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ly type hereof was Aaron's bearing before the Lord, the names of the children of Israel, the twelve tribes, upon his two shoulders, in the shoulder-pieces of the ephod; these names being engraven on two onyxftones set therein by divine appointment, Exod. xxviii. 9, 10, 12.: as also his bearing them in the breastplate being engraven on twelve ftones fer therein,
-29. Thus Aaron the high-priest was all Ifrael representatively: an illuftrious type of Christ the Priest of the covenant, the spiritual Ifrael representative, Ifa. xlix. 3.
The necessity of Christ the second Adam hiş becoming a priest, appears in these following things jointly conlidered.
1. Those whom he represented, were finners : and there could not be a new covenant without provision made for removing of their sin; and that required a priest. The first covenant was made without a priest, because then there was no sin to take away; the parties therein represented, as well as the representative, were considered as innocent persons. But the second covenant was a covenant of peace and reconciliation between an offended God and sinners, not to be made but by the mediation of a priest; who should be able to remove sin, and repair the injured honour of God: Zech. vi. 13. He shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both. And there was none fit to bear that character but Christ himself. No man was fit to bear it; because all men were finners themselves, and such an high-priest became us, as was undefiled, separated from finners, Heb. vii. 26. It is true, the elect angels were indeed undefiled; but yet none of them could be priest of the covenant; because,
2. Sin could not be removed without a facri. fice of fufficient value, which they were not able to afford. The new covenant behoved to be a cove
nant by sacrifice, a covenant written in blood; and without shedding of blood there was no remiffion, Heb. ix. 22. Therefore the typical covenant with Abraham was not made without the folemnity of sacrifice, Gen. xv. 9. : that he might know the covenant to be a covenant of reconciliation, in which a just God did not Mew his mercy, but in a way confiftent with the honour of his justice. Now, the facrifices of beasts, yea, and whatsoever the creatures could afford for facrifice in this case, were infinitely below the value. But Jesus Christ becoming a priest, gave himself a sacrifice to God, for establishing the covenant; and that sacrifice was for a sweetfmelling favour, Eph. V. 2. or, as the Old Testament phrase is, a favour of rest, Gen. viii. 21. marg.
The represented being finners, were corrupt and abominable before God; and he as it were smelled a favour of disquiet from them, they being a smoke in his nose, Ifa. Ixv. 5. their fin set his revenging justice and wrath astir. But the sacrifice of Christ himself, was fit to fend forth such a sweet smelling favour unto God, as should quite overcome the abominable fa. vour rising from them, and lay his revenging justice and wrath to the most calm and profoundest rest.
The necessity of a sacrifice in the second covenant, arose from the justice of God requiring the execution of the curse of the broken first covenant ; whereby the finner should fall a sacrifice for his sin, according to that, Psalm xciv. 23. He shall bring upon them their iniquity, and shall cut them off in their own wickedness. It was an ancient custom in making of covenants, to cut a beast in twain, and to pass between the parts of it: and that passing between the parts, respected the falling of the curse of the cuvenant upon the breaker; Jer. xxxiv. 18. And I will give the men that have transgressed the covenant, which have not performed the words of the covenant which they had made before me, when they cut the
calf calf in twain, and passed between the parts thereof : or rather, more agreeable to the original, I will make the men that have transgreffed my covenantthe calf which they cut in twain, and passed between the parts thereof: that is, I will make them as that calf which they cut in twain: I will execute the curses on them, cutting chem asunder as covenantbreakers, Matth. xxiv, 51. Now, the covenant of works being broken, justice required this execution of the curfe of it, in order to the establishing of a. new covenant, the covenant of grace and peace. But nad it been execute on the finners themselves, the fire of wrath would have burnt continually on them; but never would such a sacrifice have sent forth a favour smelling so sweet, as to be a favour of rest to revenging justice; forasinuch as they were not only mere creatures, whose most exquisite sufferings could not be a fufficient compensation for the injured honour of an infinite God; but they were sinful creatures too, who should still have remained sinful under their suffering. Wherefore Jefus Christ, being both seperate from finners, and equal with God, consented in the covenant to be the facrifice, on which the curse of the first covenant might be execute, in their room and stead.
