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charming. Such is the present rage for building, that streets are daily rising to the surprise of every body, and I was informed by a principal architect that near 12,000 workmen are now employed for this purpose. The whole city is built upon three vast ridges, very steep and disadvantageous, the intermediate vallies being so deep as to require very large and expensive bridges to be erected over them, which are the greatest curiosities over dry land in Europe ; the north bridge, which connects the old and new town, is finished very handfomely for about 6.25,000. Its length is 11 34 feet, and breadth 50. It has 5 arches, three of which are 72 feet each, and the other two about 20. They are now carrying on the same line to the south, from High-street to Nicholson's, another equally large and magnificent, on which are raised very lofty and handsome houses. There is also another parallel to the north one, entirely formed of earth taken out of the foundation of the new town, begun in 1783, and now brought almost to a level; this was a very surprising undestaking, and the abundance of earth already buried is beyond conception. What could have induced the original founders of this city, to chuse so irregular a situation is unaccountable, when they might have fixed upon such excellent ground at Leith, only two miles off, in a charming sea-girt vale, a good harbour and passage for ships of burden. The only object that could have directed the former choice must have been the site of the castle, that they might be more immediately under the protection of this fortified place.'

The motive for this choice is indeed sufficiently evident, confidering the rude time in which it was made; when security from hoftile depredation was of more importance than leagirt vales,' or conveniences for ships of burthen. Paffing over his brief remarks on the old city, the pictures in Holyrood house, the dimenfions of the gallery there, those of the new alsembly room, tea-room, and card rooms, we shall add his chasacter of the inhabitants of this metropolis.

*To give a description of the manners of the people would be fuperfluous and presumpruous after so many able writers. But before I finally take leave of this metropolis, I shall put down a few ideas that occurred during our tour, and acquaintance with this place. The deportment of the higher class is ftiff and reserved, and in all their communications self-interest seems to be their predominant paffion and rule of action; and though they profefs to keep up their dignity, by holding it neceffary that strangers must be properly introduced to their families, particularly their daughters; yet, when once the ice is broke, there may be found more Hoydens amongst them than in other southern countries, which must be owing to the native pride of their parents, who, in order to enhance their hereditary rights, give all to their eldeft son, and leave the youngest children to sport with fortune. This surely is a conduct prejudicial to virtue and prudence. The women are in general handsome till they approach twenty, when much of their beauty vanishes, as they become large and masculine. Amongst the lower ranks, especially in those parts where education has shed little of its influence, the torpid genius of the country fully displays itself. For instance, thould a traveller,

paffing passing through some remote village, wish to be informed of the road to any particular place, and the intermediate distance, he must wait till another opportunity, for this is too much information to obtain at one time ; happy for him if he gets che first question solved to his Satisfaction.'

Though this character of the citizens of Edinburgh, is but short, it may probably be deemed too long to be formed during his sojournment there. People of prudence, and the Scots are not esteemed deficient in this quality, do not cordially unfold themselves to mere strangers, who are not introduced to them by particular recommendation, whose real errands they cannot know, and in whom experience may juftify a caution, that the transient stay of a traveller cannot diffipate. Under such circumstances, the persons to whom a stranger could gain access, might have hoydens' in their families, with whom it may be injurious to class the well-bred ladies in Edinburgh, whom it is probable he does not know *. Nevertheless, it must be confeffed that in all places of little resort, pride is an epidemical disorder of the mind; a limited intercourse with mankind, fuffers ill notions to breed, like weeds in a neglected spot, and allows us to form ridiculous estimates of personal advantages or qualities; for which malady a more extensive communication with the world is the best cure. That pride thrives in, and choaks up, narrow minds, is evident from its being most rank in the most retired situations, and from men who are most conversant with their fellow creatures having generally the least of it. Grass will not grow in a frequented path; and pride is too often trod on, to thrive in large commercial cities.

The haste and brevity of the Author before us, has perhaps unwarily made us prolix in remarking his deficiencies; he travelled for private pleasure, and reaped it, but has not imparted enough of it for the public to participate with him. One observation, however, in his preface is too well founded to be overlooked :

• Among the many reflections that must rise in the minds of those who attend to the present state of Great Britain, there is one which cannot fail to excite regret. The character of the ancient Dobleman, living in fplendour and hospitality among his country valfals and his neighbours, nay even that of the country gentleman, is almost extinguished. To see so many noble mansions adorned with painting and with sculpture, and placed amidit fach glorious scenery; endeared 100 to the owners by the recoilection of their having been the abode of their ancestors : to see fuch places as these deserted; to see one poor solitary figure, who serves to make the

* Does not our Author recollect the resentment a late traveller drew on himself in Ireland, and the expedient which the Irish are said to have used to express it?



folitariness of the house more apparent, open those doors, and display those rooms, which are calculated for all the purposes of couptry enjoyment; for dispensing the society of their poflefTors amongst those by whom it will be most valued, and their wealth amongst those by the sweat of whose brow it is obtained : to know that they are inhabited but a month or two in the year, if at all; to recollect that they are relinquished for the unspacious abodes of London, or the close apartments of those public places, which are now made summer retreats, amid the smoke of trade, or the effluvia of fickness: to fee, to know, and perceive the effects of these things must žive much pain, much melancholy to those who feel, and who think.'

This is indeed a melancholy evidence of that general turn for dilipation that has infected all ranks of the people, and which, too probably, will soon debale our national character, and depreciate our national confequence! But what care the frivolous crowd? The few who feel, and who think,' are too few to check their career, and their remonftrances are converted to sport.

