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to the folution itself. We wish to be understood with some limita tion; for where a few minutes are not regarded, the rifing, setting, and fouthing of the heavenly bodies, with feveral other particulars refpecting them, may be known by a pair of good globes.
This being truly the cafe with globes, we fear that fubftitutes for them will be liable to the fame objections. But there is ftill another difficulty; projections are only the fhadows of the sphere, and require the tyro's imagination to fupply thofe ideas of the fubftance, which a picture or fhadow cannot convey.
If, however, the young geographer has already obtained a knowlege of the relative fituation of the circles, and their general properties, he will find the cheap inftruments which Mr. Donne has here offered of great ufe, where accuracy is not wanted, in folving various problems. The Analemma will, on fome accounts, be useful to the fpherical trigonometer, as he may readily place it fo as to reprefent feveral triangles in their true figure, without the trouble of delineating each triangle.
Art. 28. An Hiftory of Fungufles growing about Halifax*. With Figures copied from the Plants when newly gathered and in a State of Perfection, and with a particular Defcription of each Species, in all its Stages; the whole being a plain Recital of Facts the Refult of more than Twenty Years Obfervation. By James Bolton, Member of the Nat. Hift. Society at Edinburgh. 4to. Vol. I. and II. 21. 2s. each coloured, or 18s. plain. Boards. White. 1788.
No order of plants has perhaps been fo little attended to by Botanifts, as that which Mr. Bolton hath here undertaken to elucidate. The Fungi are, for the most part, ufelefs plants; fome of them indeed have been fuccefsfully ufed in furgery; and other fpecies hold diftinguished places in the catalogue of our culinary dainties. Many of them are extremely noxious to the human frame; and others, by their feptic quality, undermine and deftroy our habitations. To be able to diftinguifh their feveral fpecies is therefore of the utmost confequence; and this task becomes the more difficult on account of their great fimilarity to each other, and the little variety that is ob-” fervable in the fmall number of parts of which these fimple plants confift.
In the introduction, Mr. Bolton gives the generic characters of the Fungi, illuftrated with figures. To the genera eftablished by Linné, he has added one which he calls Sphæria, with the following character: A Fungus having numerous fpherical or oblong veficles, regularly arranged under fome part of its furface; which veficles difcharge a duft or powder.'
Having gone through the defcriptions of the genera, Mr. Bolton explains the different parts of the Fungi, and defines the technical words.
The plants are each amply defcribed, and etchings given of every fpecies, in three or four different ftates; the number contained in
these two volumes is 105, of which 86 belong to the genus Agaricus, 14 to Boletus, 3 to Hydnum, and 2 to Phallus. The remaining genera are to form the contents of the third volume; on the publication of which, when the whole lies before us, we fhall enlarge our account of Mr. Bolton's Hiftory of Fungi.
Art. 29. A Botanical Arrangement of British Plants, including the Ufes of each Species in Medicine, Diet, Rural Oeconomy, and the Arts. With an eafy Introduction to the Study of Botany, &c. The Second Edition. By William Withering, M. D. F.R. S. &c. 8vo. Vol. I. and II. 145. Boards. Robinsons. 1787.
These two volumes have been long unnoticed, though not forgotten; the most material parts of this new edition, will, we fuppofe, be the clafs of Cryptogamia-the Introduction to Botany-the Gloffary of Terms, &c. promifed in the third volume. In expectation of that volume, we have deferred and muft ftill defer any farther account of Dr. Withering's great and laborious undertaking :-for which the English Botanifts will be much indebted to him.
Mr. Winter being much diffatisfied with the account which we gave of his book on Hufbandry, in the Review for April laft, vents his fpleen in the prefent publication with all the bitterness that can be conceived t.-God forbid that we should wish to curtail the liberties of British fubjects; on the contrary, we rejoice to think that every man poffeffes the right of appealing from the decifions not only of reviewers, but of all other claffes of critics, to that of an impartial public. Long may the liberty of the prefs remain inviolated! Among other national bleffings, it encourages the manufacture of paper; but, on this occafion, we cannot be patriotic enough to confume much of this commodity, left our readers fhould complain that we make them purchase what is of little confequence to them. We heartily join iffue with Farmer Bramble in this appeal; and cheerfully reft our caufe on what has been already published on the fubject. Were it neceffary to advance any farther in fupport of our opinion of his unfortunate book, we fhould only advife "thofe whom
* But who are the Reviewers of the Monthly Review? Goliah as be is, Mr. W. alone cannot conftitute a plurality; and we know of no other Reviewer of our Journal.
