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MATHEMATICS, &c.

Art. 32. Method to discover the Difference of the Earth's Diameters ; proving its true Ratio to be not lefs variable than as 45 to 46, and fhorteft in its Pole's Axis 174 Miles. Elucidated with five Copper plates; with a Variety of new Tables fuited to the Subject. Likewife a Method for fixing an univerfal Standard for Weights and Measures. By Thomas Williams. 8vo. 5s. fewed. Stockdale. 1788.

It is with regret that we obferve an Author employing his time and labour in contradicting what has been mathematically demonftrated; more efpecially when he does not fhew any error in the demonftration, or in the principles on which it is foupded. Sir Ifaac Newton computed the ratio of the diameters of the earth, from the principles of gravitation, to be as 2300 to 2290. The French academicians, not fatisfied with the conclufions of that great philofopher, fent geometricians to different parts of the earth, in order to make actual measurements; and they found the ratio to be as 2300 to 2289. The coincidence of this measurement with the former computation evinces the accuracy of both; especially when it is confidered that the French academicians would willingly have fhewn Sir Ifaac's computation to have been erroneous.

Mr Williams has, without any geometrical demonstration, stated the ratio to be as 46 to 45, that is, as 2300 to 2250. We fincerely lament that any perfon fhould thus mifemploy his abilities on subjects already well underflood, while he might, perhaps, by other purfuits, render science a material service.

Art. 33. The Scholar's Question-book: or, A Practical Introduction to Arithmetic; containing a great Variety of Examples in all the fundamental Rules. By Thomas Molineux. The zd Edition. 12mo. 1s. 6d. bound. Lowndes. 1787.

Art. 34. The Key to the Second Edition of the Scholar's Queftion-book; containing all the neceffary Anfwers. By the Author, Thomas Molineux. 12mo. 6d. Lowndes. 1787.

To the school-mafter who wishes to leffen his labours, we recommend this Second Edition, and Key. He will find it more useful than the first, which we commended in our Review for February 1782, p. 153.

EDUCATION.

Art. 35. The Complete System of the French Language. By Nicholas. Salmon. 8vo. 5 s. Boards. Elmfley. 1788.

In our last, we gave a character of Mr. Salmon as a grammarian, in our account of his Footstep to the French Language.' There is nothing in the prefent publication to induce us to change our opinion of him. We could point out many errors in his work, but have little inclination for the unpleafing tafk; praife, where we can honeftly bestow it, being much more agreeable to our difpofition. It may be fufficient to inform the Reader, that the Author is a reformer of the language of the French Academy, on the one hand, and a profcriber of the rules of Bifhop Lowth, as laid down in his Introduction to Grammar, on the other; while he continually gives fuch

examples

examples of his own writing as thofe which are inftanced in our review of his former Effay. It muft at the fame time be remarked, that there are fome truly useful obfervations in the book; yet even of thefe the Public were in poffeflion long ago.

Art. 36. A comprehenfive Grammar of the English Language, for the Ufe of Youth. By J. Rothwell, Maller of the Free-school at Blackrod. 12mo. 2 s. bound. Cadell. 1787.

Bishop Lowth's English Grammar has given rife to many others, which are more peculiarly adapted to the ufe of fchools. Among other compilers of children's grammars, Mr. Rothwell has, by this publication, given proofs of his abilities as a teacher of the English fanguage, and we imagine his Grammar will aufwer the end propoled.

BOTANY, &c.

Art. 37. Arbuftrum Americanum: The American Grove, or an Alphabetical Catalogue of Foreit Trees and Shrubs, Natives of the American United States, arranged according to the Linnæan Syftem. By Humphry Marshal. 8vo. 3s. fewed. Printed at Philadelphia; and fold by White in London.

An error of the prefs in the first word of the title, and the abferdity of an alphabetical catalogue, arranged according to the Linnéan fyftem, gave us, at firft opening the book, no great opinion of its merit: but we find that it contains fome useful remarks concerning the economical ufes of the trees that are natives of America. 'The generic character of Linné is tranflated, and the Author defcribes the varieties and fpecies in terms of his own. Though he has amply copied the writings of former American botanifts, yet by reducing into one view what was before fcattered through many volumes, and clearing many doubts, which, by his refidence in America, he was better enabled to effect than a foreigner, he certainly has contributed fomething toward the advancement of natural hiftory, in that part of the world.