This is lively represented in the covenant made with Abraham, in which he was a type of Christ, Gen. xv. In that covenant God promised the deliverance of Abraham's feed out of the Egyptian bondage and to give them the land of Canaan; a type of the deliverance of Christ's fpiritual feed from the bondage of fin and Satan, and of putting them in possession of heaven, verse 13, 14, 16, 18. Awful was the solemnity used at the making of this covenant. There were taken a heifer, a she.goat, and a ram, each of them of three years old; typifying Christ, who was about three years in his public ministry, verfe 9. These were, each of them, divided in the midí,
hacked afunder by the middle; which typified the execution of the curse of the broken first covenant on Christ our surety, and facrifice for us, verse 10. Abraham's driving away the fowls that came down upon the carcases, typified Christ's victory over the devils all along during the state of his humiliation, and especially his triumphing over them on the cross, verfe 11. And finally, there was, a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between the pieces s which fignified the revenging wrath of God seizing on Christ the facrifice, and justice therewith satisfied,
3. No facrifice could be accepted, but on such an altar as should fanctify the gift to its necessary value and designed effect, Matth. xxiii. 19. And who could furnish that but Christ himself, whose divine nature was the altar, from whence the sacrifice of his human nature derived its value and efficacy as infinite ? Heb. ix. 14. How much more mall the blood of Christ, who, through the eternal Spirit, offered up himself without spot to God, purge your confcience from dead works? His blessed body suffering and bleeding to death on the cross, and his holy
foul fcorched and melted within him with the fire of divine wrath, both in the mean time united to his Jivine nature, were the sacrifice burning on the altar, from the which God smelled a sweet favour, to the appealing of his wrath, and satisfying of his justice fully. Not that Chrift was a facrifice only while on the crofs; but that his offering of himself a sacrifice, which was begun from his incarnation in the womb, the sacrifice being laid on the altar in the first moment thereof; and was continued thro his whole life ; was compleated on the cross, and in the
grave: Heb. x. 5. Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he faith, Sacrifice nor offering thou wouldft not, but a body haft thou prepared me :--ver. 7. Then fuid 1, Lo, I come. Ifa. liii. 2. When ye shall see him, F
there is no beauty that we should defire him. Ver. 3. He is.—a man of forrows, and acquainted with grief, 2 Cor. v. 21. He hath made him to be fin for us.
4. Lastly, There behoved to be a priest to offer this facrifice, this valuable facrifice unto God upon that altar; else there could have been no sacrifice to be accepted, and so no removal of fin, and confequently no new covenant. And since Christ himself was the sacrifice, and the altar too, he himself one could be the priest. And forasmuch as the weight of the salvation of sinners lay upon his call to that office, he was made priest of the covenant by the oath of God, Heb. vii. 20, 21. As he had full power over his own life, to make himself a sacrifice for others; so his Father's folemn investing of him with this office by an oath, gave him access to offer himself effectually; even in such fort as thereby to fulfil the condition of the covenant, and to purchase eternal life for them.
Inferences from the second Head. I shall shut up this head of the making of the covenant of grace, with two inferences from the whole.
Inf. 1. What remains for finners, that they may be personally and savingly in covenant with God, is not as parties contractors and undertakers, to make a covenant with him, for life and salvation; but only, to take hold of God's covenant already made from eternity, between the Father and Chrilt the second Adam, and revealed and offered to us in the gospel, Ila. lvi. 4, 6. I have no design hereby to disparage our covenants made for national reformation by our godly progenitors, and commonly called the Na. tional Covenant, and Solemn League and Covenant, on which God set the seal of his good pleasure, in the experience of many. These, and the like, are covenants of duties, consequential enough to the taking hold of God's covenant of grace. Neither