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ther, he so stood related to heaven, and having from eternity confented to become man, he fo stood related to earth: for though he did not actually take on him the nature of man until the fulness of tinje appointed by the Father; yet forasmuch as he had from eternity confented to take it on, and it was impossible that his confent should miss to take effect, he was reckoned in law, to all intents and purposes thereof, as if he had actually been incarnate. A type of this his fubftantial mediation was Jacob's ladder, which was set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven, Gen. xxviii. 12. A clear emblem of the divine and human nature in Christ, thro'whon, as substantial Mediator, there was a way opened towards a communication for peace between heaven and earth. Accordingly our Lord Jesus applies it to himself; John i. 51. Hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God afcending and defcending upon the Son of man; to wit, as on Jacob's ladder, Gen. xxviii. 12.
2. The Father chose him to be the head of the election; to be the last Adam, federal head and representative of such as sovereign pleasure thould pitch upon to be vessels of mercy, and inrolled in the book of life ; a head and representative with whom he might make the new covenant for life and salvation to them.
And to this also he readily agreed, consenting to be the last or second Adam, head and representative of the election; to sustain their perfons, and tranfact in their name: Ifa.xlii.. 1. Behold---mine elečt in whom my soul delighteth. Pfalm lxxxix. 19. I have exalted one chosen out of the people. I Cor. xv. 47. The second man is the Lord from heaven. The breach between God and man was greater than to be done away by a mere intermessenger, who travelling between parties at variance, reconciles them with bare words. There could be no covenant of peace betwixt God D 3
and sinners without reparation of damages done to the honour of God through sin, and without honouring of the holy law by an exact obedience: but these things being quite beyond their reach, Christ the Son of God faith, “ Lo, I come ; I am content to “ take their place, and put myself in their room as
second Adam." Now, the effect of this was, that hereby he was constituted last Adam, or the second Man, 'I Cor. XV. 47. ; and official Mediator, or Mediator in re, spect of office, between God and man, 1 Tim. ii. 5, 6. There is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus: who gave himself a ransom for all. Being called of his Father unto that office, and having embraced the call thereto, he was invested with the office, and treated with as such, before the world began, Tit. i. 2. And indeed he, and he only, was fit for it. The two families of heaven and earth being at war, there could be no peace between them but through a Mediator. But where could a mediator be found to interpose between such parties who could not either have been too high, or else too low, in respect of one of the parties at variance ? Man or angels would have been too low, in respect of God; and an unvailed God would have been too high, in respect of sinful men, unable to bear intercourse with such heavenly majesty. Wherefore the Son of God, that he might be fit to mediate; as he being God equal with the Father, was high enough in respect of the party offended : so he consented to become low enough, in respect of the party offending, by his becoming man.
Secondly, It is to be enquired, How the covenant was made with Christ as second Adam ? And this also may be taken up in two things.
1. The Father designed a certain number of lost mankind, as it were by name, to be constituent members of that body chosen to life, of which body Christ was the designed head; and he gave them to him for that end: Philip. iv. 3. My fellow-labourers, whose names are in the book of life. John xvii. 6. Thine they were, and thou gavest them me. These were a chosen company, whom sovereign free grace picked out from among the rest of mankind, on a purpose of love, and gave to the second Adam for a seed; on which account they are said to have been chosen in him, Eph. i. 4; being in the decree of election laid upon him as the foundation stone, to be built upon him, and obtain falvation by him, i Thef. v. 9. ; which decree, as it relates to the memberselect, is therefore called the book of life; being as it were the roll which the Father gave to the second Adam, the head-elect, containing the names of those designed to be his feed, to receive life by him.
