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50 much want of common humanity in the relations existing between them, on the part of the superior, that, so far from sympathising with them upon the loss of their liberty, I could not but regret that they ever should have had so much in former times, seeing how cruelly they abused the little which was still left them.
"Such an assertion may draw down upon me the stigma of the patriotic, who only see oppressed virtue in every Polish exile. I am not defending the oppressor, nor do I suppose him to be an iota better than his conquered neighbour; the demoralization of one does not justify the oppression of the other. Every Englishman would gladly, from his heart, rejoice in the restoration of Poland to her state of political freedom; but every Englishman who, like myself resided some time in the country, would more rejoice to see the nobility permit that civil freedom to their serfs, which can alone entitle the nobility of Poland to the commiseration of a people who allow that liberty to others which they enjoy themselves. But many of those
who dwell where Kosciusko dwelt' are unworthy of him whom Campbell has immortalized in the lines
Hope for a moment bade the world farewell,
And freedom shrieked when Kosciusko fell. The times are changed in Poland, and that hospitality for which it was so deservedly celebrated has naturally received much modification.
" It was once usual for every nobleman, who could afford it, to make his house a gratuitous tavern; and a gentlemanly demeanour was all that was necessary to insure a welcome reception and the use of servants and horses, with the advantage of the best fare, to any traveller who presented himself. I have often heard the count say, that it was not unusual for a dozen guests to be seated at his father's table, whom he never saw before, might never see again, and whom he knew not by name. These good old times are gone; and the Pole, having lost his country, but not his hospitable character, displays by necessity abroad, what he once could do by choice at home. It is chiefly this spirit of hospitality which gains him such ready admission into all foreign society. Independent of this, however, the Pole is, of all others, the man most calculated to shine in society. Variety of language, which to most foreigners is so great a barrier, and allows them rather to be tolerated than courted, is to him no obstacle. When be is at Vienna he speaks better German than the emperor; when in Paris, the most
refined ear can hardly detect the foreign accent; and even in London, his pronunciation of English is so much more tolerable than that of all other foreigners, that it is the subject of general admiration.
“ This great facility of speaking languages, so peculiar to the Poles, is at. tributable to two causes: primo, their own language comprehends of itself all the sounds which can be found by a combination of letters; and, secundo, they are accustomed, from infancy, to speak several languages daily. Polish, German, French and English, ring the changes in their ears every hour of the day; and when these are instilled into them at an age when no choice is allowed, the difficulty of acquiring is inconsiderable.
Languages are only acquired by the habit of speaking them, and not by rules of grammar.
“ It is the constant conversation with natives themselves which gives the facility. Whichever language is predominant, this alone will be the one well spoken; hence the great object is to allow none to be predominant; and this is accomplished in the education of Polish children, as much from necessity as from choice. The child is at the commencement of his existence, put into the arms of an English nursery.maid ; as he grows older, he will probably have a
French dancing-master, German music-master, and an English tutor. When he has completed his morning tasks under these different tutors, he sits down to table, where the languages are as various as the dishes; and when he retires to his playground, he finds half a dozen children of different nations to play with. There is not a day in the whole year in which he is confined to speaking and hearing his mother tongue. It is precisely the language which he knows the least, and which he never speaks from choice.”
We must pass over an interesting account of the salt-mines of Weelitzka, and proceed at a somewhat quicker pace than heretofore; nor have we tiine and space to dally with our author through his Russian tours, his intention in visiting the cold north being to make a fortune, wherewith to return to more hospitable regions.
“Every thing conspired to strengthen me in this opinion. The prince assured me that my success was certain; and what better assurance could I require than that of a man so influential as
himself, and occupying so high a rank in society? All the Russians and Poles whom I had attracted in Paris spoke in the same terms of certainty; and judging, as I did, from the liberal manner in which they had enumerated my services, I anticipated an abundant harvest. As I journeyed along the the road towards my destination, the same hopes seemed to revive as the season advanced.
“ At Carlsbad I was promised a place at court, which, indeed, I considered essential, believing with Touchstone, that not to have been at court was to be like an ill-roasted egg, all on one side. My sojourn in Cracow fed my hopes still more; and my progress through the provinces, until my arrival at Odessa, still fanned the flame. Here the climax-the crown of professional glory was placed upon my head. I was here presented to her imperial majesty, and graciously received; nay, I was to attend one of the imperial children professionally. "Je vous attende avec impatience a St. Petersbourgh,' was the valedictory blessing of my nu. merous friends upon my quitting the capital of the south. Buoyed up with the hope and certainty of a continuation of previous good fortune, I hardly inquired concerning the English settlers whom I should find in St. Petersburg: Strange to say, I had never heard of the factory.
“ What was it then but fate, chance, or destiny which so thwarted my career in one sphere, to establish it in another and altogether unhoped-for direction?
“ I fell suddenly from the pinnacle of ambitious expectation, to climb, by slow and surer degrees, the tree of niedical existence.
“I had aimed at plucking the apples of the Hesperides, and found myself too happy in the possession of the Ribston pippins supplied at the hospitable boards of the English merchants. If my former expectations were founded upon excessive vanity, I must plead in my excuse, that most men will believe themselves to be what others designate them; and if a certain degree of success corroborates the assertion, we can hardly be censured for acting upon an idea which has grown gradually into imaginary reality."
pay in Russia. This holds good from the field-marshal to the ensign—from the chancellor to the lawyer's scribe from the grand-masters of the police to the city-watchmen. Every Russian will attest to the truth of this assertion. Now, as these people must and do live, so the deficiency is made up by private fortune or by peculation. As all the higher ranks are found, under some pretext or other, to serve their country in some shape, so their salaries are of minor consideration; and it is indeed the custom for men of fortune to divide the salary they receive from government among their subordinates. In no country is there so great a number of employés as in Russia; for as its small nobility are, from the causes before mentioned innumerable, it is necessary not only to put them into all vacant places, bnt to create a number of such for their special service, and consequently this class of nobility or chinapicks, or what we should call lit. tle gentry, are the crying burden of the state. The army disposes of many of them; and although their pay is but trifling, they still find means sufficient for subsistence. But the greater class are employed as scribes in the public offices; and as most of them do not receive more than thirty pounds' salary, out of which they must furnish an uniform, their mode of existence 'be very equivocal. As regards those who are in the pay of the police, no doubt can exist as to their way of going to work.
“One example will be sufficient to furnish the clue to the whole machinery. The city is divided into different quarters, over which is placed a superior police officer, who is of course subordinate to the grand-master of the police. The former, however, has a large suite of underlings, and is the active personage in maintaining order in his district. He is a man of a certain education; he is lodged in a good house; generally keeps two or three pair of horses, a number of servants; lives in that style which supposes an income of £700 sterling per annum : while his whole receipts from government do not exceed £80. His means of making up the deficiency I shall leave to conjecture.”
There is much amusement and some information to be gained by accompanying the physician in his rambles to Sweden and back, by Berlin, Magdeburg, and the German baths, to England, where he arrives at last," after a long absence. But we have already dwelt too much on these things—at least, our editor's frowns
While speaking of the misstatements of travellers concerning Russia, our author remarks with his usual quickness one great cause of that diffusion of dishonest and knavish habits so rife in the dominions of the czar.
“ No man in office can live upon his
are before us, and certain warnings impressed by her remarks, for 'when are in our ears that politics and it is told of themselves, they are a poetry demand also their legitimate people regularly uomoved by the attention at his hands; nor can we truth.” better conclude our notice of these The politeness of the remark, not pleasant and entertaining volumes than to speak of its veracity, might have in the words of their author
disposed us to leave the volume where
we found it the more as we flatter “ And now if any one has had pa- ourselves Mr. Dickens versus the lady tience to accompany me in my travels, is about as much odds as any reasonI wish him farewell, and thank him for
able man could wish for; but a lurking his company. I am now riding at an
curiosity to see the points selected for chor, and it is not my intention to put to sea again. Should I ever be tempted
attack, rather than the mode of conto slip my cable, I shall steer directly
ducting it, induced us to proceed furfor the New World. I should say of my
ther, and here we present "our expebook, that it is a curious production, rience” to our readers, touching upon many things, and dwell. The volume purports to be a series ing upon none. It is highly electric: of letters written by an American it approaches all surrounding bodies, lady to her friend at New York, and which, as soon as they have touched it,
opens with some random remarks about fly off at a tangent, repelling each
taxes and custom houses, both of which other."
