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should bow, Philip. ii. 9, 10. This latter fervice of Christ belongs to the promise of the covenant; but the former, to wit, the bond service, being his sure. ty service, belongs to the condition of the covenant. Wherefore, rising from the dead, having fulfilled the condition of the covenant, paid the debt for which he became surety, and got up the discharge, he put off for ever the form and character of a bond-servant, and rose and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living, Rom. xiv. 9.
And hence it clearly appears, how the obedience of the man Christ comes, in virtue of the covenant, to be imputed to believers for righteousness, as well as his fatisfaction by fuffering: for that kind of obedience which he performed as our surety, was no more due by him, antecedently to his contract of suretiship, than his fatisfaction by suffering. It is - true, the human nature of Christ, being a creature, owed obedience to God in virtue of his creation; and most owe it for ever, forasmuch as the creature, as a creature, is subject to the natural law, the eternal rule of righteousness : but Christ's putting him self in a fate of servitude, taking on him the form of a bond-fervant, and in the capacity of a bond-fervant performing obedience to the law, as it was stated in the covenant, for life and salvation, was entirely voluntary. Obedience to the natural law was due by the man Christ, by a natural tie ; but obedience to the positive law, binding to be circumcised, baptized, and the like, which fuppofed guilt on the party subjected thereto, was not due bút by his own voluntary engagement. And the 'obedience of a fon to the natural law, he owed naturally; but obedience to that or any other law, in the character of a.bondservant, and thereby to gain eternal life and falvation, he owed not but by compact. The human nature of Christ had a complete right to eternal life, and was actually possessed thereof, in virtue of its
union with the divine nature ; so that there was no occasion for him to gain life to himself by his obedience. Wherefore Christ's taking on him the form of a bond-fervant, and in that character obeying the law for life and salvation, were a mere voluntary work of his, as furety for finners; wherein he did that which he was no otherwise bound to, than by his own voluntary undertaking. Now, forasmuch as the obedience of Christ imputed to believers for righteousness, is his obedience of this kind only; there is a clear ground for its imputation to them according to the covenant.
And thus have we feen Christ's suretiship in the covenant to be of the nature of a suretiship for pay. ing one's debt; and what the debt was which he became furety for.
If it be required, Whether or not Christ's furetifhip is also of the nature of suretiship for one's performing of a deed? or, Whether Christ became furety in way of caution to his Father, that the elect Tould believe, repent, and perform sincere obedi. ence! I answer, Though the elect's believing, repenting, and sincere obedience, are infallibly secured in the covenant ; so that whosoever, being subjects capable of these things, do live and die without them, shall undoubtedly perish, and are none of God's elect: yet I judge, that Christ did not become surety in the covenant, in way of caution to his Father, that the elect should perform these deeds, or any other; and that the way of speaking doth not so well agree with the scripture account of the covenant. Because,
1. It doth somewhat obscure the grace, the free grace of the covenant, whereas the covenant is purposely so ordered, as to manifest it most illuftriously, being of faith, that it might be by gráce, Rom. iv. 16. For such a suretiship, or cautionry for the elect's performing of these things, must needs belong to the condition of the covenant, properly fo
called ; as being a deed of the Mediator, whereby he promiseth something to God, and engageth that it shall be performed by them : and so these things performed by them accordingly, must be a part of The condition of the covenant. But that sinners them. felves perform any part of the condition of the covenant, properly so called, cannot be admitted with out prejudice to the grace of the covenant: for so far as we perform in our own persons, any part of the condition, the reward is not of grace, but of debt ; for to him that worketh, is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt, Rom. iv. 4. But the reward is wholly of grace to us, as it is of debt un10 Christ : for to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is count. ed for righteousness, verse 5. Chap. xi. 6. And if by grace, then it is no more of works; otherwise grace is no more grace. Suppose a man is surety for a thou. fand pound, for his neighbour, who is thereupon to have a right to a certain valuable benefit ; and that this man absolutely becomes furety for the whole fum, excepting only an hundred pence; for which hundred pence also he becomes cautioner, that it shall be paid by the principal : it is evident, that the condition of this bargain is divided between the furety and the principal, though indeed their shares are very unequal: but however unequal they are, as far as the hundred pence which the principal pays in his own person, do reach, so far the benefit is of debt to him. Or put the case, A surety engageth for the whole of the sum payable; and, besides, is furety for the principal's good behaviour; it is evident, that in this case the good behaviour of the principal is a part of the condition of the bargain, as well as the payment of the money ; since caution for it is required by him who is to communicate the benefit. At this rate, the condition is still divided between the furety and principal; and the latter performs a part of it as well as the former: and fo the reward is, in part, of debt unto him, as well as to the surety. The application hereof to the case in hand is obvious. The sum of the matter lies here : If Christ did in the covenant become furety in way of caution for his people's performing some deed; the performing the condition of the covenant, properly so called, is divided betwixt Christ and them, however unequal their shares are': and if the performing the condition is divided betwixt Christ and them, so far as their part of the performance goes, the reward is of debt to them, which obscures the grace of the covenant.
2. According to the scripture, the elect's believing, repenting, and sincere obedience, do belong to the-promissory part of the covenent. If we consider them in their original firuation, they are benefits promised in the covenant by God unto Christ the surety, as a reward of his fulfilling the condition of the covenant. And so they are, by the unchangeable truth of God, and his exact justice, insured beyond all possibility of failure: Psalm xxii. 27. All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the Lord. Verse 30. A feed SHALL serve him. Verse 31. They SHALL come, and shall declare his righteousness unto a people that shall be born. Pfalm cx. 3. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power. See Isa. liii. 10. with verfe 1. Ezek. xxxiv. 26, 27, 31. Heb. viii. 10, 11. If it be asked, To whom are these promises made, and the promises of the like nature through the Bible? it is evident, that feveral of them are made to Christ expressly; and the apostle answers as' to them all, Gal. iii. 16. TO Abraham and his feed were the promises made.---To thy feed, which is Christ. And whereas there are found promises wherein Christ himself is the undertaker, as John vi. 37. All that the Father giveth me, SHALL come to me ; they are not to be taken for Christ's engaging to his father, as cautioner for a deed to be
done by the feed: but therein he speaks to man, as
III. Christ the Priest of the Covenant.
his doing the part of a Kinsman redeemer, that he should become surety in the covenant; so it was necessary to his performing of what he became furety for, that he should be a Priest. And accordingly, consenting to the covenant, he became the priest of the covenant, Heb. ix. 11. Christ being come an high priest of good things to come. A priest is a public person, who deals with an offended God in the name of the guilty, for reconciliation, by facrifice, which he offereth to God upon an altăr, being there. to called of God, that he may be accepted. So'a priest speaks a relation to an altar, an altar to a facrifice, and a sacrifice to fin.
Those whom Christ represented in the covenant being finners, he became their priest, their highpriest, appearing before God in their name, to make atonement and reconciliation for them: and this was the great thing that the whole priesthood under the law, and especially the highpriesthood, did typify and point at. Their nature was the priest's gar. . ments he put on, to exercise his priestly office in ; the same being pure and undefiled in him: and in their nature he sustained their persons, representing them before God, as their great high-priest. A live.