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to the solution itself. We wish to be understood with some limita. tion ; for where a few minutes are not regarded, the rising, setting, and southing of the heavenly bodies, with several other particulars respecting them, may be known by a pair of good globes.
This being truly the case with globes, we fear that substitutes for them will be liable to the fame objections. But there is still another difficulty; projections are only the shadows of the sphere, and require the tyro's imagination to supply those ideas of the substance, which a picture or shadow cannot convey.
If, however, the young geographer has already obtained a knowlege of the relative fituarion of the circles, and their general properties, he will find the cheap instruments which Mr. Donne has here offered of great use, where accuracy is not wanted, in solving various problems. The Analemma will, on some accounts, be useful to the spherical trigonometer, as he may readily place it so as to represent several triangles in their true figure, without the trouble of delineating each triangle.
NATURAL HISTORY. Art. 28. An History of Fungusses growing about Halifax *. With
Figures copied from the Plants when newly gathered and in a State of Perfection, and with a particular Description of each Species, in all its Stages; the whole being a plain Recital of Facts the Result of more than Twenty Years Observation. By James Bolton, Member of the Nat. Hift. Society at Edinburgh. 4to. Vol. I. and II. 21. 29. each coloured, or 185. plain. Boards.? White. 1788.
No order of plants has perhaps been so little attended to by Botanists, as that which Mr. Bolton hath here undertaken to elucidate, The Fungi are, for the most part, useless plants ; some of them indeed have been successfully used in surgery; and other species hold distinguished places in the catalogue of our culinary dainties. Many of them are extremely noxious to the human frame; and others, by their septic quality, undermine and destroy our habitations. To be able to diftinguish their several species is therefore of the utmost confequence; and this talk becomes the more difficult on account of their great fimilarity to each other, and the litele variety that is ob." servable in the small number of parts of which these simple plants confift.
In the introduction, Mr. Bolton gives the generic characters of the Fungi, illustrated with figures. To the genera established by Linné, he has added one which he calls Sphæria, with the following character: A Fungus having numerous spherical or obloog vesicles, regularly arranged under some part of its surface; which vesicles difcharge a duit or powder.'
Having gone through the descriptions of the genera, Mr. Bolton explains the different parts of the fungi, and defines the technical words.
The plants are each amply described, and etchings given of every species, in three or four different states; the number contained in
these two volumes is 105, of which 86 belong to the genus Agaricus, 14 to Boletus, 3 to Hydnum, and 2 to Phallus. The remaining gea nera are to form the contents of the third volume ; on the publication of which, when the whole lies before us, we fall enlarge our account of Mr. Bolton's History of Fungi. Art. 29. A Botanical Arrangement of British Plants, including the
Ures of each Species in Medicine, Diet, Rural Oeconomy, and the Arts. With an easy Introjuction to the Study of Botany, &c. The Second Edition. By William Withering, M. D. F.R.S. &c. 8vo. Vol. I. and II. 145. Boards. Robinsons. 1787.
These two volumes have been long unnoticed, though not forgot. ten; the most material parts of this new edition, will, we suppose, be the class of Cryptogamia -the Introduction to Botany-the Glorsary of Terms, &c. promised in the third volume. In expectation of chat volume, we have deferred and must ftill defer any farther account of Dr. Withering's great and laborious undertaking :-for which the English Botanists will be much indebted to him.
HUSBANDRY. Art. 30. The Farmer convinced; or the Reviewers * of the Monthly
Review anatomized; their Ignorance exposed ; and their vague, futile, and fallacious Affertions refuted, &c. By Benjamin Bramble, an old experienced Farmer. 8vo.
is. 6dNewbery. 1788.
Mr. Winter being much dissatisfied with the account which we gave of his book on Husbandry, in the Review for April laft, vents his spleen in the present publication with all the bitterness that can be conceived t.- God forbid that we should wish to curtail the liberties of Britih subjects ; on the contrary, we rejoice to think that every man possesses the right of appealing from the decisions not only of reviewers, but of all other classes of critics, to that of an impare tial public. Long may the liberty of the press remain in violated ! Among other national bleffings, it encourages the manufacture of paper ; but, on this occasion, we cannot be patriotic enough to consume much of this commodity, left our readers Tould complain that we make them purchale what is of little consequence to them. We heartily join issue with Farmer Bramble in this appeal; and cheerfully reft our cause on what has been already published on the subject. Were it necessary to advance any farther in support of our opinion of his unfortunate book, we should only advise those whom
* But who are the Reviewers of the Monthly Review ? Goliah ag be is, Mr. W. alone cannot constitute a plurality; and we know of no other Reviewer of our Journal.