Though the pamphlet is faid to be written by Benjamin Bramble, yet the ftyle, when compared with that of the Syftem of Husbandry, clearly betrays its real author. We are not, however, furprifed that he does not avow the work: his conduct in this particular is, per haps, the most natural, if not the most honourable, that he could have adopted: it fhews that he is capable of fome degree of prudence.
it may concern" to read the present pamphlet, with the work that gave rife to it, and then we think they will need no farther proofs of the juftice of our remarks. They will likewife have the fatisfaction of feeing Mr. W-'s System of Husbandry revised no less than three times in the Farmer's performance. It feems that a man has a wonderful degree of patience with regard to his own works. He is evidently, however, a very inaccurate reviewer of the works of others. Ex. gra. in page 19, he quotes a remark of ours, in the Rev. for Auguft 1787, p. 99, which he afcribes to Mr. Marshall, though it is evidently marked as the Reviewer's own words, in the most precife manner; yet he profeffes the moft fcrupulous accuracy, for he fays, p. 42, If the works of any author had been misreprefented by Benj. Bramble, am apprehenfive that his future criticisms and affertions would not be credited.'
The only part of this publication, which can prove in any degree Interesting to the practical farmer, is the refult of an experimen made by Mr. Winter, in 1787, to afcertain the proper distance for drilling wheat; the refult is as follows: The intervals of 9 inches produced 5 bushels, 2 pecks and an half, more than thofe of 11 inches and the drills of 7 inches produced 4 bufhels; 2 quarts more than those of 9. Thofe of 11 inches produced 60 lb. 6 oz.9 inches, 60 lb. 10 oz.-7 inches, 61 lb. 4 oz.. per bufhel of 8 gallons.
Had Mr. Winter afcertained all his affertions in a fimilar manner, he would not have complained of our treatment of his book; but we regret that he has not mentioned the extent of ground fown with the drills of each fort. He only fays that the experiments were made in a field of nine acres. If it was divided into equal parts, so that there were 3 acres in each, then the drills of 7 inches produced per acre, 3 bushels and peck, nearly, more than the drills of 11 inches, and the grain of a better quality. This is an important fact; and the public are obliged to Mr. W. for communicating the experi
We are forry that Farmer Bramble's pamphlet contains nothing elfe worth communicating to our agricultural readers.
Art. 31. The Medical Reform. Containing a Plan for the Establishment of a Medical Court of Judicature to correct Abuses of the Profeffion of Phyfic in all its Branches; and a Medical College to give full Inftruction to Youth intended as Surgeons for the Navy or Army, without Expence to the Nation, or Oppreffion to Individuals. Being a Letter to the Right Honourable William Pitt, Efa. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Deighton. 1788.
That there are abufes in the mode of the practice of phyfic must be evident to every obferver. To remedy thefe abufes must be the task of an intelligent and difpaffionate man, neither of which epithets feem applicable to the anonymous author of the pamphlet which now engages our attention. It is evidently the production of a man who, perhaps unaccustomed to "the fpurns that patient merit of th' unworthy takes," and thinking like many young men who often think too highly of themfelves,' has been difappointed in his expectations.
A reform in the mode of medical practice can only be effected by the univerfal concurrence of the whole faculty, efpecially of those who are the moft eminent in the profeffion; for, as is well obferved in the preamble to the Charter of the College of Phyficians, "moft of the king's liege people cannot difcern the uncunning [viz. phyficians] from the cunning." Profeffional men can therefore be the only judges to determine what perfons are qualified for the important charge of the health of the king's liege people.
The Author of this pamphlet, after ftating, in an exaggerated manner, the abufes in the practice, especially among the apothecaries, recites the laws for the government of the mode of practice in most of the European kingdoms, and recommends a plan to be adopted in England, which he thinks might remove the alleged evils. For the particulars of the plan we refer to the pamphlet.
