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value is received of another : and as the cashiers are without any knowledge of the payee, or of his hand-writing; fo, if a shopkeeper happens to have received in payment one of those bills, the payment may be refused, with the expression of a doubt as to the indorsement of the payee: and the bolder of the bill suffers the loss, because of the impoflibility of his proving that which the law requires he should prove, before payment can be recovered. Apply this principle only to the Bank of England poft-bills; require the holders to prove the first indorsement, and not one half of the number now in circulation could be legally recovered.'
THEOLOGY. Art. 57. A true Estimate of the Light of Inspiration, and the Light of
Human Learning, before and fince the Apostolic Age : submitted to the Candidates for Holy Orders, &c. 410. is. 6d. Faul. der. 1788.
A zealous advocate for the doctrine of ordinary as well as extraordinary inspiration, here expresses much dissatisfaction, on account of the consequence given to human learning in Bp. Horsley's late discourse on that subject. Human learning (according to this wri. ter) not being the inspiration of the Almighty, can never give any man the right understanding of the things. of God and religion : minifters ought to take their learning from the bible, and not bring their learning to it, or make use of the Ignis Fatuus of earthly science to illuminate that which is from heaven: and it is absurd, and almost impious, to suppose that the light of human learning or philosophy is necessary for the right understanding, or clear communication, of christian do&trine.
The intelligent reader will easily perceive, to what school this writer belongs, and for what order of teachers his work is intended as an apology. Art. 58. Charalleristics of Public Spirit and National Virtue: Oc
cafioned by the honourable Uniun of Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry, in Support of a late Royal Proclamation. 4to. Is. 6d. Faulder. 1788.
A piece from the fame school, and probably from the same pen, with the preceding article. The first object of the writer's zealous wishes, without which he expects little public benefit from the Royal Proclamation against prophaneness and immorality, is, the univerfal reception of the fundamental doctrine of the gospel, juftification by faiih in Chrift. Art. 59. Three Letters to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, on
the Prayer for his Majesty's Recovery. Containing a Comparison between it and that of the Jews, some Thoughts on Sunday Schools, on the bad Provision for the Inferior Clergy, and several Anecdotes of former Archbishops. By a Prelbyter of the Church of England. 8vo. 6d. Stalker, &c. 1788.
This presbyter of the church is extremely dissatisfied with the prescribed form of prayer for the King's recovery. He styles it a wretched composition of dulness and inconsistency, inelegance and abfurd
ity; and he pities his brethren, for the disatisfaction and indignation which they must feel, as he did, on being obliged to read it. But his charge against this production is not merely that it is languid, inanimate, and ungrammatical; he arraigns it also, for its want of orthodoxy: grounding this onjection on the clause which prays for the removal of that vifitation, with which, for the punishment of our transgressions, it has pleased God to :ifflict the King. The writer is very severe in his anima versions on this part of the composition; and (without interposing our sentiments on this subject) we must observe, that he is not fingular in his disapprobation of this clause ; for in whatever companies we have heard it mentioned (and our circle in fociety is not the smalleft that may be conceived), ihat hath happened to it, which befel the first Christians ;- it hath been 'every where spoken against.'
The angry author of these letters has contrafted our church-prayer with that which was composed by the Jewish high-priest, on the fame occasion, and delivered, with great fervour, at the synagogues. He has printed both in opposite columns; and in deciding the preference, he warmly pronounces in favour of the latter.