CHEMICA L.

Art. 38. Method of Chemical Nomenclature, propofed by Meffrs. De Morveau, Lavoisier, Berthollet, De Fourcroy. To which is added a new Syftem of Characters adapted to the Nomenclature. By Meffrs. Haffen fratz and Adet. Tranflated from the French, and the new Chemical Names adapted to the Genius of the English Language. By James St. John, M. D. 8vo. 5s. Boards. Keariley. 1788.

In reviewing the works of the French chemifts, we have frequently had opportunities of laying before our Readers abftracts of their theory, and the principles on which they have founded their doctrine. It would therefore be needlefs at prefent to recapitulate what we often faid in various parts of our Journal; efpecially as our chemical readers are, we fuppofe, already acquainted with the antiphlogitian hypothefis; and thofe of them who are not, may refer to our account of Mr. Kirwan's Effay on Phlogifon, in the Review for September laft, p. 207. .

The prefent performance confifts of feveral Memoirs read in the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. The firft is by M. Lavoifier,

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on the neceffity of bringing to perfection the Nomenclature of Chemistry. The fecond by M. de Morveau, explaining the principles of the Methodical Nomenclature. The third by M. de Fourcroy, illuftrating the Synoptical Táble that accompanies it. To thefe are added two Dictionaries of Synonyms, viz. the Old, with their corresponding new names, and the New, with their corresponding

old names.

The utility of fymbols is fo great in explaining the doctrine of compound attractions, that they may be confidered as abfolutely neceffary. The old fymbols, as ufed by Bergman, are inapplicable to the antiphlogistic theory, and its nomenclature; on this account Meffrs. Haffenfratz and Adet have invented a new fyftem of fymbols applicable to the French opinions.

As the antiphlogiftian hypothefis ftill wants the fupport and evidence of experimental facts, we therefore fufpect it will not last long. An explanation of the technical terms used by eminent writers is, however, highly neceffary for the tyro, and even in the prefent inftance for the adept: and as the French chemifts have adopted the terms and fymbols here explained, we think that the English reader is obliged to Dr. St. John for furnishing the intelligence in an Englith drefs.

GYMNASTIC EXERCISES.

Art. 39.

Modern Manhood; or, the Art and Practice of English Boxing, &c. 8vo. Is. 6d. fewed. Parfons, &c. Art. 40. The Complete Art of Boxing, according to the modern Method, &c. 8vo. 25. Follingby. 1788.

Art. 41. The Battle-royal, or the Effects of Anticipation; with Strictures on The Odiad, an Heroic Poem *. With the Letters between Humphries and Mendoza, &c. 8vo. 1s. 6d. Symonds. 1788. No. 1. of the pamphlets in this clafs, enters circumftantially into the theory and history of this delightful eye-darkening, jaw-breaking, fcull-cracking amufement; and furnishes a variety of anecdotes, which cannot fail of proving acceptable to those who have a taste for the fubject. No. 2. is of the fame character, but, perhaps, fomewhat more elaborately written. No. 3. has altogether the air of a catchpenny; it has more wit than the two former pieces, but lefs hiftory; that is, more froth, and lefs fubftance.

POETRY. ́

Art. 42. The Book of Pfalms illuftrated, by an improved Tranflation of the proper Pfalms, more conformable to the Hebrew Original, and a poetical Version of each agreeable thereto; with Notes critical and explanatory, in which the Prophecies of the Meffiah are particularly pointed out; being an Attempt to render the reading of the Pfalms, as a Part of Divine Service, more intelligible and inftructive. By a Layman. 8vo. 25. Robin fons.

A more intelligible and instructive method of ufing the Pfalms of David in divine fervice, than that which is at prefent adopted, is certainly very defirable: but we cannot think that the introduction

See Art. 45. of the POETRY.

of

of this layman's verfion and imitations would be any improvement. The former is inelegant, and abounds with fingularities; the latter are fcarcely more poetical than the ancient doing into English by Meffrs. Sternhold and Hopkins.

Art. 43. The Wrongs of Africa. A Poem. Part the Second. 4to. 25. Faulder. 1788.

After the particular account which we gave of the first part of this poem, it may be fufficient to say, that this fecond part breathes, no Îefs ardently than the former, the true fpirit both of poetry and of humanity.

Art. 44. Beaver-hunting; a modern Fable. 4to. 6d. Strachan. 1788.

