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tical order in the ftate: and they might appeal to their own eftablishments to juftify their doubts. They might probably conclude by propofing a folution of that undeniable paradox, how it comes to pafs, that the profeffed, the peculiar fervants of the meekeft and most felf-denying Mafter in the world, fhould univerfally in all ages prove to be the most aspiring class of the fons of men.

To the Baronet's propofal to fix all incumbents to the livings they accept, and to put a stop to removals, he pleads,


To cut off all the hope and expectation of advantage from change of place, would be not only an intolerable, but even an inhuman prohibition, and lay the clergy under fuch unfufferable reftrictions, as would render exiftence an actual punishment. When a clergyman is presented to a living, let the fituation be where it will, whatever inconveniencies he may labour under, whatever difficulties experience, he must with all the paffive tamenefs of an inanimate fubftance, fet himself down contented; and learn to bear, because there is no remedy, the infults of petulance, and the impertinence of fuperiority."

This author overlooks the chief temptations to fhifting from benefice to benefice, from pecuniary motives or indulgence in pleafure, by ingeniously pleading caufes that may better bear producing, and he juftifies the tranflation of bifhops on fimilar ground. But might not one of the before-mentioned Calvinifts tell him, that the previous queftion to be fettled is, whether the profeffion of preaching the Gospel, is to be engaged in as a lucrative employment, like law or phyfic; or whether we have a right to expect the practice of our fpiritual guides fhould be folemnly regulated by the difinterested doctrines which they preach, like men who look for their reward in a better place? That is, whether their true call is from conviction within, or from worldly confiderations without? If the latter, then indeed all his reasoning, and all their practice, will be in character, and fo far unanswerable.

His arguments in favour of tithes, are fuch as are always pleaded; and we do not fee that he adds to their force, or ftates them to peculiar advantage.

Art. 17. A Vindication of the Conduct of the Clergy, who petitioned the House of Lords, against two Bills relative to Tithes, in the Seffion of Parliament held in 1788. By a Southern Clergyman. With an Appendix, containing his former Anfwers to certain " Allegations." With Additions. 8vo. I s. Dublin, printed ; London, reprinted, for Robfon and Clarke. 1788.

The eternal wrangling between clergymen and their flocks, about apples, turneps, potatoes, and pigs; their eager appeals to courts of law, and to the Public, computing the value of crops, and calculating profit and lofs, are fo difgraceful to their profeffional character, and fo fubverfive of the principles they profefs to believe and inculcate, that we are astonished they are not more defirous than the Public can be to have the nature of their incomes altered to fome mode lefs irkfome both to the payers and receivers.

Discontented as the English clergy appear to be, they are looked up to with envy by their brethren in Ireland, who have indeed far more ferious grievances to ftate; their incomes are not in general fo liberal, and the collection of them is disturbed by the riotous inter

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vention of armed affociations, capable of perpetrating any outrages that lawless violence and brutal ignorance may happen to dictate.

The Bill which efpecially excited an alarm among the clergy in Ireland, was an amendment of the Act to encourage the improvement of barren and wafte land, by exempting fuch improved lands from payment of tithe for feven years, provided fuch land had not paid tithe for feven years before. The principal objection of the clergy to this bill was, that moft of the land in that kingdom which had not paid tithe, through the negligence of the proprietor or tenant, and not on account of actual barrennefs, would thus be exempted on being tilled; and that it lay on the clergyman to prove that it had paid tithe before; a proof not eafy to be adduced in the disturbed state of the country. Satisfactory amendments were made to this bill by the Lords, and then it was rejected by the Commons.

This pamphlet contains a very temperate ftate of the cafe, but we cannot enter farther into it.

Art. 18. A Defence of the Proteftant Clergy in the South of Ireland; in Anfwer to the Charges against them, contained in the Right Hon. Henry Grattan's Speeches rélating to Tithes, as they are printed, and faid to have been delivered in the Houfe of Commons, on the 14th and 19th of February 1788. With a Poftfcript, containing fome Remarks on his laft Speech on the Re-agitation of Tithes, delivered the 11th of April 1788. By Authenticus. 8vo. 2s. Dublin, printed; London, reprinted for Robson and Clarke. 1788.