In his third letter, the Author remarks on some abuses, respecting the provision for the inferior clergy; but for his thoughts on this topic, and on Sunday schools, we refer to the pamphlet : concerning which, in general, we have only further to remark, that if it had been written in a more liberal style, it would have been more entitled to our approbation, Art. 60. Plain Sermons on Practical Subje&ts, adapted to different
Characters. By the late Thomas Gordon, Miniiter of the Gor. pel at Speymouth, near Elgin. 2 Vols. 8vo. Boards. Cadell,
The above title gives a just account of these sermons: they are plain and practical : they new that the Author had natural good sense, improved by learning and observation : and they manifelt an unaffected piety, and earnest desire to serve the interests of vistue and true religion. His religious opinions are said to have been those of the church of Scotland. The style, though unornamented and rather diffuse, is yet, on the whole, manly and agreeable, though sometimes, indeed, introducing phrases not wholly suited to printed difcourses; in respect to which we insert the following lines from the Editor's preface : Having studied not only she characters of his people, but also their ways of thinking and speaking, he was happy in the talent of adapting himself to their capacities and touching their consciences. And his solicitude to do so will perhaps account for some peculiarities of expression in this work, which as they occur not in his other writings, it may be presumed he would not have used in his sermons, if he had not by experience found that they were profitable to his hearers, either by engaging their attention, or aslifting their memory, or perhaps by facilita ing their comprehenfion of his doctrine. To the common people, who in most congregations are the majority, and who have the greatest need of initruction, a pious and judicious clergyman will be particularly careful to adapt his exhortations.' The reader will now be able to form
fome judgment of these volumes, which are profefledly defigned for those of the middling class, who think not of elegance, or deprh of sentiment, or correctness of composition, but are fatisfied if they 4aderstand and are edified. Art. 61. Sacred History, selected from the Scriptures, &c. Second Edition. By Mrs. 'I'rimmer.
6 Vols. 11. 19. Boards. Lovgman, &c. 1788.
For our' opinion of the first edition of this valuable work, see Rev. vol. Ixvii. et fiq. This second, and much improved, edition, with respect to some of the volumes, being almoit a new work, we shall Jay before our readers the Author's account of it, in her own words: • The flatiering attention which was bestowed on my labours, by persons of maturer age, as the volumes were succeitively produced, encouraged me to expatiate more largely on the doctrinal parts of the New Testament, than a: first lintended to do, when I had a view to the improvement of young persons only; and having had the plealure to find that the two last volumes were honoured with particular approbation, I thought it advisable, in this new edition, to have the Old Testament printed in a type something smaller than before; that I might have room for additional matter, without increafing the number of volumes. Conscious that there was not in the firit edition an uniformity of style throughout the six volumes, I have here endeavoured to correct that defect by writing new annotations to the greater part of the first volume; the fourth also will be found considerably altered and enlarged. I hope this work is now free from material errors and omillions; for I have pursued the arduous pleafing tafs, with the most fervent defire of doing all por fible jupice to the important subject; and I prefent it to the public, in a full assurance that it will meet with the same kind indulgence as my former productions.
Having carefully compared the two editions, we must do Mrs. Trimmer the justice to acknowlege that the appears to have spared no troable to render this publication peculiarly deserving of the public attention. Art. 62. Four selca? Evangelical Discourses of Mr. George Nicholson,
8vo. Parsons. 1788. From the above title we must conclude that Mr. George Nicholson is well known in the world; though we do not particularly recollect him. The great end proposed by all perfons who are fincere in performances of this kind, is, to advance the interest and prevalence of virtue, and true religion. They may pursue this purpose by some different means; but all the variety of means and notions are infignificant, and useless, unless they tend to this ; and this is the object to which the present discourses are practically directed. Though not of a Calvinisiis, they are yet of a methodistic caft; but avowedly opposed to the docirines of unconditional election and predestination. The Byle is declamatory; and though not incorrect, is more suited to extempore effufions than a well-ftudied discourse; the Author frequen ly introducing such fingular words as fupernal, immarceffible, and effectuation; which have rather an affected appearance.
SERMONS, &c. in Commemoration of the REVOLUTION,
in 1638. 1. Preached at the Old Jewry, Nov. 4, 1788, before the Society for
commemoracing the glorious Revolution ; being the Completion of an Hundred Years since that great Event.. by Andrew Kippis, D.D. F. R. S. and S. A. 8vo. Is. Robinsons. Dr. Kippis has very properly remarked, that
• It is the natural effect of a long course of time, to weaken, and almoit to obliterate, the impressions which remarkable transactions, and providential interpositions, at first make upon us, and which it is desirable to be for ever retained. To preserve, therefore, the continuance of these impressions, to renew, to strengthen, to confirm them, it is the dictate of wisdom and virtue to lay hold of the seasons and circumstances which are favourable to purposes so faluiary and useful! Such an opportunity is presented to us this day.'
