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tical order in the state: and they might appeal to their own establishments to justify their doubts. They might probably conclude by proposing a solution of that andeniable paradox, how it comes to pass, that the professed, the peculiar servants of the meekest and most felf-denying Master in the world, should universally in all ages prove to be the most aspiring class of the fons of men.

To the Baroner's proposal to fix all incumbents to the livings they accept, and to put a stop to removals, he pleads,

• To cut off all the hope and expectation of advantage from change of place, would be not only an intolerable, but even an inhuman prohibition, and lay the clergy under such unsufferable restrictions, as would render existence an actual punishment. When a clergyman is presented to a living, let the situation be where it will, whatever inconveniencies he may labour under, whatever difficulties experience, he must with all the paflive tameness of an inanimate substance, set himself down contented ; and learn to bear, because there is no remedy, the insults of petulance, and the impertinence of fuperiority.'

This author overlooks the chief temptations to shifting from benefice to benefice, from pecuniary motives or indulgence in pleasure, by ingeniously pleading causes that may better bear producing, and he justifies the translation of bishops on fimilar ground. But might not one of the before-mentioned Calvinifts tell him, that the previous question to be fectled is, whether the profession of preaching the Gospel, is to be engaged in as a lucrative employment, like law or phyfic; or whether we have a right to expect the practice of our spiritual guides should be folemnly regulated by the disinterested doctrines which they preach, like men who look for their reward in a better place ? That is, whether their true call is from conviction within, or from worldly confiderations without? If the latter, then indeed all his reasoning, and all their practice, will be in character, and so far unanswerable.

His arguments in favour of tithes, are such as are always pleaded ; and we do not see that he adds to their force, or states them to peculiar advantage. Art. 17. A Vindication of the Conduct of the Clergy, who petitioned

the House of Lords, against two Bills relative to Tithes, in the Session of Parliament held in 1788. By a Southern Clergyman. With an Appendix, containing his former Answers to certain " Allegations." With Additions. 8vo. I s. Dublin, printed ; London, reprinted, for Robson and Clarke. 1788.

The eternal wrangling between clergymen and their flocks, about apples, turneps, potatoes, and pigs; their eager appeals to courts of law, and to the Public, computing the value of crops, and calculating profit and loss, are fo disgraceful to their profeffional character, and fo subversive of the principles they profess to believe and inculcate, that we are astoniihed they are not more desirous than the Public can be to have the nature of their incomes altered to some mode less irksome both to the payers and receivers.

Discontented as the English clergy appear to be, they are looked up to with envy by their brethren in Ireland, who have indeed far more serious grievances to stare ; their incomes are not in general so liberal, and the collection of them is disturbed by the riotous inter

vention

G g 4

vention of armed associations, capable of perpetrating any outrages that lawless violence and brutal ignorance may happen to dictate.

The Bill which especially excited an alarm among the clergy in Ireland, was an amendment of the Ad to encourage the improvement of barren and waste land, by exempting such improved lands from payment of tithe for seven years, provided fuch land had not paid tithe for seven years before. The principal objection of the clergy to this bill was, that most of the land in that kingdom which had not paid tithe, through the negligence of the proprietor or tenant, and not on account of actual barrenness, would thus be exempted on being tilled; and that it lay on the clergyman to prove that it had paid tithe before ; a proof not easy to be adduced in the disturbed state of the country. Satisfactory amendments were made to this bill by the Lords, and then it was rejected by the Commons.

This pamphlet contains a very temperare state of the case, but we cannot enter farther into it. Art. 18. A Defence of the Protestant Clergy in the South of Ireland;

in Answer to the Charges against them, contained in the Right Hon. Henry Grattan's Speeches relating to Tithes, as they are printed, and said to have been delivered in the House of Commons, on the 14th and 19th of February 1788. With a Poftscript, containing some Remarks on his last Speech on the Re-agitation of Tithes, delivered the nith of April 1788. By Authenticus, 8vo. 24. Dublin, printed; London, reprinted for Robson and Clarke. 1788.