ART. XVIII. The Families of Plants, with their natural Characters,

according to the Number, Figure, Situation, and Proportion of all the Parts of Fructification. Translated from the last Edition (as published by Dr. Reichard) of the Genera Plantarum, and of the Alantila Plantarum of the Elder Linneus; and from the Supplementim Plantarum of the Younger Linneus, with all the new Families of Plants, from Thunberg and L’Heritier. To which is prefixed an accented Catalogue of the Names of Plants, with the Adjectives applied to them, and other Botanic Tern:s, for the Purpose of teaching their right Pronunciation. By a Botanical Society at Lichtield. Svo. 2 Vols. 16s. Boards.

16s. Boards. Johnson. 1787 HE title-page fufficiently expresses the contents of these

volumes. But there is one advantage to be derived from this translation, even to profeffed botanifts, viz. through the information of Mr. DRYANDER, many errors, which had obtained in former publications, are pointed out and corrected.

It may be proper to add, that the translators have given a very ingenious preface, explanatory of the principles on which they have conducied their work.

To those who joined in applauding the former publication (the Siflema Vegetabilium) by the Liconeid Society, this work mult cume p.cunarly acceptable; and to those who know noining of chat work, we must recommend this, as an excellent and very neceflary aliitant to the study of Engliih botany : for is as capable of conveying an adequate idea to the English student, as Linne's Latin is to the scholar.

.. For not only the exact punctuation is observed in the printing, with all the capital and Italic letters (which are nicely attended to in


the original, for the purpose of falling readily under the eye of the botanist, who is studying a recent plant), but the very arrangement of the words of Linneus, the method he so much valued, are all exactly copied in the translation, and hence the conciseness, the perfpicuity, and the spirit of our Author live, we hope, undiminished by the change of language.' Pref. p. 4.

Having in our Review of their former work * given a specimen of the style which the Lichfield Society have adopted in their translation, it will be needless to repeat it here. Suffice it to say, that the same uniformity of botanical language, and con. ciseness of expreffion, is preserved in this work.

The Reader will se collect that in our above-mentioned ac.count, we had occalion to animadvert on the accented catalogue. We have the pleasure of announcing that our objections to several words have been attended to, and that this part of the work merits the attention of all ranks of botaniss. The Society feem to have taken great pains in constructing this arcented catalogue, and to have judged wisely in recurring, in conformity with their former plan, to the opinions of the learned

• It remains only that we here return our best thanks for their kind assistance in the accentuation of the following catalogue of botanic words, to the Rev. WILLIAM PICKERING of Mackworth near Derby; to the Rev. Dr. GOODENOUGH of Ealing in Middlesex ; and to JOHN SNEYD, Esq. of Belmont in Staffordshire. And for many valuable communications, to the Rev. T. MARTYN, Profeffor of Botany, at Cambridge; to DR. BLAGDEN, secretary to the Royal Society; to Jon. DR YANDER, Esq. and many others of the learned and ingenious.' Preface, p. 20.

There are iwo particulars in ihe Translators' preface which deserve some notice, viz. what they have advanced respecting the use of English Generic names, and the mode of accentuation which they have adopted.

As to the first, we cannot but approve of the principle on which the Society have guided themselves in the adoprion of English Generic names, viz. that of introducing an universal botanic language.' Influenced by this idea, the Society have introduced them very sparingly, and then only when real propriery countenanced the introduction of them. Certainly it were to be wished, that the Linnéan names were in familiar use. However, as it may be considered, that the English ftudent, while he has an English trivial name, may wish for an Englia Generic one, and in a work of this kind has some right to be indulged, we think that the Society go out of their way in falling so foully on Dr. Withering for his general use of them in his

* See Review, vol. Ixxii. p. 401. and lxxiii. p. 1.



Botanical Arrangements * The Doctor certainly has the argu. ment from uniformity on his fide, and we should be inclined to take up the cudgels for a moment in his behall, were he not so unmercitul himself, on the alleged defe&t of brother authors. Since, therefore, he shews such a spirit of sparring, and seems lo capable, we fhail leave him to fight his own batiles.

As to the ode of accentuation, we see no reason (notwithftanding our idea is styled conjetural or capricious") to alter the opinion which we formerly gave on the necessity of some discriminating marks for the open and closed syllables. By these marks only can the true accent be expressed, and the very words produced by the Society acris and acrid, ara-bila and arabica, prove our allertion. How shall the unlearned be able to give the proper accent, unless they be pointed in a proper manner? We fear that those who most want to have their pronunciation regu• Jated, will ftill labour under great difficulties. In our English Dictionaries much difficulty is experienced, owing to the adoption of only one mark of accent. What is more common than to hear ignorant people lay the firefs, tnu svépzetav, upon the righe syllable, but give the wrong tone, tãs quins tárov.

The dispute is not whether we restore the pronunciation of the ancients; that we know is irrecoverably loft,-but the point is, how to secure the present beít mode of classical pronunciation. As to the idea of the Geek accent teaching the quantity of pronunciation, that certainly is altogether conjectural or capricious,' and has been long since exploded by the learned Foster, in his Treatise on the Greek accent. The accent is there shewn to be a mere musical note,

We cannot but with that the Society had attempted somerhing of the kind, as we are well persuaded that whenever the attempt is made, the advantage must be at once felt by all.

Some few errors are still observable in the accenied part, but. as they bear the appearance of typographical rather than literary errors, it would seem faftidious in us to dwell on them.

* In the short account of this work, in our last Numb. p. 461, a material part of the title was inadvertently omitted : after by W. Withering, M. D'add, including a new set of references to figures, By Jonashan Stokes, M. D. Physician at Kidderminster, &c.'

The first paragraph likewise of the arricle should run thus; we fuppole that very confiderable additions will be made to the class of Crypiogamia, the introduction to boiany, the glofjary of terms, &c. These arbucles being all that remain to make up the promised third volume.


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