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vantage, as, by asking questions, they oblige the persons intera rogated; by doing this with propriety and judgment, they not only accumulate knowlege, but also acquire popularity.
He juftly advises a prince to discourage the calumniating re. ports which so frequently abound in a court, and to fuíped the integrity of those who are officious in depreciating the characters of others. These are, in general, the means by which the ambitious and designing, who will to monopolize the royal ear, endeavour to prevent the competition of those, whose merit might rival their own pretensions. Lewis XIV. he observes, knew the value of a man who thought candidly of others. He was at dinner in public, when he received the news of the death of Bontemps, his first valet de chambre. Tears Ataried into his eyes, and the manner in which he expressed his regard for the character of an old and faithful servant, reflected honour on his own. “ I have now lost,” said he, “a man, to whom I have listened for these fifty years ; whom I have always believed, and I always had reason to believe; and who, during all that time, never spoke ill of any one.”
The Count DE MIRABEAU complains of the many false reports that have been circulated to his prejudice, and says that, among other things equally groundless, he has been accused of addressing a libel on the immortal Frederic II. to the reigning King of Pruffia. Of other accusations we can take no cognizance, as they come not properly before us: our businels is only with this letter, which he has published in his own vindication, and which, as here printed, does not deserve to be considered in such a light: for, thou he very freely points out the errors of his late Majesty's admiftration, he does jura tice to his great qualities, and addresses the present King with the respect due to his rank, but, at the same time, with the manly freedom of one zealous for the welfare of his fellowcreatures, and conscious of having truth on bis fide. He informs us of a fact, which we relate with pleasure, because it does honour to the heart as well as to the undertanding of his present Majesty, viz. that the King acknowleged the receipt of this letter, and expressed his thanks for it to the author in writing; and that he afterwards condescended to creat bim with distinction in a public affembly. 'I mention this,' says the Count, because the magnanimity of loving truth is more honourable to a Monarch, than that of declaring it can be to a private citizen of the world.' This leads us to bope that the Count's advice may not be entirely rejected; for we will venture to predict, that, in proportion as it is adopted, the subje&s of Prufia will te happy, and that FREDERIC WILLIAM WII, will thus acquire as just a claim to the appellation of GREAT, as even his illuft.ious predeceffor.
After congratulating the King on the favourable circumstances in which he ascends the throne, and on the advantage he enjoys in the countels of his uncle, the Count advises him not to aim at governing too much; but, by leaving to able minifters and mar giftrates the business which properly belongs to their department, to reserve to himself that freedom of mind which is necessary for the direction of those important concerns which require the attention of the Sovereign. The power of the King, he observes, should never be seen to interfere, when the pure poses of civil government can be answered without it.
He then proceeds to enumerate the several abuses of govern ment which ought to be reformed, and the improvements which thould be made : some of these, be acknowleges, require time and mature deliberation, in order to be properly effected ; but others are so obvious, that they ought to take place immediately; by which means bis Majesty will engage the love and confidence of his subjects, and thus facilitate the entire reformation of bis government. 'Under this head, he intreats the King immediately to abolish the flavilh obligation to military service, to put his army on a more liberal footing, by giving better pay, and forming it on a plan something similar to that of the Swiss. He implores him to give all his subjects full liberty of egress; to grant the citizens freedom of purchasing and poffefling lordShips, &c.; to abolish the oppressive prerogatives of hereditary nobility; to establish a gratuitous adminiftration of justice; to assign a higher rank, and better salaries, to the civil magistrates, to treat them with greater respect than his predecessors did; and thus to thew that he confiders himself, not merely as the general of his army, but also as the first magistrate of his people ;--to abolish the office of licenser of books, and grant full liberty of the press, only obliging every printer or bookseller 10 prefix his name to the works he publishes ; to establish the mott unlimited toleration with respect to religious opinions, and to grant the Jews every civil right that other sects enjoy. On this subject the Count bints, that doubrs have been entertained concerning the liberality of the King's intentions, and entreats him to diffipate them by an early compliance with his advice. How far these fufpicions were founded in truth, we presume not to determine, but leave them to the judgment of those who have perused his ediet concerning toleration. He also earnestly recommends the establishment of public workhouses, for the preyention of idlenels, and the encouragement of induftry; the abolition of lotteries, which tend to introduce a spirit of gaming; together with every regulation that can promote the freedom of trade, and the advancement of manufactures, particularly an entire abrogation of the Traite Foraine and the Droit d'Aubaine.
In his review of the internal government of FREDERIC II. the Count very freely censures the indirect taxation, the unreasonable prohibitions, minute regulations, exclufive privileges, and numberless monopolies, which prevailed in his reign; for many of these, however, he accounts from the circumstances of the kingdom, when he mounted the throne, and from that consciousness of his great abilities, which rendered him impatient of opposition, inspired a contempt of mankind, and led him to direct and regulate every thing himself. After pointing out the different circumstances of the present reign, he advises the King to moderate the duties of excise, and other indirect taxes, the deficiency of which may be compensated by a landtax, from which no estate should be exempted ; and to encourage agriculture, by parcelling out his own domains into small farms, in which he might settle cultivators, by advancing what was necessary for stock, and investing them with a property in the land, on their paying a perpetual quit-rent.
of the Batavian Society at Rotterdam, Vol. VIII*. 40. Rot-
HIS volume, the introduction to which comprehends
the transactions of the Society from Auguft 1783, to August 1787, contains three prize differtations. The firft is by Dr. M. VAN MARUM and M. A. Paets VAN TROOSTWYK, in answer to the following queftions, proposed, some years ago, by the Society, viz.