Popular as Mr. Grattan may heretofore have been in Ireland, he must resign all pretensions to the efteem of the clergy there, since his late orations on the subject of tithes ; wherein he has pointedly charged them with extortion, oppression, and injustice in levying these offensive dues. The present writer promises that his name shall be forthcoming whenever Mr. Grattan will avow the speeches published as his, to be those delivered by him, a degree of sanction which they have not yet obtained; and declares his sole

purpose to be to prove the general charges against the clergy ill founded, the proofs brought to support them inconclusive, and that the fullest examination of facts the nature of the subject will afford, proves the direct contrary of those charges, even that the general conduct of the southern clergy is just and moderate, and merciful and praise-worthy.' In the execution of this task, he appears to have taken meritorious pains in collecting the solemn and accurate returns of the clergy to their bishops, in several dioceses, comparing the tithe rates actually charged on the land, with the average amount of crops, and the real tithe of those crops ; according to which statements, the rates at which they are customarily set, appear to be indeed very moderate, being little more than one half of the legal claim. He enters into a circumftantial detail of the studied difficulties and insulting obstructions contrived to defeat the clergymen's attempts to collect their tithes, and their behaviour under these embarrassments, with great appearance of candour ; so that until Mr. Gratian shall, in a similar manner, support the positive allegations attributed to him, they will inevitably be considered as haity, injurious invectives, among the few who think it worth their while to examine both sides of a question.

Accufa.

re.

Accusations indeed that coincide with popular humours, triumph long before defences are listened to; but if at length they are found to be valid, the event will afford ample confolation. But this event must be patiently waited for, as we are given to understand, that Mr. Gratian's speeches have been translated into Irih at Cork, for the benefit of the populace.

While clergymen conscientiously discharge their important duties, we cannot but sympathize with them when we find that the law which should be their protection, fixes them in an uneasy situation. This seems peculiarly the case now in some parts of Ireland ; yet though such clergymen have better reasons to plead for deserting their turbulent flocks, than those who forsake them in pursuit of filthy lucre or sensual pleasure, they have a more forcible tie to stay with them, where it is practicable, to overcome evil with good, and to claim them by a zealous example of the Christian virtues, in the fervent discharge of their pastoral functions: it is on this ground that we cannot heartily subscribe his extenuation of non-residence by precedents. He observes-- As to Mr. Grattan's tax on non-residence, I agree with Mr. Grattan, that it would be strange if i: had become necessary; but I entirely deny that ic is necessary, or that the south, ern clergy are more frequently non-refident than their brethren, either in other parts of the kingdom or ENGLAND. Mr. Grattan has pro. duced no proof to the contrary.' This is merely one part of the clergy sheltering their criminal conduct under that of another, who may avail themselves in the same manner.

EDUCATION, DICTIONARIES, &c. Art. 19. Entick’s New Spelling Dictionary, comprehending a copious

and accented Vocabulary of the English Language. Revised, Corrected, and Enlarged throughout, by Will. Crakelt, M. A. Rector of Nursted and Ifield in Kent. Small 4to. 45. bound. Dilly. 1788.

In our Number for July 1786, p. 74, we noticed Mr. Crakeli's former edition of this useful work. The present is said to have received many corrections and additions, and is in a remarkably elegant style, the paper and the type being both very beautiful. Art. 20. The Ground Work of the Grammar of the French Language,

upon an entirely new Plan, &c. By Jean Jaques D'Etrouville. 12mo. 25. 6d. bound. Dilly. 1788.

This performance may be useful to those who have made some proficiency in the French language ; but to the beginner, it will be father obscure and unintelligible. It wants the properties of an elementary book, the principal of which are plainness and perspicuity. Art. 21. The Complete Vocabulary in Engli!h and French, and in

French and English, properly accented, and disposed under above one hundred Heads, either alphabetical, or agreeable to the natural Order of Things. Comprehending at one View all Words that can occur relative to any Subject, &c. &c. 12mo. 25. 6d. bound. Robinsons.

This work appears to be compiled with care, and will be useful to the learner, particularly to foreigners, on account of the accentuation of the English words.

Art.

I 2mo.

Art. 22. The London Gentleman's and Schoolmaster's Aliftant. Con.

taining an easy and very comprehensive System of Arithmetic, &c. &c. By Thomas Whiting.

2 s. bound. Longman. 1787.

This performance, like many other elementary books of arithmetic, is well calculated to give boys that allistance which is neceffary, and to lessen the labour of the schoolmafier. Art. 23. A new Method of learning French, in a practical and easy

Way: being an Oluftration of all the French Verbs, systematically arranged, and combined in short Sentences, with the Substantives and other Words to which they are most likely to be coonected : with an English Translation, so very literal, as to answer to the French, Word for Word, without offending the Rules of Construction. By Mr. Du Mitand, Teacher of Greek and Latin, and of the Ten principal European living Tongues ; Author of several Grammatical Works. Crown Octavo. 65. Boards. Printed for the Author, Great Suffolk Street.

