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it. And how else could the law have justly proceed ed against Christ? How could our punishment have been, in justice, inflicted on him, if he had not had fuch a relation to our fin? If the law could not charge our fin on him, 'in virtue of his own voluntary undertaking, it could have no ground in justice to inflict our punishment on him.
2. He became furety for their debt of duty or obedience; the which also is a debt according to the style of the holy scripture, Gal. v. 3. A debtor to do the whole law. The law as a covenant of works, tho' it was broken by them, and they had incurred the penalty thereof, yet had neither lost its right, nor ceased to exact of them the obedience which at first it required of man, as the condition of life. They were still bound to perfect obedience, and on no lower terms could have eternal life, as our Lord taught the lawyer for his humiliation, Luke x. 28. Thou haft anfwered right: this do, and thou shalt live. The paying of the debt of punishment might satisfy as to the penalty of the bond ; but there is yet more behind, for him who will meddle in the affairs of the broken company. How shall the principal fum therein contained, be paid ; namely the debt of obe. dience to the law, for life and salvation? The honour of God would not allow the quitting of it: and they were absolutely unable to pay que mite of it, that would have been current in heaven; forasmuch as they were without strength, Rom. v. 6. and dead in trespases and fins, Eph. ii. 1. quite as unfit for the doing part, as for the suffering part. But Christ became furety for this debt of theirs too, namely, the debt of obedience to the law as a covenant, which was, and is the only obedience to it for life; obliging himfelf to clear it by obeying in their room and stead, and fulfilling what the law could demand of them in this kind: Psalm x. 7, 8. Then said I, Lo, I come--I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is
within my heart. Matth. iii. 15. Thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Chap. v. 17. Think not that I am come to destroy the law.--I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
And here allo there was an exchange of persons in law, Christ substituting himselfin their room, and taking their obligation on himself: in virtue of which he became the law's debtor for that obedience 'owing by them; and this he himself folemnly owned, by his being circumcised, Luke ii. 21. according to that of the Apofile, Gal. v. 3. I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debitor to do the whole luw. For becoming Surety for them in this point also, he transferred on himself their state of servitude, whereby the law had a right to exact that debt of him, which they, upon the breach of the covenant of works, were liable in payment of
For clearing of this, it is to be considered, that all mankind was by the first covenant, the covenant of works, constitute God's hired servants; and actually entered to that their service, in their head the first Adam. And, in token hereof, we are all naturally inclined in that character to deal with God; though by the fall we are rendered incapable to perform the duty of it, Luke xv. 19., Make me as one of thy hired fervants. The work they were to work, was perfect obedience to the holy law: the hire they were to have for their work, was life, Rom. x. 5. The man that doth these things, shall live by them. The penalty of breaking away from their master, was bondage under the curse, Gal. iii. 10. Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But violating that covenant of hired service, they brake away from their Lord and Master ; so they not only lost all plea for the hire, but they became bond-men under the curse; still obliged to make out their service, and that, Surthermore, in the misery of a state of
fervitude or bondage, Gal. iv. 24. These are the two covenants: the one from mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage. Their falling under the curse, inferred the loss of their liberty, and constituted them bond-men: as appears from the nature of the thing, and instances of the curse in other cafes, as Gen. ix. 25. 'Curfed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall be be. Joihua ix. 23. Now therefore ye, (namely, the Gibeonites) are cursed, and there shall none of you be freed from being bond-men. The very ground being cursed, (Gen. iii. 17.), falls under bondage, accord. ing to the scripture, Rom. viii. 21.
Now, Christ saw all his spiritual seed in this state of servitude ; but unable to bear the misery of it, or to fulfil the service ; and he put himself in their room, as they were bond-men; transferring their state of fervitude on himself, and so ffting himself a bond-fervant for them.
