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• Vim purgantem calefacientem, fanguinem fundentem, emmenagogam & lumbricos enecantem, poffidet, data interne a granis aliquot ad duodecim. Externe vim balsamicam, mundificantem & consolidantem exhibet, in carnofis præfertim partibus.'
• Herba spigeliæ, cum radice, off. Spigelia Anthelmia. Linn. ainerikanisches Würinkraut.
• Vis anthelmintica, & in nimia dofin arcotica. Datur in pula vere ad scrupulum unum, in infuso autem aquoso ad drachmam unam, duas vel et tres, pro ratione ætatis.
• Radix Belladonnæ, off. Atropa Belladonna. Linn. Toll: kirschen Wolf kirschenwurzel.
• Vis quidem toxica, virola, narcotica, acris ei ineft, prudenti tamen usu, infignem fopiendi & resolvendi vim commonftrat, & miasma sabiosum, non tamen fine turbis, per sudorem expellet. Datur in pulvere a grano uno ad duodecim.'
The list of the Materia Medica is ample; we do not however find many redundancies, nor do we observe any material omiffions.
The second part, which prescribes the methods of preparing and compounding medicines, is, like the Materia Medica, in alphabetical order; and at the end of each article, are added the qualities and uses of the compounds, with their doses. To give a description of every formula would be to copy the whole work; we can only, therefore, select such as we think of the greatest importance, either on account of their novelty, neatness, or such as thew the chemical abilities of Dr. SCHLERETH either to advantage or disadvantage.
The acetum radicale is directed to be made of the terra foliata tartari and concentrated vitriolic acid. This elegant method of obtaining the acetous' acid was suggested by us, on a former occafion, as preferable, both medically and chemically, to that of procuring it from verdigrease.-The diftilled vinegar is dircarded, and its place is supplied by acetum vini concentratum, which is ordered to be prepared, either by freezing good fragrant wine vinegar and throwing away the ice, until the remaining unfrozen liquor saturates three times its weight of dry fixed vegetable alkali; or by evaporating, with a flow fire, good vinegar, to one third part of its quantity. We formerly recommended the freezing method, and by fresh experiments, we find it capable of being made even stronger than that above specified.
The next preparation which is worthy of notice, is the acie dum tartari cryftallifatum, f. sal effentiale tartari. It is a most agreeable falt, and of fingular use in inflammatory fevers, or in other cases where thirst requires to be quenched. Dr SCHLE
• See Rev. vol. lxxviii. p. 453, for June last.
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RETH orders it to be made thus : Boil iii. of cream of tartar in ten of water, for an hour; add to the liquor, wbile on the fire, as much (it requires about nine ounces *) prepared oyftershells + as is neceffary for a complete saturation, or till the effervescence ceases; let the mixture stand for balf an hour, until the tartareous selepite be settled to the bottom : pour of the lixivium, and wash the selenite on a filter, till the washings have no taste. The decanted lixivium and the washings evaporated and cryftallized, yield about 16 ounces of tartarus tartarifatus. Mix 10 ounces of concentrated vitriolic acid with as much pure water, and place the vessel containing them on a sand heat; add to this mixture the cartareous selenite before obtained, and let the whole stand in a gende sand heat for 24 hours. Pour off the lixivium, and wash ihe residuum on a filter. This refiduum is gyps. The last lixivium and washings are to be evaporated ad cuticulam, and be set in a cold place for three or four days, that any remaining selenite may cryftallize: filter again, evaporate to the confistence of syrup, and set it in a cool place to cryftallize. The produce will be about 10 ounces.
