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his counsel, Heb. vi. 17. And if Jesus Christ is surety for God to us, it is no doubt for the same end.
But I doubt if the holy Scripture calls Christ a surety in that fenfe at all. In the forecited passage, Heb. vii. 22. the only text wherein Christ is expresly called a Surety, it is evident, that his suretiship therein mentioned, respects his priestly office, where. in he deals with God for us : Verse 20. And in as much as not without an oath he was made priest. Verse 21.(-by him that said unto him, The Lord fware, and will not repent, Thou art a priefi for ever, after the order of Melchisedec) Verse 22. By so much was Jefus made a surety of a better testament. But his furetiship for God to us, cannot relate to his priest. ly office, but to his kingly office, in respect of which all power is given to him in heaven and in earth; and consequently a power to see that all the promises be performed to his people. And therefore his suretilhip mentioned in that text, is for us to God, and not for God to us. It is but in other two texts only, as far as I have observed, that we read of furetifhip relative to the case between God and a sinner : and in both of them, the suretiship is not to the finner, but for him. They are Psalm cxix. 122. Be surety for thy servant for good ; and Job xvii. 3. Put me in a furety with thee. The original phraseology or expression, is the fame in the latter text as in the former ; and the same in them both, as in the case of Judah's suretiship, for Benjamin, to his father, Gen. xliii. 9. and xliv. 32. Now, unless the sacred oracles go before us, in propofing Christ as a surety for God to us, I see no reason, why the being of such a thing at all should be yield:d to the adversaries, who make such a pernicious use of it. As for the comfort that might arise from it to us, the fame is fully secured, in that the whole administration of the covenant is com ted into the hand of our Lord Jesus Christ; and he is the Trustee and Teltator of the covenant or covenant-benefits; as shall be shown in the due place.
But, without all peradventure, Christ the Mediator and second Adam, became Surety, in the covenant, for finners to God; as the Scriptures do aburdantly declare: Plalm lxxxix. 19. I have laid help upon one that is mighty. I Tim. ii. 5. One Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus. Verse 6. Whe gave himself a ransom for all. 2 Cor. V. 21. He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin. Ifa. liji. 6. The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. Gal. iii. 13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us. Ifa. liii. 5. He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities. The covenant of grace was niade with the spiritual seed in Christ the second Adam, taking burden for them upon himfelf as their Surety. And without a surety it could not have been made with them. For they were a company of broken men, owing a thousand times more than they were all worth ; and their word in a new bargain for life and salvation was worth nothing; there could be no regard had to it in heaven. There was neither truth nor ability left them, after the first covenant was broken. Behold their character in point of truth or veracity, Rom. iii. 4. Let God be true, but every man a lyar: and in point of ability. chap. v. 6. When we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. The demands in this covenant were high, and quite above their ability to answer; and, besides, they themselves were false and fickle. They brake their word in the first covenant, when able to have kept it; ho v could they be trusted in this new bargain, when their ability was gone ?" so there was an absolute necessity of a surety for them in it. And Jesus Christ became surety for them: fo the new covenant, on which depends all their falvation, was made, and made sure.
Solomon tells us, That he that is furety for a stranger Mall sinart for it; and he that hateth furetiship, is fure, Prov. xi. 15. Our Lord Jesus knew very well the burden he took on himself in his suretiship for sinners; the character of those whoin he became furety for; and that he could have no relief from them : but his love to his Father's glory, and the fàlvation of sinners, engaged him in it, beiog perfectly sure to smart for it, as will appear from considering,
Secondly, Forewhat he became furety in the covenant. Suretiship, in respect of the subject matter of it, is of two forts. 1. There is a fureti hip for paying one's debt: Prov. xxii. 26. Be not thou one of then that strike hands, or of them that are fureties for debts. 2. A suretilhip for one's performing of a deed: Chap. XX. 16. Take his garment that is surety for a stranger; and take a pledge of him for a strange woman: that is, of him who is surety for her good behaviour; for she will leave hiin in the lurch.