The Revolution, he observes, was a most happy event to Great Britain ; ut, As it delivered us from the two greatest calamities un, der which any nation can groan--popery and tyranny: 2dly, is this deliverance was effected without the risk or laughter of a single barıle in England : in Scotland, by one small engagement; and in Ireland, though the subsequent commotions had, at tirit, an alarmn. ing and dangerous alpect, yet they were foon concluded with victory and honour. 3dly, The Revolution will appear to have been a most important event, if we consider that it fixed the privileges of the Subject, and the free form of the constitution, on a more firm and extensive foundation than they had ever stood upon before. Here the Doctor has expressed himself in terms fo agreeable to our sentiments, that we fall gratify ourselves, and, we trust, our readers too, with his enlargement under this head. Hie proceeds :
• Some ingenious men have asserted that, in preceding ages, the frame of our government was entirely arbitrary; that we had no pretensions to liberty, till a litrle before the period of the civil wars; and that the settlement in 1688 was not solely the eltablishment and augmentation, but the proper ara and commencement, of Englith freedom. This is seemingly a high compliment to the Revolution. But I accept not of a compliment which is delivered at the expence of truth, and which, perhaps, has rather proceeded from a delire to exculpate the Stuarts than from affection to the memory of William III. *After having read the history of my country with attention, and, I trust, without much prejudice, I cannot but agree with those writers who have maintained, that our government, though imperfect, though in some respects indigested, and not accurately and foliy defined, was, nevertheless, in its effential constitution, originally free.'
The Doctor successfully attempts to prove this position by indisputable facts.-Other inestimable advantages arole from the Revolution ; particularly, the more certain fecurity of our properties and persons. It was likewise highly favourable to our religious as well as our civil government; for, at that period, Dr. Kippis observes, it was enacted, That no one who is a Papist, or who marries a Papift, Jhall inberit the croin. Then also, toleration firit received a legal
fanction' ; and an end was put to the restraints, fines, imprisonments, and cruelties, which, for a series of years, had been infiated on the Protestant Diflenters. And it is no small honour, he adds, to the reign of George III. that it hath placed the toleration of the Proteftant Disfenters on a foundation far more enlarged than that on which it formerly subsisted ; and that it hath relaxed the severity of the ftatutes against the Papists.- The Doctor enumerates many other advantages resulting from this glorious Revolution; among the princi. pal of which stands the Ad of Settlement, which, says he, hath bestowed Princes upon us of amiable and worthy characters ; under whom there hath been a succession of every blessing which can render kuman fociety and human life defirable.'
In the practical improvement of this pleasing subject, the worthy preacher dismisses his audience with the following animated peroration :
• Permit me to urge it on parents, guardians, or tutors, to furnih the minds of the young persons who are under their direction and infuence, with proper Sentiments of things. To inspire their breafts with an early regard for the Protestant religion, the rights of conscience, and the lacred interests of political and civil liberty. Set in order before them the numerous interpofitions of Providence in our favour. Warm them with a veneration for the memory of King William III. with an attachment to the Hanover fucceffion, and with affection to the mild Princes of the Brunswic line. In short, let it be the object of your fervent folicitude, that the cause of liberal enquiry, of universal toleration, and of public and private freedom, may live and Aourish, when yourselves are laid in the filent grave. This is a duty which is demanded of us by the regard we have to our own honour, the happiness of our children, the welfare of pofterity, and the prosperity and glory of our country. Yes, our country calls upon us never to forget fo indispensable an obligation. “ The God “ of nature,” she says," hath separated me from the world, hath girt • me with the sea, and hath held me out a great example of his
goodness; he hath bestowed upon me natural advantages of the
highest importance. He hath given me the noblest model of go“ vernment; bas rescued it from repeated perils; and, from age to “ age, has added to its improvement. At length, he has appeared “ for me in a Revolution which is unparalleled in its manner and its “ effects: he hath made me the seat of genius, of science, of leara. “ing, of commerce, of law, of liberty, of religion ; and will you, “ my fons, suffer such inestimable benefits to be wreited from you? “Will you not piously transmit them to your descendants Our anfwer is, “ We will never suffer such inestimable benefits to be “ wrested from us ; we will piously transmit them to our descendants. “ British liberty, by the blesling of the Supreme Ruler upon our en“ deavours, shall be coeval with the globe, and only cease at its 's final diffolution." Amen.' JI. Preached at the Scots Church, London Wall, Nov. 4, 1788, in
Commemoration of the glorious Revolution in 1688. By Henry Huntes, D. D. 8vo. Is. Murray.
A very sensible and animated discourse. The sentiments which it breathes are just, and the language is elegant; though fome may, 13