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and reputation ; if all my thoughts, folicitude, and vigilance, have Taboured for no end but the fulfilling of my duty, and the support of truth, your sentiments and virtue, venerable judges, may be the same in deciding this important cause, as mine have proved in undertaking and pursuing it; that, if Caius Verres hath, in every act, been guilty of unheard of and unexampled impiety, audacity, avarice, lewdness, and barbarity, he may, by your judgment, meet a fate proportioned to the abominable tenour of his life and character ; that the republic and my glory may, in this one prosecution, bé amply satisfied, and that hereafter I may rather be permitted to defend the good, than reduced to the necessity of impeaching the wicked.'
Art. X. Variety: A Collection of Essays, written in the Year 1787.
8vo. 3 s. 6 d. Cadell. 1788. N these essays we discover many of those traits of excellence,
which have often been found in this species of writing. Of the pieces on moral and religious subjects, however, some will be objected to by the more critical reader, as superficial, and others as injudicious. Among the latter, many will include the papers which censure and ridicule the useful inftitution of Sunday-schools; that which pleads for greater latitude in the observance of the Sabbath, and represents Sunday as with us a day of cheerless stupidity ;--and that which, treating of the incomprehenfibility of the Divine Nacure, under colour of reverence for the Deity, discourages all inquiry concerning his perfections, and afferts it to be folly, if not impiety, to affix attributes to that Being, whose nature and properties are not to be comprehended by human reason. We must further observe, that the Effay in vindication of punning, Young Bottom's Letter on Epigrams, and the outline of a Poem on the decline of Dramatic Taste, will not bias the classical reader in favour of this Essayist's critical judgment.
From this censure we, however, with great pleasure, except a considerable number of the papers, particularly the comic defcription of the distress of a modeft man, in the character of Mongrel Morellathe interesting tale of the friar—and the following valuable biographical memoir :
In an Essay on Gratitude, the writer says:
• I will conclude my observations on this subject, by describing the character of a clergyman, now actually living in the county of Norfolk; but whose real name I shall disguise under that of EuCHARIS. This gentleman was early in life presented to the adjoining Rectories of B*** and B **, by a patron, who at that time was unmarried ; and therefore had no idea of securing a reversion of the livings to a younger son; and Eucharis has now enjoyed the benefice full thirty years. Being hospitable with economy, and charitable with prudence, the income of his living, with some private fortune, have enabled him to live in splendid affluence,
and leave a faving every year for extraordinary purposes, which gratitude has pointed out. He first considered the heavenly Master whom he serves, as his original and greatest putron ; and, though his piety would check the presumption of repaying for the blessings he enjoys; yet he knows, that every attempt in man to thew his gratitude, is acceptable in the fight of Heaven. With this view, he has consecrated part of the annual savings of his income to repair an ancient Gothic structure, where he exhorts his flock to worship; and has actually expended many hundred pounds to restore and beautify the temple of his God. This fingular act of piety was secretly conducted, he raised an annual fum from his parishioners, that he might not be suspected of the fact, and celebrates the rebuilding of the church, as the effect of voluntary contribution; nor did he neglect any other duties of a Christian, to save the money fo appropriated; for his private well-directed charities, amount to nearly half his income: his barns and store-houses are a repository for the industrious poor, who buy of him all the necessaries of life, at a price considerably less than what he pays for them: he never gives money to the idle, but liberally recompenses labour, and relieves with tenderness, the wants of age, of sickness, and infirmity, de. monstrating true gratitude to Heaven, by acts of charity to man.
• He has thewn in a manner, almost unprecedented, his gratitude to his earthly patron : that gentleman died about ten years fince, leaving an estate entailed on his eldest son, and three other boys so scantily provided for, that they could ill afford the expence of a learned education. EUCHARIS knew this, and taking them to the Parsonage, he considered them all as part of his own family; instructed them in the learned languages himself, and sent them to the University to qualify them for orders, that they might in time fill chofe benefices which are in the gift of their elder brother. Nay, he has done more, he has actually resigned one of those livings which he himself received from their father, to the eldest of there three, who is just become of age to hold it: having no nearer relations, he considers the descendants of his patron as his heirs; and thus prolongs his gratitude to a second generation. A character so unexampled, will appear to many the produce of invention, but though I might offend the modesty of my friend, by mentioning his name, I have recorded the county, which actually poffeffes so bright an ornament of human nature ; and my heart feels (I trust) a laudable degree of pride and exultation, when I reflect, that I am personally acquainted with this glorious pattern of unabating gratitude.
• P. S. Since I wrote this Essay, I have been most deeply afflicted by the following paragraph in the Norfolk Chronicle, of 22d March 1788: “On Monday laft, died the Rev. William Hewett, Rector of Baconfthorpe and Bodham."
Such examples, which speak to the heart more powerfully than a thousand preceptive lectures, ought never to be forgotten!
From certain inequalities observable among these Essays, we are led to suspect (though poslibly mistaken) that they are not all the production of the same pen : especially not that of the ingenious writer to whom the Public are indebted for the papers II
particularly particularly noted in our exceptions to the general cenfure, which our regard to impartiality, and juftice to those who rely on our judgment, has obliged us to pass on some parts of this otherwise pleafing little volume.
ART. XI. The Theory of Language. In two parts. By James
Beattie, L. L. D. F. R. S. E. Professor of Moral Philosophy
the 73d volume of our Review, p. 30.
