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all my will : Gr. all my wills. In which there is a ,
of that obedience should be “ carried to the highest pitch and degree.' This the law required of them, as a condition of life; as our Lord himself thewed unto the lawyer, Luke x. 27. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself. Verse 28. This do, and thou shalt live. But it was a demand they could never have answered, fince Adam had squandered away their stock of ability, and Jeft them without strength. They might as soon have reached up their hands to the fun in the firmament, so far above them, as have attained to the perfection of obedience demanded of them by the law. Wherefore it was agreed, that Christ should in their name obey the law in that perfection, being made under the law, as they were under it, Gal. iv. 5. ; that every action of his should bear, not only a goodness of the matter, but of the manner too, and that in perfection; that love to God and man should fame in his holy human soul, to the utmost-pitch required by the law; and so that debt owing by his feed, might be cleared by him, acting as a public man in their name.
3. Lastly, “ That all this should be continued to the end, without the least failure in one jot of
parts or degrees of obedience." This also was a condition of life stated in the first covenant: Gal. iii. 10. Curfed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But it was a demand they could by no means answer; man's nature being so vitiated by the fall, that if a thousand hells were lying upon it, the best on earth could not keep perfectly right one hour. Wherefore it was agreed, that the second Adam
fhould, in the name of thofe he represented, contiwe in all things written in the law to do them, even to the end ; that he should not fail in his begun course of obedience, but run to the end of the race iet before him: that from the womb to the grave, his heart and life should shine in perfection of holiness. All which he did accordingly fulfil, being obedient unto death, Philip, ii. 8.
ARTICLE III, .
Satisfaction for fin.
covenant; but this was not in it: for while there was no fin, there was no place for satisfaction for sin. But the new covenant behoved to be settkd on the condition of a satisfaction for sin ; because the broken law or covenant of works, insisted for it as a condition of life to finners in virtue of its penalty by them incurred. Howbeit, it was quite beyond their power to answer this demand of the law. If then the Mediator will have a seed brought from the ftate of death, into a state of life and salvation, he muft buy them from the hand of justice, telling down a price for every soul of them, I Cor. vi. 20. Accordingly, all the fins of every one of them, from the first lin tbey fhould be conceived and born in, to the last fin they should expire with, being forefeen of God from eternity, were summed up as fo many breaches of the law or covenant of works : and it was made another conditionary article of the covenant, " That Christ, as a public perfon, fhould " fatisfy fully and completely for them all:" }fa. liii. 6. The Lord bath laid on him the iniquity of us all compared with Lev. xvi. 21. All the iniquities of the children of Ifrael, and all their tranfgreffions, in alt their fins.
Now, in this article there were three things eftablished,
First, " That Chrift, as a public person, should f2.
tisfy for them by suffering:” Luke xxiv. 26. Ought not Christ to have suffered ? Sinners, were liable to fuffer for the satisfaction of justice; and nothing but Suffering could be accepted, as a compensation of the injury done by fin, to the honour of God, in the violating of his holy law. Thousands of rums, and ten thousands of rivers of oil, were at the Mediator's coin, mand: all the silver and gold, and the precious things of the earth and feas, were at his disposal: but none of thefe could be of use in this bargain; they were all of no value, in a treaty for the redemption of the foul, Mic. vi. 6, 7, 8. 1 Pet. i. 18. His own suffering could only avail here. That the Son of God should suffer, was indeed an amazing propofal; but it was necessary, in order to satisfy for our sin.
Secondly, “That he should suffer the fame pu. " nishment they should have suffered in virtue of the “ penalty of thebroken covenant of works:" and that was death in its full latitude and extent. pears from the penalty of that covenant, from which the debt of fatisfaction was stated, In the day thou eateft thereof, thou sbalt surely die, Gen. ii. 17.; compared with Christ's dying for, that is in the room and stead of finners, fo often mentioned in the scriptures, Rom. v. 8. 2 Cor. V, 14, 15. 1 Thess. v. 1o. And it is confirmed from that the scripture teacheth, that the all for whom Christ died, died in him, 2 Cor. v. 14. If one died for all, then were all deads or, then they all died, to wit, in him ; even as they finned, and became liable to death, in Adam. So faith the Apostle, I am crucified with Chrift, Gal. ii. 28.
For clearing of this purpose, two things are to be distinguished in that death which was the penalty of the covenant of works. I, What was effential to it, wrapt up in the very nature of the thing itself called death in the style of that covenant.
And that may be comprised in these two: (1.) The curse, (2.) In
finite execution; the former making the death legal, the latter making it real and satisfactory. 2. What was accidental to it, arising not from the nature of the thing in itself, but from the nature of the party dying that death. And this is of two sorts. (1.) There is something arising from the nature of the dying party, as he is a mere creature: such as the eternity of the punishment, and despair of life, (2.) Something arising from the nature of the dying party, as he is a sinful creature, or a subject of inherent sin; such as the extinction of the saving relation betwixt God and the soul, the divesting it of God's image, and the corruption and dissolution of the body.
Now, the essentials of that death we should have suffered in virtue of the penalty of the broken covenant of works, were laid, as a part of the condition of the covenant of grace, on Jesus Christ, to be suf: fered by him, for us. For he was made a curse for us, Gal. iii. 13. and gave himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling Javour, Eph. v. 2. that is, a facrifice equalling the infinite offence arising from our sin; whence he is faid, by one offering to have perfelled for ever them that are fanclified, Heb. x. 14. But the accidentals of that death were no part of the condition of the covenant Jaid on him : nor could they at all have place in him; since he was neither a subject of inherent sin, nor yet a mere creature. Nevertheless, it was still the same death that we should have suffered; forafmuch as the essentials were the same. - Thus the bo. dies of of the saints, which are now weak and
corruptible, shall at the resurrection be powerful and incorruptible, yet still the famë bodies; since these quali. ties are but accidental to a human body. So in the case of clearing debt, though the borrower could not pay it, but in a great quantity of copper-money, and that advanced by little and little for a long time; which withal would ruin him: yet, if his rich cautioner should pay all at once, in a little gold; it is evident, it would be the payment of the same debt, providing only that it fully equalled the sum borrow. ed. Nay, confining our view to death itself, which is the general proper notion of the thing in question, let us put the case, that two men, equally guilty of the same crime, are laid under one and the same senrence of death; and it is execute on them both ; but the one is by a'miracle raised to life again, the other. lies and rots in the grave. It is evident in this case, that the death they died, is the same death, answering the very same estimate which the law made of the crime, and that therefore the death of the former satisfies the law, as well as the death of the lat. ter, fo that it cannot reach his life again for that crime: howbeit, it is no less evident, that there is a huge difference between the death of the one and of the other, in accidentals, particularly in the duration or continuance of it. Wherefore, we conclude, that as Chrift gave the same active obedience to the law which we fhould have given in virtue of the condition of the co. venant of works: so he suffered the fame punishment of death that we should have suffered in virtue of the penalty of that, broken covenant: forasmuch as, whatever difference there was in accidentals, the er. sentials were the fame; it being laid on him, in the new covenant, to suffer death for us, equalling the infinite offence arising from our sins, being fully proportionate to the estimate the law and justice of God had made of our crime.
And thus, acording to what is said, two grand points were established in the conditonary part of the covenant.
I. “ That the curse of the law due to us for our
sin, should be transferred on him as the second « Adam, our representative: whereby he should in“ stantly be a man dead in law for his feed.” Either he or they behoved to bear the curse: for it is writ