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MATHEMATICS, &c. Art. 32. Method to discover the Difference of the Earth's Diameters;
proving its true Ratio to be not less variable than as 45 to 46, and shortest in its Pole's Axis 174 Miles. Elucidated with five Copper plates ; with a variety of new Tables suited to the Subječt. Likewise a Method for fixing an universal Standard for Weights and Measures. By Thomas Williams. 8vo. 55. fewed. Stockdale. 1788.
It is with regret that we observe an Author employing his time and labour in contradicting what has been mathematically demonstrated ; more especially when he does not shew any error in the demonstration, or in the principles on which it is foupded. Sir Isaac Newton computed the ratio of the diameters of the earth, from the principles of gravitation, to be as 2300 to 2290. The French academicians, not satisfied with the conclusions of that great philosopher, sent geometricians to different parts of the earth, in order to make actual measurements; and they found the ratio to be as 2300 to 2289. The coincidence of this measurement with the former computation evinces the accuracy of both ; especially when it is considered that the French academicians would willingly have shewn Sir Isaac's computation to have been erroneous.
Mr Williams has, without any geometrical demonftration, stated the ratio to be as 46 to 45, that is, as 2300 to 2250. We fincerely lament that any person should thus milemploy his abilities on subjects already well understood, while he might, perhaps, by other pursuits, render science a material service. Art. 33
The Scholar's Question-bcok : or, A Practical Introduction to Arithmetic ; containing a great Variety of Examples in all the fundamental Rules. By Thomas Molineux. The 2d Edition. 12mo. is. 6d. bound. Lowndes.
1787. Art. 34. The Key to the Second Edition of the Scholar's Question-book ;
containing all the necessary Answers. By the Author, Thomas Molineux. 12mo.
6d. Lowndes. 1787. To the school-master who wishes to lessen his labours, we recommend this Second Edition, and Key. He will find it more useful than the first, which we commended in our Review for February 1782, P. 153.
EDUCATION. Art. 35. The Complete System of the French Language. By Nicholas Salmon.
8vo. 55. Boards. Elmsley. 1788. In our last, we gave a character of Mr. Salmon as a grammarian, in our account of his ? Fooistep to the French Language. There is nothing in the present publication to induce us to change our opinion of him. We could point out many errors in his work, but have little inclination for the unpleasing task; praise, where we can honestly beltow it, being much more agreeable to our disposition. It may be sufficient to inform the Reader, that the Author is a reformer of the language of the French Academy, on the one hand, and a proscriber of the rules of Bishop Lowth, as laid down in his Introducțion to Grammar, on the other; while he continually gives fuch
examples of his own writing as those which are infanced in our review of his former Essay. It must at the same time be remarked, that there are some truly useful observations in the book; yet even of these the Public were in poffeslion long ago. Art. 36. A comprehenfive Grammar of the English Language, for the
Use of Youth. By J. Rochwell, Master of the Free-school at Blackrod.
2 s. bound. Cadell. 1787. Bihop Lowth's English Grammar has given rise to many others, which are more peculiarly adapted to the use of schools. Among other compilers of children's grammars, Mr. Rothwell has, by this publication, given proofs of his abilities as a teacher of the English language, and we imagine his Gromar will answer the end propoled.
BOTANY, &c. Art. 37. Arbuffrumn Americanim : The American Grove, or an Al
phabetical Catalogue of Foreii Trees and Shrubs, Natives of the American United States, arranged according to the Linnæan Syrtem. By Homphry Marshal. 3vo. 35. sewed. Printed at Philadelphia ; and rold by White in London.
An error of the press in the first word of the title, and the ab. fordity of an alphabetical catalogue, arranged according to the Linnéan system, gave us, at first opening the book, no great opinion of its merit : but we find that it contains some useful remarks concerning the economical uses of the trees that are natives of America. 'The generic character of Linné is translated, and the Author defcribes the varieties and species in terms of his own. Though he has amply copied the writings of former American botanists, yet by reducing into one view what was before scattered through many volumes, and clearing many doubts, which, by his relidence in America, he was better enabled to effect than a foreigner, he cer. tainly has contributed something toward the advancement of natural history, in that part of the world.
CHEMICAL Art. 38. Method of Chemical Nomenclature, proposed by Meffrs. De
Morveau, Lavoisier, Berthollet, De Fourcroy. To which is added a new System of Characters adapted to the Nomenclature. By Messrs. Haffenfratz and Adet. Translated from the French, and the new Chemical Names adapted to the Genius of the English
anguage. By James St. John, M.D. 8vo. 55. Boards. Keartley. 1783.