The holy scripture sets this matter in a clear light. That is a plain testimony unto it, Philip. ii.-6, 7, 8. Who being in the form of God---took upon him the form of a servant--and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. The form of a servant which he took upon him, was the form of a bond-fervant, For so the word in the original properly signifies; being the same word that is constantly used in that New Testament phrase, which we read bond or free, or bond and free, i Cor. xii. 13. Gal. iii. 28. Eph. vi, 8. Col. iii. 11. Rev. xii. 16. and xix, 18. And the Apostle leads us to understand it so here, telling us that this great furety-fervant became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. The which kind of death was a Roman punishment, called by them, the fervile punishment, or punishment of bond-fera vants ; because it was the death that bond-men maTefactors were ordinarily doomed unto; free-men fel. dom, if ever, according to law. And forafımuch as his being in the form of God, denotes his-being very God, having the very nature and essence of God; for the form is that which essentially distinguisheth things, and makes a thing to be precisely what it is: and this form is, according to the Apostle, the foundation of his equality with God his Father, which nothing really different from the divine essence, can be: Therefore his taking upon him the form of a bondfervant, must necessarily denote his becoming really a bond-fervant, as really as ever man did, who was brought into bondage, or a state of fervitude.
The Father folemnly declares the transferring of our state of servitude on Christ, speaking to him under the name of Israel, as was cleared before, Isa. xlix. 3. Thou art my fervant, О Ifrael, in whom I will be glorified. As if the Father had said to him, “ Son, be it known, it is agreed that I take thee in “ the room and place of Israel, the spiritual feed, to “ perform the service due in virtue of the broken
original contract: Thou in their stead art my fer“ vant; my bond-servant (as the word is rendered, “ Lev. xxv. 39. and elsewhere): it is from thy hand “ I will look for that service.” Agreeable hereunto is the account we have of our redemption from the curse, Gal. iii. 13. namely, that it was by Jesus Christ being made a curse for us ; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree; the which Christ did, dying on a cross, the capital punishment of bond-men.
Behold the folemnity of the translation, Psalm xl. 6. Sacrifice and offering thou didst not defire, mine ears haft thou opened. The word here rendered open. ed, properly signifies digged, as may be seen in the margin of our Bibles; and so the words are, Mine ears thou diggest through; that is, boredst, as it is expressed in our paraphrafe of the Psalms in metre, Mine ears thou bor'd. This has a manifest view to that law concerning the bond-fervant, Exod. xxi. 6. Then his master Mall bring him unto the judges : he E 4
Mhall also bring him to the door, or unto the door poft: and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he mall serve him for ever ; that is, in the language of the law, till death. This is confirmed from Hofea iii. 2. So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver; which was the half of the stated price of a bond woman, Exod. xxi. 32. In the original it is, So. I digged her thro' to me; the same word being here used by the holy Ghost, as Pfalm xl. 6. It is a pregnant word, which is virtually two in signification : and the sense is, I bought her, and bored her ear to my door-post, to be my bond woman; according to the law, Deut. xv. 17. Thou shalt take an aul, and thrust it through his ear unto the door, and he mall be thy servant for ever : and also unto thy maid-fervant thou shalt do likewise. That the boring of ber ear as a bond-woman, was no wife in. consistent with the prophet's betrothing of her to himself, Hofea iii. 3. appears from Exod. xxi. 8.
Josèph was an eminent type of Christ as the Father's fervant. And it is observable, that he was first a bond servant, and then an honourary fervant. In the former state, being sold for a fervant, Psalm cv. 17. he was a type of Christ, a bond-fervant in his state of humiliation ; whose most precious life was accordingly sold by Judas for thirty pieces of filver, the stated price of the life of a bond fervant: Exod. xxi. 32. If the ox shall push a man-fervant, or maid.fervant ; he shall give unto their master thirty shekles of silver, and the ox shall be stoned. In the latter state, being made ruler over all the land Lof Egypt, Psalm cv. 21, 22. Gen. xli. 40. he was a type of Christ, in that most honourable and glorious service or ministry, which was conferred on him in his state of exaltation, wherein he was constituted a servant, for whose law the isles shall wait, Ifa. xlii. 1, 4. ; God having given him a name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee