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of ruins. Her glory is eclipfed; her very language has failed! But the beauty of her women ftill affords a gleam of fplendor, like · the foftened light of the fetting fun. An Italian gentleman carried our company to vifit a Greek damfel, whofe beauty was much spoken of. I must confefs, that I fhould have regretted to have miffed a fight fo worthy of obfervation. We look at fine pictures and ftatues with an enthusiasm that is increased in proportion to their merit. Here the finest model of art,—the boast of Phidias' or of Titian's hand-was outdone. The figure breathed: the nicest proportions received new grace from motion: the most regular and finished set of features imaginable were animated with fpirit and fenfibility. The first view of this fair Greek recalled to my memory those spirited lines of Waller,

"Such Helen was-and who can blame the boy

Who in fo bright a flame confum'd his Troy."

The name of this lady is Terefa Vaneffa. She has a married fifter, who might be efteemed hand fome in another place. They refide with their mother, who is fo ordinary that we could fcarcely give credit to her having produced fuch a pair. More than one English traveller have been captivated by this uncelebrated Vaneffa. I must obferve, that her ftature is above the middle fize, so that I would advife my friend Romney, when he wants a new model for a Venus, to vifit Cyprus, in order to improve on the Venus of Medicis.'

The journey through the Defart is fimilar to that described by other writers. At Bagdad, our travellers embarked in a boat on the river Tygris, and proceeded by water to Bufrah. The particulars of this voyage are not very interefting. Some remarks however occur, with respect to the towns on the banks of this great river, which will be very acceptable to the reader who is curious and inquifitive in regard to fubjects of this entertaining kind.-There are alfo many remarkable traits of the characters and behaviour of the Arabs.

It was the Author's intention to have continued the narrative of his route; but finding little that could amufe, and less that could inform the traveller, in a voyage down the Perfian Gulph, he has been induced to fpare the reader the trouble of perufing immaterial communications.

At the end of the narrative, Mr. Irwin has added fome Odes compofed in different parts of his journey, which are by no means deftitute of poetic merit. On the whole, there is fomething fo attractive and engaging in Mr. Irwin's general manner and amiable turn of fentiment, whether writing in verse or in profe, that it feems impoffible to perufe the author, without conceiving an efleem for the man.


Art. XII. The Theological Repofitory; confifting of Original Effays, Hints, Queries, &c. calculated to promote Religious Knowledge. Vols. IV, V, VI. 8vo. 6s. Ed. per Volume. Johnson. 1788.


F the three former volumes of this work, which was origi nally undertaken, and has been hitherto conducted, by Dr. Priestley, a brief account was given in our Review, vol. xlii. p. 240. and vol. liv. p. 134. It is now therefore fcarcely neceffary to inform our readers, that this periodical work is intended as a public theatre of theological controverfy, where the combatants are allowed the fulleft latitude for the difplay of their ftrength and ingenuity. Thofe who found themfelves interefted in the contents of the former volumes, will be no lefs fo in the prefent: for the fubjects are of the fame kind, and are treated with equal originality and freedom. It cannot be expected that we should enter into the difcuffion of the numerous queftions, which are ftarted in thefe volumes. A mere abridgment of the difquifitions which they contain, would require a much larger portion of our journal than we can fpare, or indeed than we are inclined to allow, to this kind of controverfy. We fhall therefore only lay before our Readers a fummary view of the Contents, under the diftinét heads of, Evidences of Revelation; Controversy concerning the Divine Nature and the Perfon of Chrift; Biblical Criticifm, and Mifcellaneous Articles.