In reviewing the works of the French chemists, we have frequently had opportunities of laying before our Readers abstracts of their theory, and the principles on which they have founded their doctrine. It would therefore be needless at present to recapitulate what we often said in various parts of our Journal; especially as our chemical readers are, we suppose, already acquainted with the antiphlogistian hypothesis ; and those of them who are not, may refer to our account of Mr. Kirwan's Elay on Phlogisłon, in the Review for September lait, p. 207.
The present performance confits of frveral Memoirs read in the Royal Academy of Sciences a: Paris. The first is by M. Lavoisier,
on the necesity of bringing to perfection the Nomenclature of Chemistry. The second by M. de Morveau, explaining the principles of the Methodical Nomenclature. The third by M. de Fourcroy, illuftrating the Synoptical Táble that accompanies it. To these are added two Dictionaries of Synonyms, viz. the Old, with their corresponding new names, and the New, with their corresponding old names.
The utility of symbols is so great in explaining the doctrine of compound attractions, that they may be confidered as absolutely necessary. The old symbols, as used by Bergman, are inapplicable to the antiphlogistic theory, and its nomenclacure; on this account Melfts. Haffenfratz and Adet have invented a new system of symbols applicable to the French opinions.
As the antiphlogistian hypothesis still wants the support and evidence of experimental facts, we therefore suspect it will not last long. An explanation of the technical terms used by eminent writers is, however, highly necessary for the tyro, and even in the present instance for the adept: and as the French chemists have adopted the terms and symbols here explained, we think that the English reader is obliged to Dr. St. John for furnishing the intelligence in an Englith dress.
GYMNASTIC EXERCISE S.
Boxing, &c. 8vo. is. 6d. sewed. Parsons, &c.
&c. 8vo. 25. Follingsby. 1788. Art. 41. The Battle-royal, or the Effects of Anticipation; with Stric
tures on The Odiad, an Heroic Poem *. With the Letters between Humphries and Mendoza, &c. 8vo. is. 6d. Symonds. 1788.
No. 1. of the pamphlets in this class, enters circumftantially into the theory and history of this delightful eye-darkening, jaw-breaking, scull-cracking amusement; and furnishes a variety of anecdotes, which cannot fail of proving acceptable to those who have a taste for the subject. No. 2. is of the same character, but, perhaps, somewhat more elaborately written. No. 3. has altogether the air of a catchpenny; it has more wit than the two former pieces, but less history; that is, more froth, and less substance.
POETRY. Art. 42. The Book of Psalms illuftrated, by an improved Translation
of the proper Psalms, more conformable to the Hebrew Original, and a poetical Version of each agreeable thereto; with Notes criti. cal and explanatory, in which the Prophecies of the Messiah are particularly pointed out; being an Attempt to render the reading of the Pfalms, as a Part of Divine Service, more intelligible and inftructive. By a Layman. 8vo. Robinsons.
A more intelligible and instructive method of using the Psalms of David in divine service, than that which is at present adopted, is certainly very desirable: but we cannot think that the introduction See Art. 45. of the Poetry.
of this layman's version and imitations would be any improvement.
This poem is of the satirical kind, and breathes a little of the fpirit of Dryden. The following lines will scarcely be displeasing to our Readers :
• Immortal Æfop! whose fagacious pen
• A needy cur this artful trick remark'd :
No Beaver, well he knew! but smarting still,
Staunch hounds accede, and puppies join the chace.'
• This is no Beaver which the pack pursue.
- No Calor-'ois unsufferably strange!
for well he knew.
The cause of every Caftor-loving cur!' This comparison of the situation of a certain honourable gentleman with that of the Hunted Beaver, will by many be thought particularly happy ; while others who are persuaded of the good and virtuous motives which have prompted his pursuers to press bim hard, will be offended at the infinuation here meant to be conveyed. As to ourselves, we pretend not to any opinion on the matter. Art.
45. The Odiad; or Battle of Humphries and Mendoza : a Heroic Poem. To which is added, a prefatory Discourse on Boxing. 8vo. is. 6d. Lowndes and Christie. 1788.
The poet seems to laugh at his subject, as well he may, both in his verse and his prose panegyric on the gymnastic art of boxing.' He has, however, one couplet which deserves to be quoted for its fingular felicity of expression:
• Bold Humphries totters,-foil'd in ev'ry thwack
Head, eyes, ears, nose, lips, teeth, loins, belly, back.' The title of Odiad is taken from the name of the town, the gymnasium on this occasion, Odiham, in Hampshire. Art. 46. The Country Book. Club; a Poem. 4to. 2s.6d. Lowndes.
1788. A pleasing description of a sequestered village, of a reading society established in it, and of what usually passes at their meetings. We have been particularly entertained by the poet's recital of the poor, the very poor, curate's joy on the success of his printed fermon, with the favourable report of it in the Reviews. The whole is well imagined, and agreeably displayed, in a vein of easy, natural humour, properly suited to the fimplicity of the scene, and the cha• How can a bowl be said to blacken the sky?