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by its diftinguishing characters. If the Creator had thought fit that beings fhould afcend by an imperceptible gradation, this would be difcovered among the fpecies: a few degenerate individuals can never be defigned to conftitute thofe links, by which different fpecies are supposed to be connected. If these links were neceffary, they would be permanent; but permanence is found only in the fpecies.
Again, fhould it be granted that, as the infinite number of parallel fections of which a pyramid is fuppofed to confift, increase in furface by imperceptible differences, fo beings rife above each other by an infenfible gradation; ftill our philofopher afks, to what does this gradation refer, and in what refpects are beings here compared with each other? This muft be explained, before a meaning can be affigned to the idea of gradation; for no connection of co-relative degrees can take place between heterogeneous qualities, and an abstract gradation among beings is inconceivable.
But M. DE LUC further obferves, that nothing can be more indefinite than the word BEING, as used by fome philofophers, especially when they treat of the order of beings in the universe; nor is it certain, that, when they fpeak of a gradation of beings, they are agreed concerning the idea which they mean to exprefs.
The diftribution of beings into the two claffes of material and fpiritual fubftances, forms an infurmountable objection to the hypothefis of an infenfible gradation, which cannot possibly take place between things fo effentially different as matter and spirit. In his view of the material world, M. DE LUC argues against the law of continuity, which LEIBNITZ fuppofed, but which, fo far from allowing it to be univerfal, he thinks applicable only to the divifions of time and fpace, and to motion, as it relates to these.
In answer to thofe, who may think that his opinion is contrary to the harmony of the univerfe, he obferves, that our idea of this must be derived, not from imaginary worlds, but from nature: if we confult this, we shall find that harmony confifts, not in an infenfible gradation of beings, nor in an abfolute continuity of the caufes of their feveral fucceffive ftates; but in the direction of every thing, fo as to produce, without doubt, in the greateft poffible degree, the happiness of fenfitive beings, in a manner fuitable to the proper clafs or fpecies of each.
The refult of all thefe obfervations and arguments is, that there exifts ONE FIRST CAUSE of all; that the universe, created by him, is composed of diftinct beings, which may be distributed into the two grand claffes, of inanimate and fenfitive, relative to each other, as the means to the end; that the harmony of the
whole is effected, neither by continuity, nor by infenfible gradation, but by perceptible diftances of place and actions, and by an abfolute difference between the several species of beings.
Didionaire complet François Ruffe, &c. i. e. A complete French and Ruffian Dictionary. By a Society of literary Gentlemen. 4to. 2 Vols. Petersburgh printed; and imported by Sewell in London. zl. 2 s. Boards. 1786.
NDER the aufpices of the Emprefs of Ruffia, a literary fociety have refolved, for the fake of fixing the Ruffian language, and making it more generally known throughout Eutope, to publifh feveral dictionaries of this kind. That which at prefent engages our attention, and which is to be regarded as the first fruits of their undertaking, is a Dictionary of French with the correfponding Ruffian words. The French words are taken from the laft edition of the French dictionary published by the Academy of Sciences at Paris; and the equivalent Rus fian words, with fynonyms, are given on authority, and according to common ufage. The plan is extenfive, and includes a great variety of technical terms, both in the arts and sciences, as well as in trade and commerce.
From the Preface, we learn, that the fame fociety will speedily publish the continuation of their labours; for they have promifed a Ruffian and French dictionary, in two volumes, quarto; a German and Ruffian dictionary, three volumes, quarto; and a Ruffian and German dictionary, alfo in three volumes, quarto.
The utility of these great works is evident, and the manner in which the publication feems to be conducted, reflects honour on the country in which it is undertaken.
Collection des meilleurs Ouvrages François, compofées par des Femmes. Vols. xi. and xii. 8vo. Paris. 1787 and 1788.