1. Refpecting the Evidences of Revelation, thefe volumes contain, A feries of Differtations on Infpiration, intended to eftablish the Divine Authority of Mofes and of Jefus Chrift, and to afcertain in what fenfe they were inspired, and how far the Prophets and Apoftles partook of fupernatural affiftance: An Argument against the Infpiration of the Reafoning in Scripture: On the Miffion of John Bapuft, to prove that John did not declare Jefus to be the Meffiah: Illuftration of the Promife made to Abraham; of the Prophecy concerning Shiloh; and of other Prophecies relating to the Meffiah: Queries concerning the Dependance of Chriftianity on the Jewish Revelation, with replies afferting that dependance: An Attempt to prove the perpetual Obligation of the Jewish Ritual upon the Jews: On the Elijah foretold by Malachi: Queries refpecting Prophecies not yet fulfilled, &c.

II. On the Controverfy concerning the Divine Nature and the Perfan of Chrift: Remarks on the Doctrine of Plato concerning God: Query concerning the Rife of the Arian Doctrine; Defence of Arianifm: Hiftory of the Arian Controverfy: Animadverfions on Ben Mordecai: Inquiry whether the Arians are Unitarians: Obfervations, in a Series of Eflays, on the Authenticity of the Hiftory of the Miraculous Conception: View of the Principles of the later Platonifts; and of the Platonism of Philo: REV. Dec. 1788. M m Ob

Objections to the Arian Hypothefis: Defence of the Miraculous Conception: Athanafian Hypothefis compared with Tranfubftantiation: Remarks on Dr. Price's Sermons: Query, concerning the Origin of the Low Arian Doctrine: Of Love to Chrift on Unitarian Principles.

III. Biblical Criticism: Of the Ifland on which St. Paul was fhipwrecked: Remarks on Dr. Taylor's Key to the Epiftles: Propofal for correcting the English Translation of the Scriptures: Obfervations on the Jerufalem Decree: On the Roman Cenfus: Rules for tranflating the Scriptures: On the Oblation of Ifaac: The Cock-crowing which Peter heard fhewn to have been the Sound of a Trumpet: Remarks on various Texts of Scripture.

IV. Mifcellaneous Articles: Thoughts on Demoniacal Poffeffions: A Query concerning the future State: Of the Ufe of the Greek Article: An Attempt to prove that the fallen Angels were the Sons of Seth: An Account of the Rev. John Palmer, and of fome Articles intended by him for the Repository: Inquiry at what Time the Kingdom of Heaven will commence : Obfervations on Chrift's Agony in the Garden: Objections to Ordination among Diffenters: Queries relating to the Religion of Indoftan: Objection to the Obfervance of a Sabbath: The Obfervance of the Lord's Day vindicated, in Three Effays.

Whatever be the real importance of the feveral subjects treated in this mifcellany, it is a pretty clear proof of the general difinclination, which prevails in the present times, toward religious controverfy, that a large collection of original, and many of them ingenious, papers, has been fo little attended to, that the Editor has found himfelf under the neceffity of difcontinuing the work, for want of a fale fufficient to defray the expence he hopes, however, after a fhort interval to refume it. A very confiderable part of thefe volumes is written by Dr. Priestley.

ART. XIII. The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of
Vol. II. 4to.
Durham. By William Hutchinson, F. A. S.

il. is.
Boards. Printed at Newcastle, and fold in London by
Meff. Robin fons.



AVING, in the preceding volume*, fhewn the origin and foundation of the rich cathedral at Durham, Mr. Hutchinfon begins the prefent volume with the hiftory of the City. He thinks, and with great probability, that no town exifted where Durham now ftands, before the monks arrived, about the year 995, with the remains of St. Cuthbert, of whofe reftless

*For an account of which, fee Rev. vol. lxxvi. p. 144.


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and troublesome carcafe an ample account was given in the former volume. We shall not trouble our readers with an abftract of the building and fortifying the city, or of the numerous events by which Durham was affected. These circumftances, being local, cannot intereft the generality of readers; but they are nevertheless entertaining to the antiquary; and, as the Author has had the liberty of tranfcribing official papers, they will be useful to fuch gentlemen of the law, as may have occafion to confult them +.