Now, our Lord Jesus standing as second Adam, head of the election, to wit, such as sovereign pleasure should pitch upon to be vessels of mercy, did accept of the gift of the particular persons elected or chosen by his Father: John xvii. 6. Thine they were, and thou gaveft them me. Verse 10. And thine are mine. Likeas the first Adam, in the making of the first covenant, stood alone without actual issue, yet had destinated for him a numerous issue, to be comprehended with him in that covenant, to wit, all mankind; the which Adam did at least virtually accept : so a certain number of lost mankind being elected to life, God, as their original proprietor, gave them to Christ the appointed head, to be his members, and comprehended with him in the second co. venant, tho' as yet none of them were in being; and he accepted of the gift of them, being well pleased to take them in particular for his body mystical, for which he should covenant with his Father. And, in token thereof, he, as it were, received and kept as his own the book of life containing their names, which is therefore called, the Lamb's book of life, Rev. xxi. 27.
2. The Father proposed to him as second Adam, the new covenant for life and salvation to them, in the full tenor, promises, and condition thereof; treating in him with all those particular persons of lost mankind, elected unto life, and given to him, even as he treated with all mankind in Adam in the first covenant. The promises therein proposed, were indeed great and glorious : but withal the condition, or terms on which they were proposed, were ex-ceeding high.
Howbeit, as the first Adam, standing as head and representative of all his natural seed, entered into the first covenant with God, accepting the proinise thereof, upon the terms and condition therein proposed, which he engaged to fulfil; so our Lord Jesus, standing as fecond Adam, head and representative of the particular persons of loft mankind, by name elected to life, and given to him as his spiritual seed, entered into the second covenant with his Father; accepting the promises thereof, upon the terms and condition therein proposed ; consenting and engaging to fulfil the same, for them. And thus the covenant of grace was made, and concluded, betwixt the Father and Christ the second Adam, from all eternity; being the second covenant, in respect of order and manifeftation to the world, though it was first in being : 1 Cor. xv. 47. The second man is the Lord from hea. ven. Ifa. liii, 10. When thou shalt make his soul an offering for fin, he shall see his feed. Tit. ii. 2. In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lye, promised before the world began. Pfalm xl. 6. Sacrifice and offering thou didfi not desire, mine ears: haft thou opened.-7. Then said I, Lo, I come.-8. I delight to da thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart.
Now, Christ the second Adam, giving this consent took upon him a threefold character, of unparalleled weight and importance ; fisting himself, (1.) The Kinsman Redeemer in the covenant. (2.) The Surety
of the covenant, and (3.) The Priest of the covenant. The mediation of Christ doth indeed run thro' the whole of the covenant. And there are feveral other parts of that mediation, which respecting the promises of the covenant, do belong to the administration thereof. But these I have now hentia oned, do respect the condition of the covenant, and so belong to the making thereof; under which head we fall consider them in order. I. Christ the Kinsman-Redeemer in the Covenant. UR Lord Jesus Christ, the second Adam, give
ing his consent to the covenant, as proposed to him by the Father, fifted himself Kinsman-redeemer in the covenant: Job xix. 25. I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he mall stand at the latter day upon the earth.
Under the law, when a man was not able to act for himself, to assert and use his own right, one that was akin to him, had a right to act for him, coming in his room, and standing up in his right. And such a one was called his Goel; which properly fig. nifies a kinsman-redeemer. Hence that word is sometimes rendered a kinsman; as Numb. v. 8. If the man have no (Goel) kinsman to recompence the trespass unto. Ruth iii. 12. I am thy (Goel) near kinsman: howbeit there is a (Goel) kinsman nearer than 1. Sometimes it is rendered a redeemer ; as Prov. xxiii. 11. Their (Goel) Redeemer is mighty, Isa. xlvii. 4. As for our (Goel) Redeemer, the Lord of holts is his name. One's acting in that capacity, is called, doing the kinfman's part, or redeeming, to wit, by right of kin, Ruth fi. 13, and iv. 6. Howbeit, such a one might resuse to do the kinsman's part ; as Ruth's kinsman-redeemer did, who resigned his right to Boaz, and in token thereof drew off his own' Moe, and gave it him, Ruth iv. 6, 7, 8. Now, Christ the second Adam law finners, his