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For DECEMBER, 1788.

L AW. Art. 19. Some Hints towards a Revifal of the Penal Laws, the

better regulating the Police, and the Neceflity of enforcing the Execution of Justice: and the evil Consequences to Society from a false mistaken Lenity, which has fo much prevailed of late. In a Letter to a Member of Parliament. By a Magistrate. 8vo. is. Debrett. 1787.

THIS Writer is an advocate for the more vigorous execution of

dom, equity, and justice, were they well and faithfully administered: and he imputes the daily increase of felons to a false tenderness and compassion, which operate to screen them from prosecution, or when convieted, from punishment. He subjoins some strong animadverfions on the state of the police in Middlesex, which, however, he proteils, are not meant to extend to the magistrates for that county in general.

To these bints, a fhort supplement is added, in which are pointed out some defects in the penal ttatutes that seem to require revision and correction. If the Author be in truth what he describes him. self, a magistrate, we cannot help being a little surprised at the fol. lowing affertion : In respe&t of the crime of bigamy (which is the offence of marrying a second wife or husband in the lifetime of the first), the law is moft shamefully defective; it was originally made felony without benefit of clergy, which should never have been reversed; but in the licentious reign of Edward VI, they were allowed the benefit of clergy. The fact is, that this offence was not made felony till the beginning of James the First's reign, and before that time was merely the subject of ecclefiaftical censure. We wish too he had given us his authorities for the story concerning one of the Kings of France, said to be related by Solon the Athenian lawgiver.

IRELAND Art. 20. A brief Review of the Question, Whether the Articles of

Limerick have been violated? By Arthur Browne, Esq. Representative in Parliament for the University of Dublin. 8vo. Pamph. Dublin, printed for Mackenzie. 1788.

Great stress having been laid by the Roman Catholics of Ireland on the privileges secured to them by the articles of Limerick (of which they charge the penal laws they have fince lived under to have been violations), the Author of this well-written tract enters into an examination of those articles; the result is, that, excepting the first, all those which grant any benefit to Roman Catholics, are limited to perfons shen living, or to certain portions of that body, described in mne fecond and third articles, and io their heirs, by whom alone such benefits are claimable: and chat the general boon contained in these articles, is a covenant expressed in the first of them, that the Roman


Catholics of Ireland should enjoy such privileges in the exercise of their religion, as were consistent with the laws existing in the reigo of Charles II.

It remains, then, to consider what privileges they enjoyed in that reign, and the laws then appear to have been sufficiently severe against the Catholic religion, founded on the act of uniformity undes Queen Elizabeth. Moreover, if these articles contained privileges as extensive as the Catholics with to represent them, they were not ratified by parliament, so as to enable Catholics of the present day to claim any privileges under them. If these points are deemed to be satisfactorily establithed, the claims of the Irish Catholics are effcctually superseded; and here we drop the subject; observing only, that the copy transmitted to us was imperfect.

BIOGRAPHY.' Art. 21. A Sketch of tbe Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough,

Esq. By Philip Thickneffe. 8vo. is. 6. Fores. 1788. Capt. Thicknesse has here given us, in his erratic manner, some curious and pleasing anecdotes of Mr. Gainsborough-his family connections--his excellent performances, &c. &c. all of which will ferve as useful materials for the biographer who shall undertake a more elaborate life of that eminent artist. The present writer appears to have been most intimately acquainted with him, and, indeed, to have been chiefly instrumental, from an early discernment of his rare talents, in drawing him from his original obscurity, and introducing him to the notice and patronage of the Public ; so that, according to this account, the friendship of Mr. T. may be consis dered as the foundation of Mr. G.'s success; the superstructure of which could only be completed by his own genius.--Mr. T.'s peculiar, easy, style of writing is too well known to require particular animadversion : perhaps, if he were more accurate, he would be less lively, and consequently less entertaining,

EDUCATION. Art. 22. Letters from a Parent to her Children, written to them un,

der Tuition at School, by Mrs. Arabella Davies, late Wife of the Rev. Edward Davies.

2 s. 6d. rewed. Buckland, &c.

I 2mo.