HE ingenious and induftrious Mademoifelle DE KERALIO has added two more volumes to her collection of the principal productions of celebrated French-women*. They prefent us with a continuation of the Letters of Madame de Sevigné, which letters have been confidered as models for the epiftolary ftyle. Wit and humour are difcoverable in many of them, but nothing appears to be forced; nothing ftudied, or laboured into gaiety and eafe:-they are evidently the dictates of the heart; and
See Rev. vol. Ixxvii. p. 547. and vol. lxxviii. p. 630.
in writing them to her daughter, we perceive, as Voltaire has juftly remarked, that the intended them only for her daughterunlike to those of Madame de Maintenon, which seem to have been written for the public eye. Amid a great deal of what the French call babil, and which we ufually denominate tittle-tattle, fome anecdotes are found in both these collections, which are well worth preferving, as they regard the fecret hiftory of the times. The former lady, too, as the writer already mentioned further obferves, had the art de conter des bagatelles avec grace; an art which was fufficient to fecure to her the notice and even the approbation of the generality of mankind.
We learn, from an advertisement prefixed to the prefent volumes, that Mademoiselle DE K. has been for fome time indifpofed. This illness, the fays, has occafioned a delay in the publication of her work, but that, on the re-eftablishment of her health, the means to profecute her labours with affiduity, in return for the encouragement fhe has received from the Public. We fincerely hope that fhe will be enabled to act in conformity with her withes. In the prefent age of frivolity and diffipation, a character like that of Mademoiselle DE KERALIO is truly eftimable, and cannot be too particularly favoured by the world.
Opinione di Fra. PAOLO SARPI, toccante il Governo della Republica Veneziana. 8vo. 3s. 6d. Nicol. Londra. 1788.
HE preface to this publication informs us, that a gen
both and of promoting, to
the utmoft of his power, its beneficial tendency, happened, in his travels through Italy, to meet in a convent the following hitherto unpublished and very curious work of the celebrated Father Paul Sarpi.' That he was affured on the fpot, by perfons of penetration and knowlege, that it was undoubtedly an original performance of the immortal author of the Hiftory of the Council of Trent; and he apprehends that the fagacious reader, in perufing the work, will eafily perceive the peculiar ftyle of the great FATHER PAUL, marked every where by his "extenfive learning, without oftentation *.'
What is faid, as above, concerning the merit of Father Paul, is no more than a juft tribute of praife, to the memory of that great man; but the editor of the prefent work has fallen into a mistake, with refpect to this treatife on the government of Venice. He doubtless knew not that the work was published many years ago. We have now on the desk an English translation of it, printed at London, in 1707, for J. Morphew. The tranfla tion is a good one, for the time when it was made; and it is
* WOTTON, as quoted by Dr. Johnfon in his Life of Father Paul.
APP, REV, Vol. LXXIX.
introduced to the English reader by an ample and judicious prefatory difcourfe, abounding with juft obfervations on the character and writings of the excellent author of the original. It alfo contains a fhort hiftorical account of the manufcript, and of the printed impreffion of it, which was privately made, a few years before the date of this tranflation; of which, probably, but a few copies were thrown off, as the book continued to be fo very scarce, that AMELOT DE LA HOUSSAI, who made a diligent fearch for all the books that treat of the government of Venice, and who has tranflated into French feveral of Father Paul's works, could never procure this difcourfe, which would have been to him of great importance in the profecution of his defign.
We have examined this new edition of F. Paul's treatife relative to the government of Venice; and it appears to us that the English translation of 1707, was done from a more correct copy than the present impreffion in Italian; which circumftance may ferve to clear the editor from all fufpicion of having defigned to miflead the public: be certainly knew of no other copy than that which fell into his hands, in the manner above related.
* The Venetians ufed all means, lawful and unlawful, to fupprefs it; but, happily, this inestimable work was preferved.
AR T. XXVI.
Confpectus Criticarum Obfervationum in Scriptores Græcos et Latines,
THE title of this Confpectus exhibits neither the names of the author, nor of the printer, nor of the publisher. At the conclufion, however, ftands the name of Mr. BURGESS of Oxford, on whom the learned world have long looked with high respect, for his talents and erudition as a fcholar, and with a feeling better than refpect, for his candour as a critic.
