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of their toes, and the prefence of wings. The Author refutes, with much pleasantry, the fabulous accounts of the bafilifk's darting death on its beholders;-of flying dragons (hooting from cloud to cloud with the quickness of lightning, filencing thunder with the clapping of their wings, diffipating the obfcurity of the darkeft night with the blaze of their fiery eyes;-of falamanders bred and living in the fire; with many idle ftories invented in the fabulous ages of romance; of monsters whose conqueft ferved to heighten the valour of the hero, and whose terrible appearances were fcarecrows to the delicate heroines; or of diabolical forms fuggefted by the fraudulent defigns of the fupporters of a crafty religion.

The genus Grenouilles contains twelve, and that of Raines feven fpecies; the toads, which are the laft genus, amount to fourteen.

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The bipeds are the Cannelé and the Sheltopufik. The laft has been defcribed by M. PALLAS in the Petersburgh Tranfactions. The Cannelé is an animal lately difcovered in Mexico by M. VELASQUES, and brought into France by the Viscounters De FONTANGES; the whole length is 8 inches, and its diameter the third of an inch; the abdominal femi-rings are 150, and the tail-rings 31; the thickness of the whole body is nearly equal; the legs, one third of an inch long, are close to the neck, and the feet have each four toes furnished with nails. The Cannelé feems to have a near refemblance to the Amphibana of LINNE', and perhaps, when it is better known, it may be found to belong to that genus, though, at the fame time, the legs juftify the genus as eftablished by the Count DE LA CEPEDE.

Such are the contents of the firft volume of this curious work, defcribing 113 fpecies of animals, of which about 20 have either been not at all, or imperfectly, fpecified by preceding authors. The Count feems to have had the fimplification of the fcience chiefly in view; and he has always endeavoured to diminish, rather than increase the number of the fpecies, which, efpecially in this clafs of animals, have been arbitrarily admitted, in confequence of those marks being adopted for specific differences, which are in reality only the effects of climate, age, fex, food, or the difeafe of the animals; hence he has included under one species, feveral varieties, that have, by other writers, been deemed diftin&t fpecies. He has been particularly attentive to, and diligent in the felection of, fynonyms, not only those of fyftematic authors, but thofe of travellers; and where it has been poffible to have attained it, he hath always given the vernacular name. In the specific defcriptions, he has paid particular attention to the economy of the animal, entering minutely into an account of its manner of living, its food, its fea fons for breeding, the number of its offspring, and how that Rr3 offspring

offspring is reared; he hath also pointed out the uses which the TYRANT of animated nature makes of these animals, either for dietetical, medicinal, or economical purposes.

In brief, the work appears to be the refult of mature judgement, formed from obferving nature independently of opinions or theories that have too often influenced natural hiftorians; and its language, though perhaps not altogether conformable to the rules of the Linnéan fchool, and fometimes too metaphorical and flowery to be confiftent with scientific gravity, is, on the whole, not only eloquent but perfpicuous. A nervous and elegant style is, indeed, as we have obferved in the preceding works of the Count DE LA CEPEDE, the general characteristic of his writings. Having before figured in the higher walks of fcience, his prefent undertaking is a proof of his condefcenfion, as well as of his capacity; and he ftill makes a respectable appearance among his tortoifes, toads, and turtles, his lizards and frogs, &c. His preliminary difcourfe breathes the true fpirit of his predeceffor; whole phrafeology he imitates, particularly in perfonifying the Goddeís NATURE, as the univerfal agent; and this frequently betrays him into an unphilofophical jargon, of which, perhaps, he is not himfelf aware. The work, however, has great merit, in the line of NATURAL HISTORY; and will, no doubt, merit farther notice, particularly when the fecond volume makes it appearance.

ART.

VII.

Examen du Livre intitulé, &c. i. e. An Examination of M. DE VOLNEY's Work, entitled, Confiderations on the present War between the Turks and Ruffians. By M. DE PEYSSONNEL, formerly Conful General at Smyrna, Member of the Academy of Marfeilles, &c. &c. 8vo. Amfterdam. 1788.