These Letters appear to have been the genuine effusions of piety and maternal affection. They corn chiefly on religious subjects, and are written on Calvinistical principles. They will doubtlets be acceptable and useful among those, who ftill retain the opinions and taite of the Nonconformists of the last century.

ASTRONOMY. Art. 23. , Plain, Eoly, and Familiar Guide to the Knowledge of

Astronomy, including 10 much of the Laws of Matter and Motion as is necessary to explain the Solar System, &c. By John Preston, late an Asistant at Mr. Naudin's Academy, Hackney. Small I 2mo. is. 6d. bound. Bew. 1788.

An epitome of the folar fyftem (including the planet lately dis. covered by Dr. Herschell), which, considering its fize, contaios much that will benefit the young student in this sublime branch of science.

much abilities,

SLAVE TRADE. Art. 24. Observations on the Treatment of the Negroes in Jamaica.

Including some Account of their Temper and Character, with Re. marks on the Importation of Slaves from Africa. By Hector M'Neill. 8vo. Is. Robinsons. 1788.

Mr. M`Neill afferts, from personal investigation, knowlege, and experience, the very tolerable Gtuation, in general, of the black Naves in Jamaica, and he supposes it to be nearly the same throughout the West Indies. On the whole, he concludes, with other writers, that their state is much preferable to that of the labouring poor, and sea-faring men, even in England: except in the mere circumstance of political and legal freedom, of which the Negroes never had the smallest idea. He gives a very particular, diftin&, and (to us) a satisfactory account of the temper and manners of the different nations or tribes of Blacks * usually imported from the coast of Africa, as well as of the mixed breeds- Mulattos, Sambos, &c. He also de. scribes not only the treatment they actually do meet with, but the manner in which they ought to be treated, in order to render their state of bondage not only comfortable to themselves, but justly bene. ficial to their masters. His remarks on the impolicy (as he judges it] of the scheme for abolishing Negroe-llavery, are such as prove him to be a judicious and penetrating observer. In a word, his pamphlet, in our opinion, merits the serious confideration of all who are either approvers or opposers of the several benevolent plans and projects which have lately been suggested to the Public, relative to the very important, and much agitated subject of Negroe-slavery, the common rights of human nature, and the great cause of universal liberty, as it is or may be affected, in every quarter of the habitable globe:

NAVAL Art. 25. A Short Account of the Naval Astions of the last War; in

order to prove that the French Nacion never gave such slender Proofs of Maritime Greatness as during that Period: With Obfervations on the Discipline, and Hints for the Improvement of the British Navy. By an Officer.

8vo. 2 s. 6d. Murray. This officer has taken up the pen, • in order to dispel a notion,' which, he thinks, has prevailed, extremely prejudicial to the honour of this country, that the French have not only equalled, but fura passed us, as a maritime nation, whether in manæuvering, sailing, or fighting a fleet.' This idea, he apprehends, has been * zealously propagated by our industrious natural enemies, who well know that if such an opinion were once generally embraced, it would produce the very effects they wish to flow from it.' Permit,' says he, the French'to have the REPUTATION of superior genius, courage, and


* The favage and ferocious Coromantee, the milder but baser Eboe, and the more harmless Mundingo ;-the Creole, &c. &c.

abilities, and you immediately damp the spirits of our officers and seamen ; who, in that case, would not plough the ocean, as they have done, in quest of the enemy, with elated courage, and in confidence of victory.' To sew the falsehood of this notion, our Author proves, from facts, that at no æra, whatever, had the French fo little prowess, or success, to boast of. In order to evince this truth, he has takon a fair and well-authenticated review of all our naval transactions, in which the French had any concern, during the course of the late war; and in which the superiority of the British marine was manifested, beyond all doubt. The particulars, though not new, have the merit of being accurately related ; and they cannot fail of proving highly entertaining, as well as interesting, to the English reader, who is zealous for the honour and prosperity of his country: and the observations which the Author has interspersed, and added, thew him to be a man of judgment and (as we imagine] of experience in his profession.

