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of perufing the whole. We with that the Author had paid more attention to his language; which is in general prolix and inelegant, and fometimes inaccurate. The whole of this publication might, we think, without any injury, have been comprized in two thirds of its prefent compafs. This, however, is a trivial fault, derogating but little from the well-earned reputation which Mr. Harmer acquired by his two former works, and which, in our opinion, he has well fupported in the prefent.

ART. VI. GROSE's Military Antiquities, concluded. See Review for last Month.


HE fecond volume of this valuable work begins with the article of clothing. Few hiftorical records of early date are found, refpecting the clothing of the army. In feveral writs to Sheriffs for affembling the forces, the foldiers are ordered to come clothed with a fuit; but no particular directions are given as to make or colour. The firft inftance, which Captain Grofe has produced, of government having clothed the troops, is taken from Rymer. It appears that Edward III. directed his Chamberlains, in 1337, to purchase a fufficient quantity of cloth for making one fuit for each man, confifting of a tunic and mantle; the coft of which should be allowed at the Treasury. Our Author gives an account of the manner of clothing foldiers that were raised by indenture, and of the badges by which different corps were diftinguished. An uniform is defcribed in a manufcript of the time of Hen. VIII. in the College of Arms. Capt. Grofe has given a copy of it; part of which we shall tranfcribe, that our Readers may form fome idea of the merry Andrew looking fellows that compofed the army of thofe days:

Furfte, every man fowdyer to have a cote of blew clothe, after fuche fashion as all footmens cotes be made here at London, to serve his Majeftie in this jorney, and that the fame be garded with redde clothe, after fuche forte as others be made here. And the best fene to be trymmed after fuch fort as fhall pleafe the Captayne to devise. Provided alwayes, that noe gentleman nor other were any manner of filk uppon the garde of his coate, fave oonely uppon his lefte fleeve; and that noe yoman were any manner of filke upon his faide cote; nor noe gentleman, nor yeoman, to were any manner of badge.

Item, Every man to provide a payer of hole for every of his men, the right hofe to be all red and the lefte all blew, with oone ftripe of three fingers brode of red upon the outfide of his legg from the stocke downward."

We must not, however, defcend too much to particulars, in defcribing the uniform either of this or the fubfequent times; the curious reader is, therefore, referred to the book: where he will

The best fene,' . e. the best looking men.'


find not only the clothing in different reigns minutely fpecified, but also its coft, and an account of the abufes that have been practifed in furnishing it.

Captain Grose next defcribes the manner in which military juftice has been and now is adminiftered. In the earlier periods, it was chiefly under the direction of the high conftable and marfhal; who prefided as judges, and, affifted by civilians, and officers experienced in military affairs, tried and punished according to the laws of war then in force, not only all military offences, but likewife determined all kinds of fuits depending between the followers of the army. After the office of High Conftable ceafed, the Marshal retained the prerogative of fitting as chief judge. The Marthal's court lafted however not long; for, as the commiffions of moft of the Commanders in Chief contained a claufe, authorifing them to enact ordonances for the government of the army under their command, and to fit in judgment themselves, it feems that the independency of the Marfhal's court was encroached on, and a new court, under the denomination of a Court or Council of War, appears to have been eftablished; which fat at ftated times, as ordered by the Commander in Chief, and at which officers of a certain rank fat as members, and inftead of the Marfhal, we hear of an officer called the Prefident of the High Court of War. After defcribing these feveral courts, the Author comes to courts martial, in their prefent form. At what time they were firft held, is not easy to afcertain; but after the Revolution, the form and powers of courts martial were fettled by an act of parliament, and the military laws, called Articles of War, were made under that authority. This act, which is generally renewed every year under the title of the "Mutiny Bill," the ordonances of war, and martial regulations of our early Kings (as they greatly illuftrate the military hiftory), are particularly noticed by the Captain; and he has laid fuch of them, as he has been able to procure, before his readers, transcribing or abridging them as the articles feem to require; accompanying each with remarks and criti


The original mutiny act feems to have been paffed in a hurry, merely to give fome kind of law to an army that was then in a very unfettled ftate. By gradual additions and amendments, both the articles of war and the mutiny act have increased to their present size; yet in many parts, Captain Grofe thinks that there is room for farther amendments, and that feveral particulars of the act are vague, difputable, and require explanation :the act on which he founds this obfervation, is that of the year

• Inftances occur which fhew that the Mutiny Bill has not always paffed annually.

1785; and, to juftify the affertion, he enumerates the particulars, which are either objectionable, or not fufficiently explicit, but they are of too great extent to be comprised in this article, and too valuable to be mutilated by an abridgment.

The court-martial next attracts the attention of our military hiftorian; who particularly defcribes, not only what the courtmartial is, but how the proceedings in it are conducted; and here his intimate acquaintance with military affairs enables him to difcufs the fubject with peculiar propriety.

From matters refpecting martial law, Capt. G. who is not over-attentive to orderly arrangement, proceeds to describe the method of quartering troops; and, after employing fourteen. pages on this fubject, we find him engaged in giving an account of fuch rewards for military fervices as government hath from time to time bestowed on those who deferve particular tokens of approbation.

In the foremoft rank of military rewards, we find Chelsea college, with the out-penfions from that establishment, an inftitution that does honour to its founder and to the nation: for, by holding out to our foldiery the profpect of a comfortable retirement in old age, they are encouraged to encounter hardships, fatigues, the ravages of unwhole fome climates, wounds, and even death itself, for the fervice of their country.