+ Though the pamphlet is said to be written by Benjamin Bramble, yet the Atyle, when compared with that of the Syftem of Husbandry, clearly betrays its real author. We are not, however, turprised that he does not avow the work: his conduct in this particular is, pera haps, the most natural, if not the most honourable, that he could have adopted; it shews that he is capable of some degree of prudence.
it may concern” to read the present pamphlet, with the work that gave rise to it, and then we think they will need no farther proofs die the justice of our remarks. They will likewise bave the satisfaction of seeing Mr. W—'s System of Husbandry revised no less than the times in the Farmer's performance. It seems that a man has a wotderful degree of patience with regard to his own works. He is evidently, however, a very inaccurate reviewer of the works of others. Ex. gra. in page 19, he quotes a remark of ours, in the Rev. for August 1787, p. 99, which he ascribes to Mr. Marthall
, though it is evidently marked as the Reviewer's own words, in the most precise manner ;-yet he professes the most scrupulous accuracy, for he says, p. 42, . If the works of any author had been misrepre. fented by Benj. Bramble, am apprehenfive that his future criticism: and assertions would not be credited.'
The only part of this publication, which can prove in any degree interesting to the practical farmer, is the result of an experimen? made by Mr. Winter, in 1787, to ascertain the proper distance for drilling wheat; the result is as follows: The intervals of 9 inches produced 5 bushels, 2 pecks and an half, more than those of u inches and the drills of 7 inches produced 4 bushels ; 2 quarts more than those of 9. Those of 11 inches produced 60 lb. 6 oz.9 inches, 60 lb. 10 oz.—7 inches, 61 lb. 4 oz.. per bushel of 8 gallons.
Had Mr. Winter ascertained all his assertions in a fimilar manner, he would not have complained of our treatment of his book; but we regret that he has not mentioned the extent of ground fown with the drills of each fort. He only says that the experiments were made in a field of nine acres. If it was divided into equal parts, so that there were 3 acres in each, then the drills of 7 inches prodoced per acre, 3 bushels and i peck, nearly, more than the drills of 11 inches, and the grain of a better quality. This is an important fact; and the public are obliged to Mr. W. for communicating the experiment.
We are sorry that Farmer Bramble's pamphlet contains nothing else worth communicating to our agricultural readers.
MEDICAL. Art. 31. The Medical Reform. Containing a Plan for the Establish
ment of a Medical Court of Judicature to correct Abuses of the Profesion of Physic in all its Branches; and a Medical College to give full Infiruction to Youth intended as Surgeons for the Nary or Army, without Expence to the Nation, or Oppression to Indi. viduals. Being a Letter to the Right Honourable William Pitt, Era. 8vo. 25. 6d. Deighton.
That there are abuses in the mode of the practice of phyfic must be evident to every observer. To remedy these abuses must be the talk of an intelligent and dispassionate man, neither of which epithets feem applicable to the anonymous author of the pamphlet which now engages our attention. It is evidently the production of a man who, perhaps unaccustomed to "the spurns that patient merit of th’odworihy takes," and thinking like many young men who often think too highly of themselves,' has been disappointed in his expectations.
A reform in the mode of medical practice can only be effected by the universal concurrence of the whole faculty, especially of those who are the most eminent in the profesion; for, as is well observed in the preamble to the Charter of the College of Physicians, “moft of the king's liege people cannot discern the uncunning (viz. phyficians] from the cunning." Professional men can therefore be the only judges to determine what persons are qualified for the important charge of the health of the king's liege people.
The Author of this pamphlet, after ftating, in an exaggerated manner, the abuses in the practice, especially among the apothecaries, recites the laws for the government of the mode of practice in most of the European kingdoms, and recommends a plan to be adopted in England, which he thinks might remove the alleged evils. For the particulars of the plan we refer to the pamphlet.