Such is the substance of Dr. SCHLERETH's prescription ; it is founded on true principles, and is a beautiful experiment to few the doctrine of affinities. There is nevertheless a method of conducting the process so as to make the produce about a third greater, and yet exbibit more curious phenomena respecting the affinities; and that is by fubftituting burnt oyster-fhells, i. e. dezërated lime, for the prepared thells. Such a quantity must be used as will fully lacurate the tartareous acid of the cream of tartar, and then the lixivium will be caustic vegetable alkali t, and not tartarus tartarisatus; for the tartareous acid has a stronger attraction to the lime than to the vegetable alkali; the acid will therefore unite to the lime, and quit the alkali. By experiment, we have found 10 parts of cream of tartar to require four of dry quicklime. There is an absolute neceffity for ascertaining the quantity of vitriolic acid to be used; but as this is difficult on account of the various strength of the vitriolic acid, the proper quantity used may be known by the following teft. After ine carcareous selenite is added to the vitriolic acid, take a small quantity of the liquor, and put into it a few drops of concentrated extract of lead; a white precipitate will immediately appear; if this while precipitate vanilles on the addition of a few drops of nitrous acid, then the liquor is perfectly free from any vitriolic acid: but if, on the contrary, the precipitate does not disappear on the addition of the nitrous acid, it is a sign of the
* Thele weights are divided in the same manner as our apothecaries weight is. :+ Levigated without calcination.
| Who would make falt of tartar by the ordinary laborious way of calcination, when it may be thus easily procured?
presence of the vitriolic acid, and in this case it will be necessary to add more of the tartareous selenite to the mixture.
The general direction for diftilling the fimple waters is to suspend the flowers or herbs, whose water is to be diftilled, in a linen bag over the water in the still, inftead of maceracing them in the water.
This method will certainly prevent any empyreuma from taking place.
The elixir folidum appears to be a moft excellent antihyfteric and antispasmodic medicine : it may indeed be used either internally or externally. The formula is, "R Caflor. Ruf. 3 (s. Afæfætid. zii. Opii 3ss. Sal volat. c. c. 3i. Spt. vin. rectificat. Ziv. Mixta, et per quatuor dies in vase bene clauso digetta, per linteum colentur.'
The Flores Benzoës is called sal volatile Benzoës, and is prepared by boiling the powdered gum in fix times its weight of water, and placing the filtered liquor in the cold to cryftallize: the remaining gum, if any, is to be again powdered and boiled with a freth quantity of water (the same water, after cryftallization, would surely be preferable), and the filtered liquor to be again set to cryftallize. These crystals are said to be of a silver colour (argentei coloris), and consequenily perfectly free from the pungent oil, a circumstance which renders them much fuperior to the ordinary Flores Benzoës. We have not repeated this experiment, but we perceive that Dr. Lewis has mentioned it in his Mat. Med. p. 129. edit. of 1761. It is certainly a much better method than the ordinary one of sublimation: the process is easier, and the crystals are more pure.
The lapis causticus is simply an infpiflation of the caustic lixivium of vegetable alkali. How much neater, and how much more powerful, is it chan the paste that is made by thickening the lixivium with powdered lime?
In the direction for making magnesia, the washing is ordered to be continued vill the water from the filter is not precipitated either by a solution of quicksilver in the nitrous acid, or by the extract of lead. This direction may, at first sight, be thought to lavour of chemical pedantry; but, on mature consideration, it will be found absolutely neceflary, because the salt contained in the washings is of very difficult solution, and consequently not easily discoverable by the taste in a small quantity.
The calomel, under the name of mercurius dulcis, is prepared according to Scheele's method, by the humid process. The corrosive rublimate is also made via humida. The formula for it is, to dissolve a pound of purified quicksilver in a sufficient quantity of aq fort, and mix it hot with a faturated solution of a pound and a half of common falt. A precipitation immediately takes place, and red fumes arise; the precipitation however is soon re-diffolved, and the liquor, when cool, deposites
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on the bottom and fides of the vessel, Marp, three-sided, prismatical cryftals, which are true corrofive fublimate. Should, however, any cubical crystals appear, which are soda nitrata, they can only be separated by subliming the mercurius muriatus in the common way.
An æther is prescribed under the name of Naphtha Acti, to be made from equal parts of radical vinegar, and rectified spirit of wine: the mixture must itand for a few days, until it does not smell either of the vinegar or of the spirit, and is to be then distilled till half of it is come over: to the liquor in the receiver is added a folution of vegetable alkali in water; the naphtha, separated by this means, swims on the top of the liquor.