The Author warmly efpoufes the caufe of Dr. Kentish; fo warmly indeed as to excite a fuppofition in fufpicious minds that Dr. Kentish himself may be the author. Be this as it may, if the Author thinks that Dr. Kentish has been ill-treated by the College, we would recommend to him a method of coming at the truth in a moft effectual manner. It is fimply to requeft the Doctor Speedily to publifh to the world (for, thanks to the government under which we live, no body of men can control the liberty of the British prefs) the particulars of his examination, with the reasons why the College refufed his admiffion as a licentiate. The public may be deluded, and, in certain cafes, be perfuaded by declamation and rhetoric, but it can only be convinced by facts properly stated, and deductions justly drawn from fuch statement. It has been often faid, and the Author fays, page 54, The truth will foon appear; and when the public are in poffeffion of the questions and anfwers, which I underftand will be given upon oath, we fhall fee whether or not this unfortunate young man has reafon to complain.' Why not publish them Speedily? Why is their appearance delayed? The longer the publication is deferred, the more Dr. K.'s reputation fuffers by the procrastination. It is now above fix months fince this plan of a medical reform was published.
Art. 32. Obfervations on the Pharmacopeia Collegii Regalis Medicorum
Londinenfis, 1788; annexed to the Obfervations on the Specimen
This publication, like that which we have before noticed in our Review for January laft, p. 47, is replete with fevere criticifm. The Author profeffes, to attack error though it should be mounted on the wonders of the world, and be guarded by the Coloffian pillars of medico-collegiate confequence.'
Many of the criticifms are the fame with ours, in the Review for June last, page 449. This obferver is extremely fevere on the arbi trium, and the names of the alkaline falt, which that arbitrium, quod nutu gubernat, fuggefted. He charges the College with having adopted fome of the amendments which he propofed; but, in order to avoid the fuppofition of regard to the anonymous author, he intimates that the College has rejected his terms, and fapplied their place with others more objectionable.
Among the good criticifms on the Pharmacapoeia which are given by this able pharmaceutical chemist (he juftly deserves the title, though he is too liberal of abuse), are the remarks on the infpiffated juices. As a fpecimen of his ftyle, take the following remark on the infpiffated juice of lemons:
Among the fucci what ufe is propofed from the infpiffated juice of lemons, fave an unneceffary and ridiculous expence; for the product from a very large proportion of the depurated juice will be extremely small indeed! Are its virtues heightened by the process? Does neceffity require us to preserve it in this form, for any purpose? Cannot we have always the expreffed juice when requifite? If so, why prefcribe fo trifling, fo unneceffary, and fó expenfive an article?'
In a fimilar, and fometimes more fevere manner, does the Author proceed through the whole of his pamphlet; fhewing in many inftances the defect of chemical fcience in the committee who fuperintended the compilation and publication of the Pharmacopoeia.
The Lumleian lecturer does not escape the lafh of this critic, who takes every opportunity of cenfuring the notes to his tranflation; that they are open to cenfure is beyond a doubt, as may be seen by the account of them in our Review for July laft, p. 22; and this Author has, with a difplay of much chemical knowlege, justly pointed out the errors with which they abound, but with a feverity that borders rather too near on illiberality.
Art. 33. Secular Ode in Commemoration of the glorious Revolution MDCLXXXVIII. By William Mason, M. A. 4to. is. Robfon and Clarke. 1788.
Ever true to the foul-expanding' caufe of liberty, the genius of Mafon does not forget in age, the theme which in earlier days gave rapture to the votive Lyre.'
• He, at the vernal morn of youth,
Fresh incenfe from his votive lyre,
Shall, at their fhrine, resume the strain,
And fweep the veteran chords with renovated fire.'
The late very laudable commemoration (in various parts of the inland) of that REVOLUTION which fecured to this happy country the bleffings of civil and religious freedom, was, indeed, a noble theme; and we rejoice that there were not wanting a Mafon and a Hayley to aid the feftive celebration, and crown the facred rites with a garland woven by the lyric muse.
After paying a just tribute to the memory of the Hero who fecured
The charter'd rights of British Liberty,'
the poet, in the conclufion of this (too fhort) poem, happily feizes the occafion to introduce the prefent popular topic of Negroe-flavery; ending with a generous prayer, in behalf of the public, that