POLITICAL. Art. 26. County Management. With an Argument in favour of

Pocket Sheriffs, &c. &c. 4to. 25. 6d. Blamire. 1788. In this satirical piece we have a mingled display of learning, humour, hiftory, law, and politics. The work appears to have originated in the writer's disapprobation of the conduct of certain great people in the north of England, with respect to the nomination of sheriffs, the choice of juries, &c. The performance is dedicated to the Earl of Lonsdale, with a severity of compliment for which the ironical author, if known, could expect no other reward than that which Cherilus the poet is said to have received from Alexander the Great; though the case, with respect to the two writers, was widely different, as the luckless panegyrist of “ Philip's warlike Son” really meant to praise the conqueror of the world. Art. 27. A Collection of scarce and interesting Traas, written by Per

fons of Eminence, on the most important political and commercial Subjects, during the Years 1763, 1764, 1765, 1766, 1967, 1768, 1769, and 1770. 8vo. 4 Vols.' il. 45. Boards. Debrett. 1788.

Mr. Debrett has here given to the Public a valuable collection of Tracts, most of which, if not all of them, are now become very scarce.

From the great importance of the principal events to which many of these Tracts relate, the contents of these volumes muft, for ages to come, prove highly interesting to the lovers of political and hiftorical subjects * There is also another confideration, which must, at all times, render a collection like this acceptable in every country where legal government and freedom of investigation prevail, and which is well expressed in the motto borrowed from Lord Somers, and prefixed to these volumes, viz. “ The bent and genius of the age ó is best known in a free country, by the pamphlets which daily

* Particularly that great revolution in human affairs, the emancipation of North America from the power of Great Britain.

« come

" come out, as containing the sense of parties, and sometimes the « voice of the nation." Art. 28. Epitre aux Anglois dans les tristes Circonstances presentes.

Novembre 1788. 8vo. 15. Elmsley. A serious and animated exhortation to the people of England, touching their manifold fins and wickednesses. The author is of opinion, that the malady with which our most gracious Sovereign is stricken, is a mark of the vengeance of Heaven for the offences of his subjects (such is the author's notion of Divine justice), who are to be punished more severely in themselves, unless they inttantly turn from the path of error, bending before che chrone of the Almighty, with true and contrite hearts.

The whole is a rhapsodical invective, written with the same kind of enthusiasm, but in a style far fuperior, with that which is frequently found in the discourses of our fanatical declaimers : and, like many of those discourses, containing, amid a good deal of religious extravagance, some harsh but not unseasonable truths.--The pamphlet closes with a high strained panegyric on the Prince of Wales. Art. 29. Observations on the political Life of Mr. Pitt. 8vo.

Ridgway. Not a finished portrait, but a hafty sketch, a little inclining to caricature. Neither accuracy nor fidelity will be expected from political or party painters. This artist

, however, though not an unkilful hand, must not, from this specimen, look for much employment among the friends of the Minister. Art. 30. A serious Address to the Queen, Prince of Wales, and the

Public at large, relative to his Majesty's unhappy Situation. By the Rev. Theodore Jackson, A. M. 4to. Riebau, in Butcherrow, Temple-Bar.

Mr. Jackson pathetically displays and laments our alarming prospect, in confequence of the present dreadful interruption of his Majesty's health. After enlarging, with becoming concern, on the critical nature of our present situation, and the dangers to be apprehended from it, he proceeds to observe, that Government poflefling no conftitutional provision against an emergency of fo extraordinary and deplorable a kind, there is a neceffity that a' regency should take place in the person of the P. of Wales. He trusts, however, that when invested with every regal prerogative (the Crown only excepted) the Prince will be careful to make no change in administration. He allows the full merit of those distinguished characters with whom his R. H. has been known to associate ; he does full justice to the merits of Messrs. Fox, Sheridan, and Burke, with a proper discrimination of their abilities ; but he observes, on the other hand, that Mr. Pite is not only a consummate statesman, but thac he hath been a successful minister, and is now in the zenith of his popolarity: from all which considerations, he concludes, that to displace lo excellent a servant of the public, would be most impolitic, and poffibly, in the event, prove fatal to the peace and happiness of the kingdom.



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