From the Captain's account of Chelfea college, it appears that it was originally intended by James I. [of pious memory] to confift of a number of learned divines, who, being amply furnished with books, and the neceffaries, as well as conveniencies of life, and being exempt, like the Monks in former times, from all worldly cares, might devote their whole time and abilities to the ftudy and teaching of controverfial divinity, efpecially thofe points which were difputed between the churches of England and Rome. For this purpofe, the King incorporated the college, and endowed it, by letters patent, with the reverfion of certain lands in Chelfea, then under leafe to Charles Earl of Nottingham. The King laid the firft ftone of the building, and gave the members of the college a licence to take from Wind for foreft the timber neceffary to complete it. The building, however, for want of money, went on flowly; and, before an eighth part of the model was executed, it ftood ftill. It remained in this ftate for fome years; but at length, the King, to advance so good a work, fent letters to the Archbishop of Canterbury, requiring him to ftir up the clergy of his province to contribute toward it; in confequence of which, collections were made, but the produce was fmall. About this time Dr. Sutcliff, the Provoft of the college, died and bequeathed to it four confiderable farms; but the Doctor's good example not being followed, nor any other bequefts or donations accruing, the REV. Nov. 1788. E e


building ftopped again, and in a fhort time the defign was aban doned. After the reftoration, Charles II. wanting a convenient hofpital for the reception of fick, maimed, and fuperannuated foldiers, converted the unfinished buildings of the college to that ufe; he accordingly began to erect his royal hofpital on this fpot; it was carried on during the fhort reign of James II. and finished in that of William and Mary by Sir Chriftopher Wren.

The ample description of the foundation of this hospital, of which we have given a fhort abridgment, is fucceeded by an account of the building, and of its prefent adminiftration, from which we shall extract the following paragraph, as an admirable fpecimen of the Cenfure courteous.

"It is a melancholy confideration, that among the many fuperannuated quarter mafters, ferjeant-majors, and ferjeants in and about the hofpital, none can be found worthy or able to fill the inferior offices of the house, or to be employed as artificers to it; were there any properly qualified to be found among them, it is not to be credited that these appointments would be bestowed on gentlemen's valets-de-chambres, or other discharged domeftics, which is faid to be fometimes the cafe; as the perfons who have the difpofal of those places, muft well know how few rewards are in ftore for the inferior ranks of military men, particularly thofe above mentioned, and yet thefe men are, in a great measure, the nerves and finews of our armies, who bear the brunt of the battle, and the fatigues of the day; to rob them of their right in this charity, is peculiarly cruel, as it is in part the produce of their own money; feveral of the places, though of humble denomination and nominal falary, would be confidered, by many married fubalterns, as a noble provifion for themfelves and families."

The Half-pay is another military reward of which the Captain gives an account, together with the widows penfion, and other provifions; particularly an hofpital of private endowment in the city of Hereford, for fuperannuated non-commiffioned officers and foldiers, which was founded by Sir Thomas Coningsby of Hampton Court, in the county of Hereford, about the year 1614.


It is fomewhat remarkable,' fays the Captain, that this is almoft the only private endowment by which the foldier is benefited; while there is fcarce any other profeffion or trade, but fome fuccessful member of their vocation has provided a comfortable retreat for a few of his ancient and indigent brethren. No reflection is hereby meant on military gentlemen who have every effential difpofition requifice for doing the like, except the means, the profeffion of arms being fo far from enabling even thofe of high rank to found hofpitals, that it requires great ceconomy to prevent their families becoming candidates for admiffion into them.'

Next to rewards, the author enumerates and defcribes military punishments under the feveral heads-capital, lofs of members, corporal, pecuniary, degradatory, cashiering, imprisonment, fufpenfion, and reprimand; of thefe fome affect commiffioned officers alone,


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alone, fome commiffioned and non-commiffioned officers and foldiers, and others non-commiffioned officers and foldiers only.

Camps, and the mode of encampment, are amply treated of, and elegant engravings of ancient and modern tents, and plans of encampments, are given in illuftration of the text.

Mufic next engages the writer's attention: he describes the different inftruments that have been in ufe, from the time of Edward III. having met with no records before that period wherein they are mentioned; yet, doubtless, mufic must have been used, even in the earlieft ages, to animate the foldiers in battle, &c. as well as for the purpose of fignals.

Flags, banners, and other enfigns, the Captain thinks are of great antiquity: their various forms and ufes are minutely defcribed, after which he proceeds to give the different kinds of exercises that have been used in our armies. This extenfive fubject is here fully treated in all its parts, and the motions and manoeuvres are illuftrated by 143 engraved figures.

The next fubject which occurs is the Artillery. The projectile machines ufed by the ancients are described in the works of Vitruvius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and other writers; but, for want of illuftrative drawings, the defcriptions are in general extremely obfcure, and in fome parts unintelligible. Mr. Newton, who is preparing a new edition of Vitruvius, has been particularly attentive to that part of his author which treats of thefe machines; he has alfo examined what different writers have faid concerning them, and, by models and experiments, has endeavoured to afcertain the theory of their conftruction. The refults of his labours have been communicated by him to Captain Grofe, who has inferted them in the present work.

Befide their projectile machines, our ancestors had engines of various kinds, either for attacking or defending fortified towns; and thefe are here defcribed, and elegantly delineated on copperplates.

Next in order to the mechanical inventions, our Author applies himself to the confideration of chemical difcoveries. The Greek fire firft engages his notice: its compofition is unknown, and, although the Captain hath been induftrious in collecting and comparing the different accounts of its effects and appear ances, yet he hath not much elucidated the obfcure ideas which have been given of it. The deftruction and havock which it made is affigned as a reafon for several people having had penfions given them, for fecreting the knowlege of its compofi


*This, we fuppofe, is the fame Mr. Newton who gave an excellent tranflation of the first five books of Vitruvius, in the year 177!; for an account of which, fee Review, vol. xlvi. page 193.

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