The Author warmly espouses the cause of Dr. Kentish; so warmly indeed as to excite a supposition in suspicious minds that Dr. Kentish himself may be the author. Be this as it may, if the Author thinks that Dr. Kentish has been ill-treated by the College, we would recommend to him a method of coming at the truth in a most effectual manner. It is simply to requeft the Doctor Speedily to publish to the world (for, thanks to the government under which we live, no body of men can control the liberty of the British press) the particulars of his examination, with the reasons why the College refused his admission as a licentiate. The public may be deluded, and, in certain cases, be persuaded by declamation and rhetoric, but it can only be convinced by facts properly stated, and deductions justly drawn from such statement. It has been often said, and the Author says, page 54, ' The truth will soon appear; and when the public are in possession of the questions and answers, which I underitand will be given upon oath, we shall see whether or not this unfortunate young man has reason to complain.' Why not publish them speedily? Why is their appearance delayed? The longer the publication is deferred, the more Dr. K.'s reputation suffers by the procrastination. It is now above six months since this plan of a medical reform was published. Art. 32. Observations on the Pharmacopæia Collegii Regalis Medicorum
Londinenfis, 1788; annexed to the Observations on the Specimen Alterum, pointing out many striking Defects, &c. &c. 8vo. 60. Robinfons. 1783.
This publication, like that which we have before noticed in our Review for January last, p. 47, is replete with severe criticism. The Author professes. to attack error though it should be mounted on the wonders of the world, and be guarded by the Colofiian pillars of medico-collegiate consequence."
Many of the criticisms are the same with ours, in the Review for June last, page 449.' This observer is extremely severe on the arbitrium, and the names of the alkaline falt, which that arbitrium, quod nutu gubernat, suggested. He charges the College with having adopred some of the amendments which te proposed; but, in order to avoid the supposition of regard to the anonymous author, he intimates that the College has rejected his terms, and Tupplied their place with others more objedionable.
Among the good criticifms on the Pharmacapaia which are given by this able pharmaceutical chemist (he juftly deserves the title, though he is too liberal of abuse), are the remarks on the inspiflated juices. As a specimen of his style, take the following remark on the infpiffated juice of lemons :
* Among the fucci what use is proposed from the inspiffated juice of lemons, save an unnecessary and ridiculous expence ; for the product from a very large proportion of the depurated juice will be extremely small indeed! Are its virtues heightened by the process ? Does neceflity require us to preserve it in this form, for any purpose ? Cannot we have always the expressed juice when requisite? If fo, why prescribe fo trifling, so unnecessary, and so expenfive an article ?
In a limilar, and sometimes more severe manner, does the Author proceed through the whole of his pamphlet; shewing in many instances the defect of chemical science in the committee who superintended the compilation and publication of the Pharmacopæia.
The Lumleian lecturer does not escape the lash of this critic, who takes every opportunity of censuring the notes to his translation ; that they are open to censure is beyond a doubt, as may be seen by the account of them in our Review for July last, p. 22; and this Author has, with a display of much chemical knowlege, justly pointed out the errors with which they abound, but with a severity that borders rather too near on illiberality.
POETRY Art. 33. Secular Ode in Commemoration of the glorious Revolution
MDCLXXXVIII. By William Mason, M. A. 40. 18. Robson and Clarke. 1788. Ever true to the • soul-expanding cause of liberty, the genius of Mason does not forget in age, the theme which in earlier days gave rapture to the 'votive Lyre.
• He, at the vernal morn of youth,
Fresh incense from his votive lyre,
Shall, at their shrine, resume the strain,
And sweep the veteran chords with renovated fire.' The late very laudable commemoration in various parts of the iland) of that REVOLUTION which secured to this happy country the blessings of civil and religious freedom, was, indeed, a noble theme; and we rejoice that there were not wanting a Mason and a Hayley to aid the festive celebration, and crown the sacred rites with a garland woven by the lyric muse.
After paying a just cribute to the memory of the Hero who secured to us
• The charter'd rights of British Liberty,' the poet, in the conclufion of this too short) poem, happily seizes the occasion to introduce the present popular topic of Negroe-slavery; ending with a generous prayer, in behalf of the public, that