BOTH

OOTH of thefe writers are advantageously known to the public, both have been in the countries of which they fpeak, and yet there are scarcely any particulars of importance in which they are agreed. The Sultan,' fays M. DE VOLNEY,

has great revenues-Yes, about 80 millions of livres, collected with difficulty. How thould he have more? When the provinces of Egypt and Syria pay him but two or three millions, what can be expected from the favage countries of Macedon and Albania, the plundered provinces of Greece, the deferts of Cyprus, &c. M. DE PEYSSONNEL, on the contrary, informs us that the fixed revenue of the ftate amounts to a much greater fum; and that even that great fum is inconfiderable, compared with the produce of the cafualties, which is immenfe. Befide this, the provinces do not pay the whole of the firft revenue into the

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exchequer.

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exchequer. They retain at home whatever is neceffary for building or repairing fortreffes, and for other public fervices; and they are likewife obliged to furnish troops and provifions. According to M. DE VOLNEY, the contraft between the firft twelve fultans who reigned from Ofman I. to Soliman II and their degenerate fucceffors, amounting to feventeen in number, feems to announce the inevitable deftruction of the Turkish monarchy. M. DE PEYSSONNEL finds no other difference between the first twelve fultans and the feventeen who fucceeded them, but that which their respective fituations introduced. By the victories, and ftill more by the regulations, of Soliman II. the Turkish empire was fecured on every fide. Neceffity kept his predeceffors in a ftate of perpetual vigilance; those who came after, experienced the fatal influence of prosperity; they were lulled to an inglorious repofe; but they may ftill be roufed rom their flumber. The prefent conjuncture feems peculiarly favourable for this purpose. The dangers with which they are threatened, will fhew them the neceffity of a wife and useful reform; they will feek and difcover the means of effecting it; and as it is easier to restore than to create, they will have lefs trouble in correcting the vices and abufes which threaten to fap the foundation of their power, than the firft fultans had to eftablish it.

The most confiderable part of M. DE PEYSSONNEL's work is employed in examining how far the interefts of the other powers of Europe, and particularly thofe of France, are concerned in the iffue of the prefent war. To fuppofe' (fays M. DE VOLNEY) the exiftence of the Turkish empire neceffary to our fafety, and to the balance of power in Europe, is fuppofing that empire to be what it was in the time of Francis I. and Lewis XIV. His antagonist replies, that fince the time of Francis I. the Turks have made great acquifitions, having added, at the expence of the Venetians, both the Morea and the Ifle of Crete to their territories, That fince Lewis XIV. they have fuftained no lofs, the Crimea and the Cuban having been occupied by the Ruffians during peace; thus the Turks had not ceded their poffeffions, but had actually entered on a war in order to recover them. It is the intereft, therefore, of every independent ftate in Europe, but more especially of fuch states as take the lead in her affairs, to hinder this immenfe mass of empire from augmenting the ftrength, already too formidable, of Auftria and Ruffia. The interests of the French commerce in the Levant, in which their nation enjoys many privileges, ought to rouse them particularly to the defence of their ancient and generous ally. Their trade with the Turks amounts to above fixty millions of livres; and this trade continues to encrease:

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nor

nor ought they to facrifice fuch an advantageous commerce without abfolute neceffity.

In the limits prefcribed for this article, we cannot follow thefe difputants through the labyrinth of their reafonings and contradictions. M. DE VOLNEY thinks the ruin of the Turkish empire certain and near at hand. M. DE PEYSSONNEL judges the fame event to be diftant and doubtful. The former fays, that in two campaigns, the allies will be under the walls of Conftantinople; the latter thinks that two campaigns will probably exhaust the resources of thefe allies, and oblige them to make peace. The former compares the Ottoman power to an old tree, that, notwithstanding fome fresh branches, is rotten at heart, and being only fupported by its bark, will be thrown down by the first blaft of the tempeft. The latter compares the fame power to a tree exceedingly ftrong, which might wither under the care of an indolent and ignorant gardener, but which, with proper management, will recover its ftrength and beauty, and raife its proud head over the loftieft trees of the foreft.

