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Vim purgantem calefacientem, fanguinem fundentem, emmenagogam & lumbricos enecantem, poffidet, data interne a granis aliquot ad duodecim. Externe vim balfamicam, mundificantem & confolidantem exhibet, in carnofis præfertim partibus.'
Herba fpigeliæ, cum radice, off. Spigelia Anthelmia. Linn. Amerikanisches Würmkraut.
Vis anthelmintica, & in nimia dofin arcotica. Datur in pulvere ad fcrupulum unum, in infufo autem aquofo ad drachmam unam, duas vel et tres, pro ratione ætatis.
Radix Belladonnæ, off. Atropa Belladonna. Linn. Tollkirlchen Wolfkirlchenwurzel.
Vis quidem toxica, virofa, narcotica, acris ei ineft, prudenti tamen ufu, infignem fopiendi & refolvendi vim commonftrat, & miasma rabiofum, non tamen fine turbis, per fudorem expellet. Datur in pulvere a grano uno ad duodecim.'
The lift of the Materia Medica is ample; we do not however find many redundancies, nor do we obferve any material omiffions.
The fecond part, which prefcribes the methods of preparing and compounding medicines, is, like the Materia Medica, in alphabetical order; and at the end of each article, are added the qualities and ufes of the compounds, with their dofes. To give a defcription of every formula would be to copy the whole work; we can only, therefore, felect fuch as we think of the greatest importance, either on account of their novelty, neatnefs, or fuch as fhew the chemical abilities of Dr. SCHLERETH either to advantage or difadvantage.
The acetum radicale is directed to be made of the terra foliata tartari and concentrated vitriolic acid. This elegant method of obtaining the acetous acid was fuggefted by us, on a former occafion, as preferable, both medically and chemically, to that of procuring it from verdigreafe.-The diftilled vinegar is dif carded, and its place is fupplied by acetum viri concentratum, which is ordered to be prepared, either by freezing good fragrant wine vinegar and throwing away the ice, until the remaining unfrozen liquor faturates three times its weight of dry fixed vegetable alkali; or by evaporating, with a flow fire, good vinegar, to one third part of its quantity. We formerly recommended the freezing method, and by fresh experiments, we find it capable of being made even ftronger than that above specified.
The next preparation which is worthy of notice, is the aci dum tartari cryftallifatum, f. fal effentiale tartari. It is a moft agreeable falt, and of fingular ufe in inflammatory fevers, or in other cafes where thirst requires to be quenched. Dr SCHLE-)
See Rev. vol. lxxviii. p. 453, for June last.
RETH orders it to be made thus: Boil ii. of cream of tartar in ten of water, for an hour; add to the liquor, while on the fire, as much (it requires about nine ounces) prepared oyfterfhells as is neceflary for a complete faturation, or till the effervefcence ceafes; let the mixture ftand for half an hour, until the tartareous felenite be fettled to the bottom: pour off the lixivium, and wash the selenite on a filter, till the washings have no tafte. The decanted lixivium and the washings evaporated and cryftallized, yield about 16 ounces of tartarus tartarifatus. Mix 10 ounces of concentrated vitriolic acid with as much pure water, and place the veffel containing them on a fand heat; add to this mixture the tartareous felenite before obtained, and let the whole ftand in a gentle fand heat for 24 hours. Pour off the lixivium, and wash the refiduum on a filter. This refiduum is gyps. The laft lixivium and wafhings are to be evaporated ad cuticulam, and be fet in a cold place for three or four days, that any remaining felenite may cryftallize: filter again, evaporate to the confiftence of fyrup, and fet it in a cool place to cryftallize. The produce will be about 10 ounces.
