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of their toes, and the presence of wings. The Author refutes, with much pleasantry, the fabulous accounts of the basilisk's darting death on its beholders;--of flying dragons (hooting from cloud to cloud with the quickness of lightning, silencing thunder with the clapping of their wings, diffipating the obscurity of the darkeft night with the blaze of their fiery eyes ;--of salamanders bred and living in the fire; with many idle stories invented in the fabulous ages of romance; of monsters whose conqueft ferved to heighten the valour of the hero, and whose terrible appearances were scarecrows to the delicate heroines; or of diabolical forms fuggefted by the fraudulent designs of the supporters of a crafty religion.

The genus Grenouilles contains twelve, and that of Raines seven species; the toads, which are the last genus, amount to fourteen.

The bipeds are the Cannelé and the Sheltopusik. The last has been described by M. Pallas in the Petersburgh Transactions. The Cannelé is an animal lately discovered in Mexico by M. VELASQUES, and brought into France by the Viscounters de FONTANGES; the whole length is 8{ inches, and its diameter the third of an inch; the abdominal semi-rings are 150, and the tail-rings 31; the thickness of the whole body is nearly equal; the legs, one third of an inch long, are close to the neck, and the feet have each four toes furniched with nails. The Cannelé seems to have a near resemblance to the Amphisbæna of LINNE', and perhaps, when it is better known, it may be found to belong to that genus, though, at the same time, the legs justify the genus as established by the Count de la ÇEPEDE,

Such are the contents of the first volume of this curious work, describing 113 fpecies of animals, of which about 20 have either been not at all, or imperfectly, specified by preceding authors. The Count seems to have had the fimplification of the science chiefly in view ; and he has always endeavoured to di. minish, rather than increase the number of the species, which, especially in this class of animals, have been arbitrarily admitted, in consequence of those marks being adopted for specific differences, which are in reality only the effects of climate, age, sex, food, or the disease of the animals ; hence he has in. cluded under one species, several varieties, that have, by other writers, been deemed diftin&t species. He has been particularly attentive to, and diligent in the selection of, synonyms, not only those of systematic authors, but those of travellers; and where it has been poffible to have attained it, he hath always given the vernacular name. In the specific descriptions, he has paid particular attention to the economy of the animal, entering minutely into an account of its manner of living, its food, its sean Sons for breeding, the number of its offspring, and how that



offspring is reared; he hath also pointed out the uses which the TYRANT of animated nature makes of these animals, either for dietetical, medicinal, or economical purposes.

In brief, the work appears to be the result of mature judgement, formed from observing nature independently of opinions or theories that have too often influenced natural historians; and its language, though perhaps not altogether conformable to the rules of the Linnéan school, and sometimes too metaphorical and flowery to be consistent with scientific gravity, is, on ihe whole, not only eloquent but perspicuous. A nervous and elegant style is, indeed, as we have observed in the preceding works of the Count DE LA CEPEDE, the general characteriftic of his writings. Having before figured in the higher walks of fcierce, his present undertaking is a proof of his condescenfion, as well as of his capacity; and he still makes a respectable appearance among his tortoises, toads, and turtles, his lizards and frogs, &c. His preliminary discourse breaches the true spirir of his predeceslor ; whole phraseology he imitates, particuJarly in personifying the Goddess NATURE, as the universal agent; and this frequently betrays him into an unphilosophical jargon, of which, perhaps, he is not himself aware. - The work, however, has great merit, in the line of NATURAL HISTORY; and will, no doubt, merit farther notice, particularly when the second volume makes it appearance.

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ART. VII. Examen du Livre intitulé, &c. i. e. An Examination of M. de Vol.

NEY's Work, entitled, Considerations on the present War be. tween the Turks and Russians. By M. DE PEYSSONNEL, formerly Consul General at Smyrna, Member of the Academy of Marseilles, &c. &c. 8vo. Amsterdam. 1788. OTH of these writers are advantageously known to tbe

public, both have been in the countries of which they speak, and yet there are scarcely any particulars of importance in which they are agreed. “The Sultan,' says M. DE VOLNEY, • bas great revenues--Yes, about 80 millions of livres, collected with difficulty. How thould he have more? When the provinces of Egypt and Syria pay him but two or three millions, what can be expected from the favage countries of Macedon and Albania, the plundered provinces of Greece, the deserts of Cyprus, &c. ?' M. DE PEYSSONNEL, on the contrary, informs us that the fixed revenue of the state amounts to a much greater fum; and that even that great sum is inconsiderable, compared with the produce of the casualties, which is immense. Beside this, the provinces do not pay the whole of the first revenue into the



exchequer. They retain at home whatever is necessary for building or repairing fortresses, and for other public services; and they are likewise obliged to furnith troops and provifions. According to M. DE VOLney, the contraft between the first twelve sultans who reigned from Olman I. to Soliman II, and their degenerate succesors, amounting to seventeen in number, seems to announce the inevitable destruction of the Turkich monarchy. M. DE PEYSSONNEL finds no other difference between the first twelve sultans and the seventeen who succeeded them, but that which their retpective ficuations introduced. By the victories, and ftill more by the regulations, of Soliman II. the Turkish empire was secured on every side. Neceflity kept his predecessors in a state of perpetual vigilance ; those who came after, experienced the fatal influence of prosperity; they mere lulled to an inglorious repose; but they may still be roused riom their fumber. The present conjuncture seems peculiarly favourable for this purpose. The dangers with which they are threatened, will thew them the necesity of a wise and useful reform; they will seek and discover the means of effe&ting it; and as it is eafier to restore than to create, they will have less trouble in correcting the vices and abuses which threaten to fap the foundation of their power, than the first sultans had to establish it.