An event (the common lot of mankind) discontinued, at that time, our Analylis of Dr. Beattie's Moral and Critical Ersays *
As we had then gone through the firft four chapters of the Treatise on Language, we thall now proceed, briefly, to notice the fifth, which treats on Accent.
Accent is a variation of the voice from acute to grave, and from grave to acute; and conftitutes what is generally called tone.
Dr. Bealtie shews the necessity of this continual vibration of the voice in speaking intelligibly; and after some general refeétions on the particular accents of different nations, and of different provinces of the same nation, he asks, 'Are then all provincial accents equaliy good ? This question is answered in the negative. Of accent, he thinks, as well as of spelling, syntax, or idiom, there is a ftandard in every polite nation; and that it is in the metropolis of a kingdom, and in the moft famous schools of learning, where the greatest resort of people, adorned with useful and elegant accomplishments, may be expeated, that we are to look for this standard of accent and pronunciation. We shall not now, after so long an interruption of the fubject, enter into the ingenious author's arguments, but proceed to the next chapter ; which is employed in refuting the Epicurean do&rine of the origin of language.
Instead of fuppofing mankind to have originally been mutum et tærpe pecus, Dr. Beactie alleges many powerful arguments to prove that men must have fpoken in all ages. In the conclusion, be says, we may warrancably suppose that our firft parents muft have received language by immediate inspiration.' Ad. mitting this fact (which in a philofophical Elay ought to have been proved), our author follows the Mofaical account of the
* The remaining Efays in this volume are, on Fable and Romance; on tbe Attaebments of Kindred; and on Sublimity; the first and lalt of which are excellent in point of criticism, and the second is a piece of found morality.
confufion at Babel; whence he derives a variety of primitive languages, -all of which, he shews, must have had some things in common, though each bas its peculiarities. The confideration of those qualities that are common to all languages, forms that Science which has been called Universal or Philosophical Grammar; the principles of which,
Dr. Beattie proposes to unfold, in the remaining part of his Eflay.
He has a long and curious investigation of the origin of writing, but no determined decision is made concerning it, except in the following sentence: ' Alphabetical writing must be so remote from the conception of those who never heard of it, that wiibout divine aid it would seem to be unlearchable and impossible.' He thews iss great utility, describes the different forts of it as practised by different nations, and concludes the first part of his treatise with a short history of printing.
The second part of the 'Theory of Language is entitled Uni. versal Grammar, which seems to be founded on principles fimiJar to those of Mr. Harris. Dr. B. inderd, is more minute and less intricate than former writers; and the treatise will be perused with pleasure by the inquisitive, and with advantage by the Itudious reader.
Art. XII. The Solicitudes of Absence. A Genuine Tale. 12mo. 35.
iewed. Forller, &c. 1788. N characterizing this work, we cannot acquit ourselves with
more propriety, than by giving an abstract of our account of a former publication *, by the same author; viz. that the facts here related will not fail to gain the reader's attention, that they are frequently enlivened by occasional pieces of poetry, — in which species of composition the writer poflefles a very agreeable vein; and that in the correspondence between the Author (Mr. Renwick) and his wife, during their necessary separations, the lady's letters prove-her to be endowed with an excellent capacity, and highly to be praised for her exemplary virtue, and conjugal fidelity.
We have frequently had occafion to commend Mr. Renwick for his laudable addreffes to parliament, and his unremitting zeal, in favour of our feamen, navy furgeons t, and surgeons widows; but we are truly sorry to find that he himself hath so often needed some friendly advocate, whose aid might have contributed to the relief of his own private distreffes.- It hath been his fate to struggle, for, many years, under the presure of misfortunes, from which, it too plainly appears, that he is not yet entirely exonerated : being till exposed in the disappointments and sorrows of a dependent and uncertain situation !-He has bere given an abstract of his own history; a melancholy cale! but he has contrived to render it as agreeable to the reader as poffible, by the insertion of letters, and little poems. However adverse the world, in general, may have been to Mr. R. the Muses have not been altogether unkind to him :- fome of his verses may, indeed, be termed excellent; and none of them are totally undeserving of praise. As a specimen of his poetical talents, we have selected the following, written in one of his separations from his beloved Delia ; and which will, in some measure, intimate the propriety of the title of his book: the poem is accompanied by a letter to her, dated at Spithead, May 14, 1785.
* “ Unforiunate Lovers,” &c. See Rev. vol. xlv. p. 301. t The Author hath himself been in thiservice.
Reluctant eyes the morning ray;
Regrets the loss of parting day.
That soft suspends each anxious care ;
The pensive tumults of despair.
Excursive fancy still should roam,
When mutual love invites me home. ,
Since I possess'd her virgin charms,
The faithful fair within my arms.
Her lucid orbs appear;
Blooms fresh throughout the year.
Her yoice-each whispering figh;
The strains her lips supply.' In most of his letters, we see the genuine effufions of a warna and impassioned heart: of which, a fingle paragraph will serve to give our readers an adequate idea :
Nor wine can soothe the anxious cares of love! I have for once drank till the pen trembles in my hand, yet I feel myself equally alive to the sensations of sorrow; and in the lunacy of conjugal attachment, could involve the world in one general ruin. I could disturb the calm of midnight with greater vociferation than the hero who storms in the drama of romance; and I could weep like a woman, when I was