We cannot but congratulate the learned of all nations, while we contemplate the advantages which this little book prepares them to expect. Every fcholar in England remembers with a confcious kind of pride, that the Mifcellanea Obfervationes, edited in Holland by the elder BURMAN and DORVILLE, were indebted for their origin to the Mifcellaneous Obfervations on Authors, publifhed in London by Dr. JORTIN. To enumerate the excellent remarks, and valuable collations, which have been preserved in this collection, would be foreign to the prefent purpofe; but we cannot help encouraging the flattering idea, that the Critice Obfervationes may, in procefs of time, emulate the celebrated Journal which we have juft mentioned.
*To be had, gratis, of Mr. Elmfley in London.
Every number of this work is propofed to confift of feveral divifions, according to the number of the fubjects which it contains. Every divifion is to be paged feparately, fo that each of the various collections may in future be bound diftin&tly.
We fhall give an abridged view of the heads which Mr. BURGESS has enumerated; to each of which one divifion is to be affigned:
I. Loci Critica Narrative, in which the difficulties and properties of words will be explained and illuftrated.
II. Loci Critica Emendatricis, in which the faults that have crept into ancient writers will be pointed out and corrected.
III. Loci Critice Philofophicæ, ubi inquiratur in caufas difcipli narum, artium, linguarum, et in rationes rerum, quæ iis conti
IV. Gritica Mifcellanea Difputationes, which cannot be referred to any one of the three former heads, but feem in fome measure to comprehend the whole.
V. Collations of manufcripts, and accounts of them.
Poetical, hiftorical, and chronological.
We fhall now prefent our readers with a lift of the inedited treasures which Mr. BURGESS has already accumulated:
1. . Difputatio de iis, quæ Jofephus fuper Herodis Templo Hierofolym. fcripfit.-3. De quibufdam locis Ariftotelis libri de Poëtica.-2. a. Tunftalli Emendationes in Longinum.-3. Wardii Emendationes in Hermogenis Progymnafmata.-y. Reinholdii Emendationes in Platonis apologiam.-. P. Vulcanii Emendationes & notata ad Demetrium Phalereum.-. Conjecturæ in fchylum, Sophoclem, Euripidem.-. Conjecturæ in Ariftotelis libris de Poëtica & Rhetorica.n. Conjecture in Demetrium Phalereum.— 9. Conjecturæ in Græca Novi Teftamenti — 3. a. Difputatio de caufis incrementifque linguæ Græcæ.-3. De Tookii inventis, quæ dicuntur, in Etymologia, & Jeweva linguarum. y. De ratione Ariftotelis libri de Poëtica-4. a. Litteræ Bentleii, Bernardi, aliorumque ex MSS. Bodl.-3. Uptoni Obfervationes in Xenophontis Memorabilia. - San&tamandi Obfervationes in Xenophontis Αναβασίνο 8. Excerpta ex San&tamandianis in diverfos fcriptores Græcos & Latinos.. Obfervationes de quibufdam locis Sophoclis, Euripidis, & Horatii Epiftola ad Pifones.-5. a. Variæ Lectiones fchyli, e Cod. Med.-3. Varia Lectiones Ariftotelis lib. de Rhetorica e libris Bernardi.-y. Varia Lectiones Theophrafti Charac. e MS vetufto, rarioribus edd., & e Stobæo excerptæ a M. Maittario.. Enarratio Florilegii Græci inediti Barocciani.-. Variæ Lectiones & Supplementa Tryphonis Пg ada, e Codd. Baroc. & Harl.-. Varia Lectiones [Ariftotelis libri de Poetica, Cod. Reg. Par.. Variæ Lectiones Dionyfii Hal. de Thucydide & Demofthene, Cod. Reg. Par.-9. Varia Lectiones quorundam Jofephi loc. Cod. Reg. Par... Heraclidis Pontici, Cod. Nov. Coll.x. EpicZz2