The most considerable part of M. De PeyssonNEL's work is employed in examining how far the interests of the other powers of Europe, and particularly those of France, are concerned in the issue of the present war. . To suppose' (says M. DE VOLNEY) 'the existence of the Turkish empire necessary to our safety, and to the balance of power in Europe, is supposing that empire to be what it was in ihe time of Francis l. and Lewis XIV. His antagonist replies, that since the time of Francis I. the Turks have made great acquisitions, having added, at the expence of the Venetians, both the Morea and the Isle of Crete to their territories, That since Lewis XIV. they have suftained ro loss, the Crimea and the Cuban having been occupied by the Russians during peace; thus the Turks had not ceded their poffeffions, but had actually entered on a war in order to recover them. It is the intereft, therefore, of every independent state in Europe, but more especially of such states as take the lead in her affairs, to hinder this immense mass of empire from augmenting the strength, already too formidable, of Austria and Russia. Tne interests of the French commerce in the Levant, in which their nation enjoys many privileges, ought to rouse them particularly to the defence of their ancient and generous ally. Their trade with the Turks amounts to above @xiy millions of livres; and this trade continues to encrease :



nor ought they to sacrifice fuch an advantageous commerce without absolute neceffity.

In the limits prescribed for this article, we cannot follow these disputants through the labyrinth of their reasonings and contradiáions. M. DE VOLNEY thinks the ruin of the Turkith empire certain and near at hand. M. DE PEYSSONNEL judges the same event to be distant and doubtful. The former says, that in two campaigns, the allies will be under the walls of Conftantinople; the latter thinks that two campaigos will probably exhaust the resources of these allies, and oblige them to make peace. The former compares the Ottoman power to an old tree, that, notwithstanding some fresh branches, is rotten at heart, and being only supported by its bark, will be thrown down by the first blaft of the tempeft. The latter compares the same power to a tree exceedingly strong, which might wither under the care of an indolent and ignorant gardener, but which, with proper management, will recover its ftrength and beauty, and raise its proud head over the loftieft trees of the forest,

The events of the war seem as yet rather favourable to M. DE PEYSSONNEL's opinion of the Turks. That nation is naturally brave. They still feel, in its full force, the religious enthusiasm by which their ancestors were animated to great and successful exertions; and when discipline, which they must acquire by experience, and which they will learn at length from their enemies, is added to their native fury, their arms may again become irrefiftible. M. de PEYSSONNEL resided many years in Turkey; and in point of general information respecting the ftate of this empire, appears to have had the advantage of his antagonist. To rallies of fancy, and Aalbes of eloquence, he oppoles solid argument and stubborn facts. What Demofthenes said of Phocion, M. de VOLNEY may say of M. DB PeysSONNEL, ' He is the batchet of my harangues:' TQv spe av og wou KOTIS. Plut, in Phoc. p. 255.

** For our short account of M. DE VOLNEY'S Confiderations on the War with the Turks,' fee Review for July 1788, p. 66.

ART. VIII. Conseils à un jeun Prince, &c. i. e. Advice to a young Prince who

is sensible of the Necessity of repeating his Education: And a Letter sent to FREDERIC WILLIAM IĮ. King of Prullia, on the Day of his Accellion to the Throne. By the Count de MIRABEAU. 1787. The Place where published is not mentioned.

HAT presumption is it in a private man, to suppose

that a monarch of France should ever be sensible of a deficiency in point of education, or that the king of Prussia



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thould need his advice in the adminiftration of his government! Yet we have read these pieces with pleasure, becaule, 'not being the parties advised, we can allow that an abhorrence of oppreffron, a love of truth and social order, and an affectionate regard for the happiness of mankind, which seem to have inspired there pages, will apologize for the freedom of address that characterizes them.

The Advice to a Prince is only a fragment, particularly calculated for the meridian of France; but it is such as every Prince may accept with advantage to him felf.' It relates chiefly to his conduct as a man of the world, the influence of whole manners on the circle that immediately surrounds him, muft form those of his court, and thence extend to the rest of his sube jects. Hence delicacy in the choice, together with propriety and temperance in the pursuit, of his pleasures, a ftria attention to the external decencies of behaviour, affability and dignity of address, and a constant command of his paflions and temper, are particularly recommended. These subjects are certainly not new ; but they are here treated in a lively, pleasing manner, and illustrated with anecdotes taken from the memoirs of former reigns.

The Kings of France, whom the Author recommends as models to bis pupil, are Henry IV. and Lewis XIV.; but the Count has too much judgment to bestow indiscriminate praise ; he exposes their follies and errors, as well as their good qualities; and points out those parts of their character and conduct which ought to be avoided, as well as those which deserve to be imitated. Of Lewis XV. he says little, and seems to hold his cbaracter in no very high eftimation.

Of the infuence of women in forming men for public business, the Count talks like a courtier in the reign of Lewis XIV. and sets too great a value on the graces of external address acquired by an early intercourse with them. These are certainly of excellent use to recommend solid knowlege and useful endowments, but ought not to be substituted in their stead ; and we cannot think a sentimental intrigue with a coquetish politician in petticoats the most eligible way of forming the understanding of a youth of fifteen. However, the Author observes, that the ladies of the last age were very different from those of the present; for, after the accession of Lewis XV. they in a short time lost all pretensions to influence.

The Count's instructions with regard to the advantages to be gained from conversation, are just and liberal. Every man, he observes, has some kind of merit, fome degree of knowlege, and, most probably, some talent, that, if properly employed, might be useful. The grand art of government consists in the discernment of it; in this respect, princes possess a peculiar ad


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