against hafty intrufions on it, is commendable; it is alfo, except in the cafe of poor Father Houbigant, attended with candour; but he does not appear to make fufficient allowances for that prudence and vigilance which it may be fuppofed judicious and worthy men will exert equally with himself, left they fhould obtrude a mere meaning of their own, inftead of the fenfe of Scripture. We do not think him generally very happy in expreffing his new tranflations, or that he always amends or improves the texts in queftion. Sometimes he feems to imagine an alteration requifite where the fentiment does not really require it; as for inftance, If. xlix. 5. Though Ifrael is not gathered, yet I shall be glorious, &c. What means, fays he, though Ifrael is not gathered? Or how can the fervant be glorious in the eyes of the Lord, when he fails of fulfilling the purpofe for which he was formed? This is a needlefs queftion; the answer to it, and alfo the meaning of the paffage, is fo obvious as it ftands, and the fenfe fo pertinent and useful, that it requires not farther remark. Thus it might be fhewn, that our Author lays himself open to a retort from those whom he cenfures. But ftill his work furnishes obfervations of different kinds which may contribute to improvement.

In the two former articles concerning this publication, we felected fome verfes from the tranflation of Ecclefiaftes, which renders it unneceffary to add any farther paffage from thofe remaining chapters which this volume contains. Befide the Book of Ecclefiaftes, and the other criticisms which run through the volume, there is alfo a new version and paraphrase of three or four Pfalms, among which is the twenty-feventh; and of this also a version in metre, that might have been omitted. We obferve that the 15th verfe is here rendered as a kind of cenfure which the Pfalmift paffes on himself: I wish, or, Oh that I had not depended on feeing, &c. But the ellipfis feems to us, at prefent, better fupplied and expreffed by the common tranflation; and we are inclined to form a like judgment, in other inftances.

ART. IV. A Treatise upon Gravel and upon Gout, in which the Sources of each are inveftigated, and the effectual Means of preventing, or of removing thefe Diseases, recommended. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Boards. Cadell. 1787.


HE work before us appears to be the production of the fame

(to us unknown) writer, who publifhed that treatife on the gout, of which we gave an ample account in our 76th volume, p. 220.


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