This poem is of the fatirical kind, and breathes a little of the fpirit of Dryden. The following lines will scarcely be difpleafing to our Readers :

Immortal Æfop! whofe fagacious pen
Inftructed brutes to speak and act like men,
Permit one tale, by thee rehears'd of old,
In modern circumftance to be retold:
"The Hunted BEAVER!"-Gorging in the east
An hungry hound defcried the amphibious beaft:
The hound of northern breed, alert and true,
Smelt the rich Caftor, and its value knew:
His fearching nofe detects the tainted track;
He opens-and is follow'd by the pack.
The confcious chace his ftrong attraction knows:
He lops the bag, and down the treasure throws.
The northern hound fecretes his tempting prey,
And flily leads the clam'rous pack away.-
Homeward they trudge; and ceas'd their noify ftrain,
The hunted BEAVER fafely treads the plain.
A needy cur this artful trick remark'd:
(The most vociferous cur that ever bark'd!)
Much fam'd for howling loud and howling long,
Alarming ftill the pack, yet ever wrong:
The pack at laft his hackney'd voice defpife,
Nor heed th' eternal babbler when he cries.
Vext, he determines by one more endeavour,
To rouse their zeal, and calls-" to hunt the BEAVER !"
A fav'rite sport he knew-for which he panted,
Hopeful the chace would drop the gift he wanted.
Where? where the pack rejoin-we cannot fpy one.
See yonder in the east." Why that's a Lion!""
No, when the tainted zephyr this way blows,
The Caftor-fcent will ftrike your conscious nofe.
He gives the alarm, and bristling up his fur,
Howls, and is follow'd by a mungrel cur,
Half Greyhound, half he was of Spaniel kind,
This all before, and that complete behind.
Who roaming once to fill his hungry maw,
Bark'd; and the Lion struck him with his paw ;-

No

NO BEAVER, well he knew! but smarting ftill,
He urg❜d the pack to hunt him and to kill.
The howl becomes infectious through the place.
Staunch hounds accede, and puppies join the chace.'

One of thefe hounds, at length difcovering his miftake, exclaims-
This is no BEAVER which the pack pursue.
Let us defift: the cafe is now too clear;

Trust me my friends, you'll find no Castor here.
No Caftor-'tis unfufferably strange!
Then let the pack purfue him for revenge!
HOWLER replies-Long fince I warn'd this creature,
(BEAVER or not, whatever be his nature :)
In founds fo loud, and epithets fo foul,
The distant sky was blacken'd with my howl *;
Him, him it was my purpose to pursue ;
I need not fay for what-for well he knew.
His time was ample, rich, and rank his pasture:
He might have fill'd a thousand bags with Caftor
To blunt our rage.-Then be the chace more hot;
Tear, mangle, worry him who brought it not.
This is a common cause that needs no fpur,
The cause of every Caftor-loving cur!'

This comparison of the fituation of a certain honourable gentleman with that of the Hunted Beaver, will by many be thought particularly happy; while others who are perfuaded of the good and virtuous motives which have prompted his purfuers to press him hard, will be offended at the infinuation here meant to be conveyed. As to ourselves, we pretend not to any opinion on the matter.

Art. 45. The Odiad; or Battle of Humphries and Mendoza: a Heroic Poem. To which is added, a prefatory Discourse on Boxing. 8vo. Is. 6d. Lowndes and Christie. 1788.

The poet feems to laugh at his fubject, as well he may, both in his verfe and his profe panegyric on the gymnaftic art of boxing.' He has, however, one couplet which deserves to be quoted for its fingular felicity of expreffion:

• Bold Humphries totters,-foil'd in ev'ry thwack

Head, eyes, ears, nofe, lips, teeth, loins, belly, back.'

The title of Odiad is taken from the name of the town, the gymnafium on this occafion, Odiham, in Hampshire.

Art. 46. The Country Book Club; a Poem. 4to. 2s. 6d. Lowndes. 1788.

A pleafing defcription of a fequeftered village, of a reading society established in it, and of what ufually paffes at their meetings. We have been particularly entertained by the poet's recital of the poor, the very poor, curate's joy on the fuccefs of his printed fermon, with the favourable report of it in the Reviews. The whole is well imagined, and agreeably difplayed, in a vein of easy, natural humour, properly fuited to the fimplicity of the fcene, and the cha

• How can a bowl be said to blacken the sky?

racters

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