• What is the nature of the several noxious vapours arising from marshy grounds, mud, necessary houses, common fewers, hospitals, prisons, mines, wells, graves, wine and beer vaults, peat, &c. What are the most efficacious means of preventing or mitigating their pernicious effects ; and of recovering those who are suffocated by them ?”
By a note, in Dr. VAN MARUM's Continuation of Experiments performed with the EleElrical Machine in Teyler's Museum (of which we gave an account in our Review, vol. Ixxvi. page 581), we are informed, that the differtation before us was delivered to the Society in February 1783. Its having lain thus Jong unpublished is a confiderable disadvantage to it, especially as it is on a subject which has lately been investigated by several writers, who have favoured the public with their observations on it.
The question itself, and the experiments made in consequence of it, seem to have been suggested by those of Dr. White, of
* The former Volumes have all been reviewed in our work. For vol. vii. fee Rev. vol. lxxiii. p. 519.
York *, related in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixviii. for the year 1778, part 1. The results are much the fame, and our philosophers, in common with others who have examined air thus vitiated, found it, in all the cases here mentioned, to consist of a mixture of fixed with inflammable air; in which the former was considerably predominant.
Concerning the means of preventing or mitigating the perni-, cious effects of these exhalations, Meff. VAN MARUM and VAN TROOST WYK have given some sensible and judicious obfervations; but moft of them have been anticipated by other writers, and are now well known to those who are at all conversant with the subject.
For the recovery of persons apparently fuffocated, they recommend inflating the lungs with dephlogisticated air, by means of a bladder and tube, contrived for this purpose. In this manner they recovered several birds and rabbits, after they had been confined, till apparently dead, in air vitiated, either by respiration, or by the fumes of peat. This mode of treatment was also successful with these animals, when they had been shut up in fixed air, yielded by fermenting malt liquor; but it was attempted in vain, when the suffocation had been caused by fixed air produced by the effervescence of chalk with the diluted vitriolic acid,
In the second prize differtation, M. VAN TROOSTWYK appears again a victorious candidate, associated with Dr. Der, MAN. The subject was proposed by the Society, in the following questions :
* Have the variations, which continually take place in the electricity of the atmosphere, any perceivable effect on our bodies, either in health or in ficknefs? What are the diseases in which electricity may be of service, either to remove or alleviate them? What is its mode of operating in these cases ? And what is the best method of applying it for this purpose ?”
From the assertion of the Authors, that fimple electrification remarkably accelerates the pulse, and from their taking no notice of the experiments made by Dr. VAN MARUM to determine this point t, in which he informed the public, that he was aflisted by them, we suppose that this Differtation also has lain a considerable time in the hands of the Society, and, hence, like the former, it appears to fonie disadvantage.
From the facility with which our bodies conduct the electric Auid, and from our being in constant contact with other cona, ducting substances, these writers conclude, that the changes in the Itate and degree of electricity in the atmosphere, with re
* See Review, vol. lx. page 409.
vol. lxxii, page 553.
lation to the earth, are generally produced in a manner fo grzo dual, as to have no perceptible effect on us, either in health or fickness. From this conclufion, the case of lightning is excepred, in which they suppose, with Lord MAHON (now Earl STANHOPE), that mischief may be done by the returning stroke, as well as by the immediate explofion.
The disorders in which electricity is here recommended, may be reduced to the following classes : those which proceed eithet from a diminution, or from anomalous operations, of the vital principle; those that arise from an obstructed circulation of the fluids, and from impeded perspiration; and, lastly, every case in which a strong concuffion is required.
In answer to the laft branch of the question, the Authors describe their apparatus for the application of medical electric city; the principal part of this consists of Mr. Cuthbertson's alteration of Lane's electrometer, by substituting a graduated Aider instead of a screw, which renders it much more fimple and convenient. They also give some directions and cautions, concerning the manner of eleärifying patients, which are now, we believe, generally known.
The third Differtation is by M. HENDRIK VERHEES, Land. furveyor at Bois-le-Duc, on the expediency and advantages of a Canal from Bois-le-Duc to Tongres, which is three leagues from Liege. The expence of fuch a Canal, fuppofing it to be from 60 to 70 feet broad, is estimated by M. VERHEES at 2,367,000 forins.
The volume closes with an account of the effe as of lightning on board a Dutch outward-bound East India fhip, Feb. 20th, 1785, in S. Jar. 0° 21', long. 358° 28', communicated by JACOB CORNELIS RADERMACHER Esq. Member of the Coun. cil of Batavia.
The lightning exploded on the main-top-gallant-maft-head, and, in its passage, rent large pieces out of the main and top maft, killed three men and wounded ten, beside greatly damaging the ship. From this melancholy event, M. RADERMACHER takes occasion to recommend conductors on board of thips, especially those which are destined for the southern climate ; where these are wanting, he advises wet ropes, reaching the fea, to be suspended from the maft-heads and yardarms, on the approach of a thunder-storm. He also gives an extract of a letter from on board the Thetis, a Dutch frigate, containing an account of the damage which the sustained, on the ift of April 1787, from lightning, by which the mag. netism of all. her compafles was destroyed; and which was fol. lowed by a smell of fire that continued above fourteen hours.