Having exhibited the government of the city and the privi leges of the incorporated body, the Author calls the attention of his readers to the hiftory and defcription of the cathedral; the foundation of which was laid on the 11th of Auguft 1093, with a folemnity fuited to fo great a work, by the bishop, affifted by Malcolm King of Scotland, and Turgot the Prior. Mr. Hutchinson has annexed two engravings of the cathedral, taken, as he informs us, from as accurate a drawing as perhaps was ever given to the public,' which, faving much defcription, will convey to the fpectator a very perfect idea of that grand and elegant fabric.

A lift of the priors from Turgot, with an abftract of the life of each, and the fervices which each of them rendered to the church, is continued, to the year 1540; when the monaftery was furrendered into the king's hands: the revenues of it, at that time, were rated by Dugdale at 13661. 10s. 5d.; but by Speed at 16151. 148. 1od.

On the 12th of May 1541, the king granted his foundation charter to this church, inftituting therein a dean and twelve prebendaries, and making them a body corporate; the endowment was given by the fame king, May 16, 1541. These intruments, with feveral other matters of curiofity, are given in the notes.

The deans pafs next in review, a fhort biographical account being given of each: then follow all the prebendaries, with the fame honours fhewn to their memory; and after a long detail of the feveral ecclefiaftics who fat in the cathedral of Durham, we come at laft to a description of the edifice and its adjoining buildings, with a comparative view of its ancient and modern


In the defcription of the library, we meet with a curious manu fcript of the bible, about 650 years old; it is ftyled in the catalogue Egregius revera liber. Mr. Hutchinson quotes the librarian's defcription of it, by which it appears to be chiefly valuable on

+ Mr. Hutchinfon is of that profeffion; which probably accounts for his enlarging on the fubjects of rights and privileges more than any other topographer that we remember,

M m 2


account of the elegance of the penmanship, and the illuminated initials, many of which have been cut out and stolen facrilega aliquâ manu. It is in four volumes, folio. The other MSS. which the Author enumerates are more curious than valuable, if we except feveral of Bede's works, which are probably originals.

After defcribing the college fquare, which contains the prebendaries' houfes, the Author proceeds to the bishop's palace, and the feveral parish churches in the city. In this part of the work, indeed in many other parts, Mr. Hutchinfon lets no opportunity escape of mentioning fuch acts of the dean and chapter as tend to fet their munificence, and regard to the public, in the strongest point of view. As one inftance of which, we shall transcribe his account of the new bridge over the river Wear.

It is upon a beautiful modern plan, the arches femicircular, with a balluftraded battlement. There was formerly a narrow bridge near this place for horfes to pafs, which was carried away by the floods in 1771; the accident proved fortunate for the public, as it occafioned the prefent handsome ftructure to be erected, which being of a fuitable width, the chapter permits gentlemen's carriages to pafs thereon, without toll *.'

It would furely have been a greater act of munificence to have fuffered all carriages to país, more efpecially as the great North road might then have been carried almoft in a line through, inftead of winding nearly a mile round the city in order to enter it.

The remaining part of the volume is employed in describing feveral of the towns and villages in the county, the particular history of each of which is given with minutenefs and perfpicuity.

In the general execution of the work, Mr. Hutchinson's great labour and fcrupulous accuracy are every where apparent; and though he may fometimes appear, especially to perfons not interested in the county, to be tedioufly circumftantial, yet his book forms a valuable hiftory of the Palatinate. The numerous notes with which it is illuftrated are curious and interefting; and the many engravings of views, of Roman and other antiquities, &c. convey juft ideas of what they represent.

The work is printed by fubfcription, and it was propofed to have been finifhed in two volumes. Mr. Hutchinfon's materials, however, have fo greatly encreafed fince he prefented his proposals to the public, that he finds himself under the neceffity of adding a third volume, which he begs his fubfcribers to do him the honour of accepting gratis. So generous an offer must confiderably heighten the efteem in which the gentlemen of Durham have juftly held Mr. Hutchinfon's character and abilities.

An elegant view of this new bridge is given.


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