This book appears to be exceedingly well adapted to give the learner of the French language an extenfive command of words. The mode of expression, in Englij, as well as in French, is commonly very correct. The improper monosyllable, in the title-page, which we have printed in Italic, Mould be corrected in the next edition.

MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY, GEOGRAPHY, &c. Art. 2.4. Elements of Algebra; to which is prefixed a choice Col. lection of Arredmetical Questions, with their Solutions, including fome new Improvements worthy the Attention of Mathematicians, &c. By John Mole. 8vo. 55. Boards. Robinsons. 1788.

As an introduction to Algebra, the performance before us has no smail merit. It gives the potation and common rules with great perspicuity and eale. The Author does not proceed to the higher parts of the art, such as the geometrical construction of equations, and the application of algebra to geometry. Om series, both fuile and infinite, he is very brief. To atone for this, he is diffuse in explaining the several known methods of solving affected equations, and on this account his book is truly valuable ; for although it contains nothing new, yet by judiciously arranging what former writers have given in detached pieces, Mr. Mole has here offered to the public, in one view, all that is necessary to be known for solving in finite terms the quadratic, cubic, and biquadratic equations, where such solution is poffible.

As to the choice collection of arithmetical questions,' we can see no reason why it is prefixed to an elementary treatise on Algebra; its proper place, if it was to be inserted, would have been at the end of The book ; our reason for thinking so, is because some of the questions are solved by methods deduced from the propositions in the treatise which follows. See Question 85.

On the whole, we do not recollect to have before seen the common rules given with so much clearness, nor the principles on which they te founded, ro plainly demonstrated. • Written sometimes (and by this Author) adlected,

Art.

Art. 25. A Short Introduction to Geography : to which is added an

Abridgment of Astronomy. Compiled by Richard Wynne, A.M. and translated into French and Italian by Catharine Wynne. 8vo. 45. Boards. Becket, &c. 1787.

This treatise was compiled by Mr. Wynne, feyeral years since, for the use of his daughter, who, for her instruction, translated it into French and Italian. As these languages, with a little geography and astronomy, form the principal part of a modern young lady's literary pursuits, the plan seems well calculated for the times; independent of the excellent scheme, which, we know not for what reason, is rejected in most schools, of conveying, along with the knowlege of languages a knowlege of things. Art. 26. A Treatise on Geography, the Use of the Globes and Astronomy.

In the Order which the mucoal Coonection and Dependence of the several Parts require towards a perfect Understanding of the wbole. By William Fairman, Teacher of Mathematics. 8vo. 49, Boards. Johnson. 1788.

To comprise every thing relative to the study of geography and astronomy within the small bounds of one octavo volume is absolutely impossible. The Author has not therefore attempted it, but he has given, ift, A general description of the terraqueous globe with its divisions, &c. 20, The method of performing several of the usual problems in geography and astronomy by the help of artificial globes. 3d, A brief account of the solar system, with the explanations of many of the phenomena observable in the heavenly bodies.

The wosk is written in an easy and perfpicuous iivle; and will afford a sufficiency of general information to such readers as do not wish to enter into deep mathematical investigations. Art. 27. The Use of the Ge-organon and improved Analemma, or Sob.

fticutes for the Terrestrial and Celettial Globe. Invented by B. Donne, Teacher of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Bristol. 8vo. 1s. Faden. 1788.

This pamphlet explains the construction, and describes the uses, of two inftruments on pasteboards, with which it is accompanied ; one of them is called the Ge.org anon, and is sold for ios. and the other, the Analemma, rice 3s. 6d.

They are intended to lupply the place of a pair of globes; in solving several geographical and spherical problems. The Georganun is an orthographic projection of the Iphere on the plane of the Equator, and it consists of two parts, one hemisphere in each. The Analemma is an orthographic projection on the plane of the Meridian. The manner in which they are ficred up with moveable circles is ingenious, though fimilar to what we have often been shewn by that truly mechanical Attronomer, the late Mr. Ferguson.

The principal use of a pair of globes is to convey a proper idea to. the tyro, of the figure of the earth, and of the relative position of the circles of the sphere; and to give accurate delineations of the terraqueous globe and starry firmament. When constructed even in the beft manner, they never can be used for the folution of problems. where accuracy is required ; they are more useful as illustrating the node in which problems are to be solved than as being subservient

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