Such is the fubftance of Dr. SCHLERETH's prefeription; it is founded on true principles, and is a beautiful experiment to fhew the doctrine of affinities. There is nevertheless a method of conducting the procefs fo as to make the produce about a third greater, and yet exhibit more curious phenomena refpecting the affinities; and that is by fubftituting burnt oyfter-fhells, i. e, desërated lime, for the prepared fhells. Such a quantity must be used as will fully faturate the tartareous acid of the cream of tartar, and then the lixivium will be cauftic vegetable alkali, and not tartarus tartarifatus; for the tartareous acid has a ftronger attraction to the lime than to the vegetable alkali; the acid will therefore unite to the lime, and quit the alkali. By experiment, we have found 10 parts of cream of tartar to require four of dry quicklime. There is an abfolute neceffity for afcertaining the quantity of vitriolic acid to be ufed; but as this is difficult on account of the various ftrength of the vitriolic acid, the proper quantity ufed may be known by the following teft. After the tartareous felenite is added to the vitriolic acid, take a fmall quantity of the liquor, and put into it a few drops of concentrated extract of lead; a white precipitate will immediately appear; if this white precipitate vanishes on the addition of a few drops of nitrous acid, then the liquor is perfectly free from any vitriolic acid: but if, on the contrary, the precipitate does not difappear on the addition of the nitrous acid, it is a fign of the
*Thefe weights are divided in the fame manner as our apothecaries weight is.
+ Levigated without calcination.
Who would make falt of tartar by the ordinary laborious way of calcination, when it may be thus easily procured?
prefence of the vitriolic acid, and in this cafe it will be necessary to add more of the tartareous felenite to the mixture.
The general direction for diftilling the fimple waters is to fufpend the flowers or herbs, whofe water is to be diftilled, in a linen bag over the water in the ftill, inftead of macerating them in the water. This method will certainly prevent any empyreuma from taking place.
The elixir foetidum appears to be a moft excellent antihysteric and antifpafmodic medicine: it may indeed be used either internally or externally. The formula is, R Caftor. Ruff. 3(s. Affafoetid. 3. Opii 3s. Sal volat. c. c. zi. Spt. vin. rectificat. iv. Mixta, et per quatuor dies in vafe bene claufo digefta, per linteum colentur.'
The Flores Benzoës is called fal volatile Benzoës, and is prepared by boiling the powdered gum in fix times its weight of water, and placing the filtered liquor in the cold to cryftallize: the remaining gum, if any, is to be again powdered and boiled with a fresh quantity of water (the fame water, after cryftallization, would furely be preferable), and the filtered liquor to be again fet to cryftallize. Thefe cryftals are faid to be of a filver colour (argentei coloris), and confequently perfectly free from the pungent oil, a circumftance which renders them much fuperior to the ordinary Flores Benzoës. We have not repeated this experiment, but we perceive that Dr. Lewis bas mentioned it in his Mat. Med. p. 129. edit. of 1761. It is certainly a much better method than the ordinary one of fublimation: the process is eafier, and the cryftals are more pure.
The lapis caufticus is fimply an infpiffation of the caustic lixivium of vegetable alkali. How much neater, and how much more powerful, is it than the paste that is made by thickening the lixivium with powdered lime?
In the direction for making magnesia, the washing is ordered to be continued till the water from the filter is not precipitated either by a folution of quickfilver in the nitrous acid, or by the extract of lead. This direction may, at firft fight, be thought to favour of chemical pedantry; but, on mature confideration, it will be found abfolutely neceffary, because the falt contained in the washings is of very difficult folution, and confequently not easily discoverable by the taste in a small quantity.
The calomel, under the name of mercurius dulcis, is prepared according to SCHEELE's method, by the humid process. The corrofive fublimate is alfo made via humida. The formula for it is, to diffolve a pound of purified quickfilver in a fufficient quantity of aq. fort. and mix it hot with a faturated folution of a pound and a half of common falt. A precipitation immediately takes place, and red fumes arife; the precipitation however is foon re-diffolved, and the liquor, when cool, depofites
Y y 4
on the bottom and fides of the veffel, fharp, three-fided, prifmatical cryftals, which are true corrofive fublimate. Should, however, any cubical cryftals appear, which are feda nitrata, they can only be feparated by fubliming the mercurius muriatus in the common way.
An æther is prescribed under the name of Naphtha Aceti, to be made from equal parts of radical vinegar, and rectified fpirit of wine: the mixture muft ftand for a few days, until it does not smell either of the vinegar or of the fpirit, and is to be then diffilled till half of it is come over: to the liquor in the receiver is added a folution of vegetable alkali in water; the naphtha, feparated by this means, fwims on the top of the liquor.
The process for making vitriolic æther is new. Two pounds of rectified spirit of wine are ordered to be mixed with half a pound of concentrated vitriolic acid; and the mixture is to ftand, tightly corked, in a cool place, for a month, and then to be distilled with a very gentle fand head, until the black foam begins to rife in the retort. The liquor in the receiver is the Spt. vitriol. dulc. or Liquor anodyn. mineral. Hoffman. To the black refiduum, left in the retort, a pound of rectified (pirit is added, and a fresh receiver being applied, the diftillation is repeated till the black foam begins to rife: the receiver is then removed, and another pound of rectified fpirit is added to the refiduum in the retort, and the diftillation repeated as before for ten times, a pound of fresh fpirit being added each time. The æther, or naphtha, as it is here called, is feparated from the phlegm, in the refpective retorts, by lime water, or by a cauftic alkaline lixivium. The phlegm that remains after the feparation of the naphtha, may be put into a retort, and a confiderable portion of naphtha will be further obtained from it by gentle diftillation.
The pure mineral alkali is obtained by decompofing Glauber's falt with the fixed vegetable alkali. The vitriolated tartar formed by the mixture of these two falts is cryftallized, and the mineral alkali remains in the lixivium; but it does not appear that this lixivium, after the cryftallization, is perfectly free from the vitriolated tartar. Deaerated terra ponderofa would be preferable to the vegetable alkali for this decompofition.
We might give feveral other proofs of Dr. SCHLERETH's pharmaceutical knowlege, and of the neatness of the formule which he prefcribes, especially thofe in the third part of the work, which contains a number of excellent extemporaneous compofitions. We muft, however, remark, that fome of the receipts may be thought rather to belong to books on the art of cookery and confectionary, as white wine whey, milk whey, peppermint drops, chocolate, harts-horn jelly, with a few By this is meant alkohol.
others; but allowance must be made for the customs of the country: the duties of the German and English apothecaries are very different; the former are under the neceffity of being chemifts it were to be wished that the English apothecaries would pay more attention to this effential part of pharmaceutical knowlege. The operative chemifts in this kingdom have been the principal caufe why apothecaries neglect chemical inquiries; and indeed the neceffity which our apothecaries are under of acquiring a knowlege of medical and furgical practice, leaves them not much time for ftudies which are not abfolutely neceffary.
We shall only add to the general opinion which we have already given of the Difpenfatorium Fuldenfe, that were it reduced to a fyftematical form, it might ferve as an excellent text book for a course of pharmaceutical chemistry. In its prefent form, it is extremely convenient for the operator, because the alphabetical order precludes the neceffity of an index; and, in a book that is intended only for occafional consultation, the form is of little confequence, if the different articles can be referred to with ease and expedition.
Verhandelingen uitgegeeven door de Hollandfche Maatschappye der Weetenfchappen te Haarlem. i. e. Memoirs published by the Philofophical Society at Haarlem. Vol. xxv. 8vo. Haarlem. 1788.
HE first piece in this volume is a moft prolix Differtation on the Hydrops Pectoris, by J. VEIRAC, M. D. Member of the Imperial Academy of Phyfics, and of the Philofophical Societies of Zeeland, Utrecht, &c.
Had this paper been put into our hands as the thefis of a candidate for a medical degree, we fhould have beftowed praise on his diligence in reading, and his attention in filling, his common-place book; but whether this be the kind of merit required in a prize differtation, can be determined only from knowing the particular defign of those who propofed the fubject. If their object be to have a complete treatife on this dreadful difease, compiled for the inftruction of village apothecaries, who understand no language but their own, and have no opportu nity of confulting the beft medical writers, Dr. VEIRAC has fully answered their intention; and an abridgment of his work, printed feparately in a cheaper form, may be of excellent fervice. But if he has written for the information of those who are fuppofed to be converfant with medical studies, a great part of his labour might have been fpared, and he need not have
* For our accounts of former volumes, fee Review, vol, lxxvii. P. 526.