Now, our Lord's suretiship for sinners was of the firft fort. Christ as the second Adam, consenting to the covenant, fisted himself suréty for the debt of the feed represented by him. Their debt was, by God's eternal foreknowledge, stated from the broken covenant of works, in the whole latitude of the demands it had on them, and he became furety for it, ftriking hands with his Father to pay it compleatly. And,
1. He became furety for their debt of punishment, which they as sinners were liable in payment of, as the original phraseth it, 2 Thef. i. 9. That was the debt owing to the divine justice, for all and every one of their fins, original or actual. The demerit of their sins, as offences against an infinite God, was an infinite punishment. They were liable to bear the pains of death, in the full latitude thereof; to suffer the force of revenging wrath, to the compleat satisfaction of infinite justice, and full reparation of God's injured honour. This was their debt of
punilha punishment: a debt which they themselves could never have cleared, though paying to the utmost of their power, through ages of eternity. But this their debt Christ became furety for, obliging himself to lay down his life for theirs which was lost in law : Psalm xl. 6, 7. Sacrifice and offering thou didst not defire, mine ears haft thou opened Then said I Lo, I come, John X. 15. I lay down my life for the Jheep. Verse 18. I lay it down of myself : I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father. Here is a suretiship that never had a match! David, in a transport of grief for the death of his son Abfalom, wishes he had died for him, 2 Sam. xviii. 33.; Reuben will venture the life of his two fons for Benjamin, Gen. xlii. 37. ; and Judah will venture his own for him, chap. xliii. 9. while yet there was hope that all would be safe: But our Lord Jefus deliberately pledgeth his own life for finners, when it was beyond all peradventure, the precious pledge would be lost in the cause, and that the death he would suffere would be a thousand deaths in one. Some have offered themselves fureties in capital cases, and embraced death for their country or friends; and peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. But God commendeth his love towards us, in that while we were yet finners, (and enemies), Christ died for us, Rom. v. 7, 8, 10.
Now, in the second Adam's suretiship for the criminal debt of his fpiritual seed, there was not an ensuring of the payment thereof one way or other, only; as in simple cautionry : but there was an exchange of persons in law; Christ substituting himself in their room, and taking the whole obligation on himself. This the free grace of God the creditor did admit, when he might have insisted, that the foul that sinned should die: and, a delay being with. al granted as to the time of the payment, God thus
manifested his forbearance, celebrated by the apostle, Rom. iii. 25. And, in virtue of that fubftitution, Christ became debtor in law, bound to pay that debt which he contracted not; to restore that which he took not away, Pfalm lxix. 4. For, becoming surety for them, to the end there might be laid a foundation, in law and justice, for exacting their debt of punilhment from him, their guilt was transferred on him, Isa. lui. 6. The Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all. This was pointed at, in the laying of the hand on the head of the sacrifices under the law, especially on the head of the scape-goat, Lev. xvi. 21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgreffion in all their fins, putting them upon the head of the goata All the fins of all the elect were at once imputed to the surety, and so became his, as his righteousness becomes ours, namely, in law-reckoning, 2 Cor. v. 21. For he hath made him to be fin for us, who knew no fin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. And he himself speaks fo of them, Pfalm xl. 12. Mine iniquities have taken hold upon me; as several valuable interpreters do understand it, according as the apostle gives us direction, determining Christ himself to be the speaker in this psalm, Heb. X. 5, 6, 7. He was indeed without sin inhereng in him; but not without fin imputed to him, till in his resurrection he got up his discharge, having cleared the debt by his death and suffering. Then was he justified in the Spirit, 1 Tim. iii. 16. and so Shall appear the second time, without fin, Heb. ix. 28.; the fin which was upon him, by ina putation, the first time he appeared, being done away at his resurrection. This relation of our fin to Christ, is necessary from the nature of suretiship for debt; in which cafe, nobody doubts but the debt becomes the surety's, when once he hath stricken hands for E 2