Popular as Mr. Grattan may heretofore have been in Ireland, he muft refign all pretenfions to the efteem of the clergy there, fince his late orations on the fubject of tithes ; wherein he has pointedly charged them with extortion, oppreffion, and injuftice in levying these offenfive dues. The prefent writer promifes that his name fhall be forthcoming whenever Mr. Grattan will avow the fpeeches published as his, to be thofe delivered by him, a degree of fanction which they have not yet obtained; and declares his fole purpose to be to prove the general charges against the clergy ill founded, the proofs brought to fupport them inconclufive, and that the fullest examination of facts the nature of the fubject will afford, proves the direct contrary of thofe charges, even that the general conduct of the fouthern clergy is juft and moderate, and merciful and praife-worthy.' In the execution of this tafk, he appears to have taken meritorious pains in collecting the folemn and accurate returns of the clergy to their bishops, in feveral diocefes, comparing the tithe rates actually charged on the land, with the average amount of crops, and the real tithe of thofe crops; according to which statements, the rates at which they are cuftomarily fet, appear to be indeed very moderate, being little more than one half of the legal claim. He enters into a circumftantial detail of the ftudied difficulties and infulting obftructions contrived to defeat the clergymen's attempts to collect their tithes, and their behaviour under thefe embarraffments, with great appearance of candour; fo that until Mr. Grattan fhall, in a fimilar manner, fupport the pofitive allegations attributed to him, they will inevitably be confidered as hafty, injurious invectives, among the few who think it worth their while to examine both fides of a question.


Accufations indeed that coincide with popular humours, triumph long before defences are liftened to; but if at length they are found to be valid, the event will afford ample confolation. But this event must be patiently waited for, as we are given to understand, that Mr. Grattan's fpeeches have been translated into Irish at Cork, for the benefit of the populace.

While clergymen confcientiously discharge their important duties, we cannot but fympathize with them when we find that the law which fhould be their protection, fixes them in an uneafy fituation. This feems peculiarly the cafe now in fome parts of Ireland; yet though fuch clergymen have better reafons to plead for deferting their turbulent flocks, than those who forfake them in purfuit of filthy lucre or fenfual pleasure, they have a more forcible tie to ftay with them, where it is practicable, to overcome evil with good, and to reclaim them by a zealous example of the Chriftian virtues, in the fervent difcharge of their paftoral functions: it is on this ground that we cannot heartily fubfcribe his extenuation of non-refidence by precedents. He obferves- As to Mr. Grattan's tax on non-refidence, I agree with Mr. Grattan, that it would be ftrange if it had become neceffary; but I entirely deny that it is neceffary, or that the fouth, ern clergy are more frequently non-refident than their brethren, either in other parts of the kingdom or ENGLAND. Mr. Grattan has produced no proof to the contrary. This is merely one part of the clergy fheltering their criminal conduct under that of another, who may avail themselves in the fame manner.


Art. 19. Entick's New Spelling Dictionary, comprehending a copious and accented Vocabulary of the English Language. Revifed, Corrected, and Enlarged throughout, by Will. Crakelt, M. A. Rector of Nurfted and Ifield in Kent. Small 4to. 4 s. bound. Dilly. 1788.

In our Number for July 1786, p. 74, we noticed Mr. Crakelt's former edition of this ufeful work. The prefent is faid to have received many corrections and additions, and is in a remarkably elegant ftyle, the paper and the type being both very beautiful.

Art. 20. The Ground Work of the Grammar of the French Language, upon an entirely new Plan, &c. By Jean Jaques D'Etrouville. 12mo. 2s. 6d. bound. Dilly. 1788.

This performance may be ufeful to thofe who have made fome proficiency in the French language; but to the beginner, it will be rather obfcure and unintelligible. It wants the properties of an elementary book, the principal of which are plainnefs and perfpicuity. Art. 21. The Complete Vocabulary in English and French, and in French and English, properly accented, and difpofed under above one hundred Heads, either alphabetical, or agreeable to the natural Order of Things. Comprehending at one View all Words that can occur relative to any Subject, &c. &c. 12mo. zs. 6d. bound. Robin fons.

This work appears to be compiled with care, and will be useful tỏ the learner, particularly to foreigners, on account of the accentuation of the English words.


Art. 22. The London Gentleman's and Schoolmaster's Affiftant. Containing an eafy and very comprehenfive System of Arithmetic, &c. &c. By Thomas Whiting. 12mo. 2 s. bound. Longman, 1787.

This performance, like many other elementary books of arithmetic, is well calculated to give boys that affiftance which is neceffary, and to leffen the labour of the schoolmaster.

Art. 23. A new Method of learning French, in a practical and eafy Way being an Illuftration of all the French Verbs, fyftematically arranged, and combined in fhort Sentences, with the Subftantives and other Words to which they are most likely to be connected : with an English Tranflation, fo very literal, as to answer to the French, Word for Word, without offending the Rules of Conftruction. By Mr. Du Mitand, Teacher of Greek and Latin, and of the Ten principal European living Tongues; Author of feveral Grammatical Works. Crown Octavo. 6s. Boards. Printed for the Author, Great Suffolk Street.