The process for making vitriolic æther is new. Two pounds of rectified spirit of wine * are ordered to be mixed with balf a pound of concentrated vitriolic acid; and the mixture is to stand, tightly corked, in a cool place, for a month, and then to be distilled with a very gentle fand head, until the black foam begins to rise in the retort. The liquor in the receiver is the Spt. vitriol. dulc. or Liquor anodyn. mineral. Hoffman. To the black refiduum, left in ihe retori, a pound of rectified spirit is added, and a fresh receiver being applied, the distillation is repeated till the black foam begins to rise: the receiver is then removed, and another pound of rectified spirit is added to the residuum in the retort, and the distillation repeated as before for ten times, a pound of fresh spirit being added each time. The æther, or naphtha, as it is here called, is separated from the phlegm, in the respective retorts, by lime water, or by a caustic alkaline lixivium. The phlegm that remains after the separation of the naphtha, may be put into a retort, and a considerable portion of naphtha will be further obtained from it by gentle diftillation.
The pure mineral alkali is obtained by decomposing Glauber's fait with the fixed vegetable alkali.' The vitriolated tartar formed by the mixture of these two falts is cryftallizėd, and the mineral alkali remains in the lixivium ; but it does not appear that this lixivium, after the cryftallization, is perfectly free from the vitrivlated tartar. Dezërated terra ponderosa would be preferable to the vegetable alkali for this decomposition.
We might give several other proofs of Dr. Schlereth's pharmaceutical knowlege, and of the neatness of the formule which he prescribes, especially those in the third part of the work, which contains a number of excellent exteinporaneous compofitions. We must, however, remark, that some of the receipts may be thought rather to belong to books on the art of cookery and confectionary, as white wine whey, milk whey, peppermint drops, chocolate, baris. horn jelly, with a few * By this is meant alkohol.
others; but allowance must be made for the customs of the "country: the duties of the German and English apothecaries are very different; the former are under the necessity of being chemists: it were to be wilhed that the English apothecaries would pay more attention to this effential part of pharmaceutical knowlege. The operative chemists in this kingdom have been the principal cause why apothecaries neglect chemical inquiries; and indeed the necessity which our apothecaries are under of acquiring a knowlege of medical and surgical practice, leaves them not much time for studies which are not absolutely necessary.
We shall only add to the general opinion which we have already given of the Dispensatorium Fuldense, that were it reduced to a systematical form, it might serve as an excellent text book for a course of pharmaceutical chemistry. In its present form, it is extremely convenient for the operator, because the alphaberical order precludes the necessity of an index; and, in a book that is intended only for occafional consultation, the form is of dittle consequence, if the different articles can be referred to with ease and expedition.
ART. XXII. Verhandelingen uitgegeeguen door de Hollandsche Maatschappye der Wec.
tenschappen te Haarlem. i. e. Memoirs published by the Philosophical Society at Haarlem. Vol. xxv. 8vo. Haarlem. 1788. THE first piece in this volume* is a most prolix Differ.
tation on the Hydrops Pecloris, by J. Veirac, M.D. Member of the Imperial Academy of Physics, and of the Philosophical Societies of Zeeland, Utrecht, &c. Had this
into our hands as the thesis of a can. didate for a medical degree, we should have bestowed praise on his diligence in reading, and his attention in filling, his common-place book; but whether this be the kind of merit required in a prize differtation, can be determined only from knowing the particular design of those who proposed the subject. If their object be to bave a complete treatise on this dreadful dir. ease, compiled for the instruction of village apothecaries, who understand no language but their own, and have no opportunity of consulting the best medical writers, Dr. Veirac has fully answered their intention; and an abridgment of his work, printed separately in a cheaper form, may be of excellent fervice. But if he has written for the information of those who are supposed to be conversant with medical studies, a great part of his labour might have been spared, and be need not have
* For our accounts of former volumes, see Review, vol, lxxvii.