The events of the war feem as yet rather favourable to M. DE PEYSSONNEL's opinion of the Turks: That nation is naturally brave. They ftill feel, in its full force, the religious enthufiafm by which their ancestors were animated to great and fuccessful exertions; and when discipline, which they muft acquire by experience, and which they will learn at length from their enemies, is added to their native fury, their arms may again become irresistible. M. DE PEYSSONNEL refided many years in Turkey; and in point of general information respecting the ftate of this empire, appears to have had the advantage of his antagonist. To fallies of fancy, and flashes of eloquence, he opposes folid argument and ftubborn facts. What Demofthenes faid of Phocion, M. DE VOLNEY may fay of M. DE PEYSSONNEL, He is the batchet of my harangues:' Tov eμwr yw noris. Plut. in Phoc. p. 255.

For our fhort account of M. DE VOLNEY'S "Confiderations on the War with the Turks,' fee Review for July 1788, p. 66.

ART. VIII.

Confeils à un jeun Prince, &c. i. e. Advice to a young Prince who is fenfible of the Neceffity of repeating his Education: And a Letter fent to FREDERIC WILLIAM III. King of Pruffia, on the Day of his Acceffion to the Throne. By the Count DE MIRABEAU. 1787. The Place where published is not mentioned.

HAT prefumption is it in a private man, to fuppofe that a monarch of France fhould ever be fenfible of a 'deficiency in point of education, or that the king of Pruffia

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fhould

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fhould need his advice in the adminiftration of his government! Yet we have read thefe pieces with pleafure, because, not being the parties advised, we can allow that an abhorrence of oppreffron, a love of truth and focial order, and an affectionate regard for the happiness of mankind, which feem to have infpired thefe pages, will apologize for the freedom of addrefs that characterizes them.

The Advice to a Prince is only a fragment, particularly calculated for the meridian of France; but it is fuch as every Prince may accept with advantage to himfelf. It relates chiefly to his conduct as a man of the world, the influence of whofe manners on the circle that immediately furrounds him, muft form those of his court, and thence extend to the rest of his fub-' jects. Hence delicacy in the choice, together with propriety and temperance in the purfuit, of his pleasures, a ftrict attention to the external decencies of behaviour, affability and dignity of addrefs, and a conftant command of his paffions and temper, are particularly recommended. Thefe fubjects are certainly not new; but they are here treated in a lively, pleafing manner, and illuftrated with anecdotes taken from the memoirs of former reigns.

The Kings of France, whom the Author recommends as models to his pupil, are Henry IV. and Lewis XIV.; but the Count has too much judgment to beftow indifcriminate praife; he exposes their follies and errors, as well as their good qualities; and points out thofe parts of their character and conduct which ought to be avoided, as well as thofe which deferve to be imitated. Of Lewis XV. he fays little, and feems to hold his character in no very high eftimation.

Of the influence of women in forming men for public bufinefs, the Count talks like a courtier in the reign of Lewis XIV. and fets too great a value on the graces of external address acquired by an early intercourfe with them. Thefe are certainly of excellent ufe to recommend folid knowlege and useful endowments, but ought not to be fubftituted in their ftead; and we cannot think a fentimental intrigue with a coquetifh politician in petticoats the moft eligible way of forming the underftanding of a youth of fifteen. However, the Author obferves, that the ladies of the laft age were very different from those of the prefent; for, after the acceffion of Lewis XV. they in a fhort time loft all pretenfions to influence.

The Count's inftructions with regard to the advantages to be gained from converfation, are just and liberal. Every man, he obferves, has fome kind of merit, fome degree of knowlege, and, most probably, fome talent, that, if properly employed, might be useful. The grand art of government confifts in the discernment of it: in this refpect, princes poffefs a peculiar ad

vantage,

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