This book appears to be exceedingly well adapted to give the learner of the French language an extenfive command of words. The mode of expreffion, in English, as well as in French, is commonly very correct. The improper monofyllable, in the title-page, which we have printed in Italic, fhould be corrected in the next edition.


Art. 24. Elements of Algebra; to which is prefixed a choice Collection of Arithmetical Queftions, with their Solutions, including fome new Improvements worthy the Attention of Mathematicians, &c. By John Mole. 8vo. 5s. Boards. Robinfons. 1788. As an Introduction to Algebra, the performance before us has no fmail merit. It gives the notation and common rules with great perfpicuity and eafe. The Author does not proceed to the higher parts of the art, fuch as the geometrical conftruction of equations, and the application of algebra to geometry. On feries, both finite and infinite, he is very brief. To atone for this, he is diffuse in explaining the feveral known methods of folving affected * equations, and on this account his book is truly valuable; for although it contains nothing new, yet by judiciously arranging what former writers have given in detached pieces, Mr. Mole has here offered to the pubJic, in one view, all that is neceffary to be known for folving in finite terms the quadratic, cubic, and biquadratic equations, where fuch folution is poffible.

As to the choice collection of arithmetical questions,' we can fee no reason why it is prefixed to an elementary treatife on Algebra; its proper place, if it was to be inferted, would have been at the end of the book; our reafon for thinking fo, is becaufe fome of the questions are folved by methods deduced from the propofitions in the treatife which follows. See Question 85.

On the whole, we do not recollect to have before feen the common rules given with fo much clearness, nor the principles on which they te founded, fo plainly demonftrated.

* Written fometimes (and by this Author) adfected.


Art. 25. A Short Introduction to Geography: to which is added an Abridgment of Aftronomy. Compiled by Richard Wynne, A.M. and tranflated into French and Italian by Catharine Wynne. 8vo. 4s. Boards. Becket, &c. 1787.

This treatife was compiled by Mr. Wynne, feyeral years fince, for the use of his daughter, who, for her inftruction, tranflated it into French and Italian. As thefe languages, with a little geography and aftronomy, form the principal part of a modern young lady's literary pursuits, the plan feems well calculated for the times; independent of the excellent fcheme, which, we know not for what reafon, is rejected in moft schools, of conveying, along with the knowlege of languages a knowlege of things.

Art. 26. A Treatise on Geography, the Ufe of the Globes and Aftronomy. In the Order which the mutual Connection and Dependence of the several Parts require towards a perfect Understanding of the whole. By William Fairman, Teacher of Mathematics. 8vo. 4s. Boards. Johnfon. 1788.

To comprife every thing relative to the ftudy of geography and astronomy within the fmall bounds of one octavo volume is abfolutely impoffible. The Author has not therefore attempted it, but he has given, ift, A general defcription of the terraqueous globe with its divifions, &c. 2d, The method of performing feveral of the usual problems in geography and aftronomy by the help of artificial globes. 3d, A brief account of the folar fyftem, with the explanations of many of the phenomena obfervable in the heavenly bodies.


The work is written in an eafy and perfpicuous fivle; and will afford a fufficiency of general information to fuch readers as do not wish to enter into deep mathematical investigations.

Art. 27. The Ufe of the Ge-organon and improved Analemma, or Subftitutes for the Terreftrial and Celeftial Globe. Invented by B. Donne, Teacher of Mathematics and Natural Philofophy at Bristol. 8vo. IS. Faden. 1788.

This pamphlet explains the conftruction, and defcribes the ufes, of two inftruments on pafteboards, with which it is accompanied; one of them is called the Ge-organon, and is fold for 10s. and the other, the Analemma, price 3s. 6d.

They are intended to fupply the place of a pair of globes; in folving feveral geographical and fpherical problems. The Georganon is an orthographic projection of the fphere on the plane of the Equator, and it confifts of two parts, one hemifphere in each. The Analemma is an orthographic projection on the plane of the Meridian. The manner in which they are fitted up with moveable circles is ingenious, though fimilar to what we have often been fhewn by that truly mechanical Aftronomer, the late Mr. Ferguson.

The principal ufe of a pair of globes is to convey a proper idea to the tyro, of the figure of the earth, and of the relative pofition of the circles of the fphere; and to give accurate delineations of the terraqueous globe and ftarry firmament. When conftructed even in the best manner, they never can be ufed for the folution of problems. where accuracy is required; they are more ufeful as illuftrating the mode in which problems are to be folved than as being fubfervient

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