excite her American indignation, in
company with the unhappy Thames, " The Change for the American “ whose smallness she cannot get over.” Notes" is an unhappy exception to the These are followed by an obligato inclass of books we have just presented troduction of Mr. Dickens' name, of to our reader's notice; and it would whom, after some very pretty marks seem that the conclusion of our paper, of approval regarding his works of like the codicil of certain wills, was to fiction, of which we feel assured Boz is revoke any provision contained in the duly sensible and proud, she thus disbody of the testament.
courses :-" The noblest rivers in the From the title of this volume, no less world rolled from him unregarded by, than from the degree of irritation and or at least unparagraphed. In the anger caused by Mr. Dickens' recent Mississippi he beholds but a muddy work on America, we were disposed stream flowing through a woody wil. to espect something like an attack or derness; his mind's eye catches no a refutation of his notes ; a strong prescient glimpse of the cities that in case made out to show misrepresenta- the fulness of time will adorn its tion and misstatement, and clever de- banks-he alludes not to the all hail fence of America against the assaults hereafter." of so distinguished a writer. On the We confess we deem this hard, very contrary, however, Mr. Dickens' name hard indeed; that Mr. Dickens should only occurs at intervals throughout the be rated not only for not having involume; the allusions to him and to dulged in a special panegyric of the his book are few and meagre, and Hudson and the Mississippi, but also never accompanied by even an effort because he did not launch forth into at contradiction, and the Change for ecstacies over cities which have no exthe American Notes is simply an at- istence. “ He did not see the Spanish tempted “ Roland for Boz's Oliver"- feet, because it was not yet in sight," a miserable endeavour to carry the war such is the measure of his iniquity, into the enemy's camp, at the moment That Mr. Dickens gave not the rein to too when their own army is routed. his glowing imagination in this inThe object of the book is certainly stance, were we an American, we strange, coming from one who, in a should feel excessively grateful for; had few lines of preface, affects to regret fancy predominated over reason, and the evils arising from severe animad- had he suffered himself to catch these versions on the part of travellers, but same "prescient glimpses” the lady which probably che consoled herself speaks of, the probability is that his for in the present instance by the com- vision would have been of low and forting assurance she concludes with stagnant swamps peopled by caymans, "that the English will not be much a foetid morass, redolent of ague
VOL, XXII-No. 128.
and pestilent fever, where miserable the warriors who made British humanity toiled, and sickened, and valour felt-the poets and philosophers died, unpitied and unknown. But to who gave undying lustre to the lan. pass on-after some dalliance on the guage long before misrule made Amescore of a new bonnet, in which she rica exclaim, . I will be free;' Chaucer, incidentally remarks that “ in French and Spencer, and Barrow, and Ad. fashions we are in advance of the dison, and Newton, are ours as well ladies in London"-a natural circum- as England's.” It would be difficult stance doubtless attributable to the to cram more absurdity into one paravicinity to Paris and the greater inter- graph than this; and we would ask course between the two nations; we with what face Americans can affect have an apt comparison between pride in their connection with a nation Indians and opera dancers, in which which by every effort in public and the palm of gracefulness is accorded private, they never cease to vilify? to the former. If the lady be correct “ That great men lived before misrule in this instance, we can only say, that made America exclaim" any thing, is Mr. Catlin must have been hoaxing us very possible, inasmuch as great men here to a considerable extent: any existed before America was thing more barbarous than the cotil. known or thought of; and as to any lons of his red men we never wit- copartnery they possess in the illusnessed, and with about as much re- trious names of English history, they semblance to Ellsler or Cerito as the have it in common with Jack Shep“ Change” bears to the American pard, and Turpin, and Jonathan Wilde, “ Notes" themselves.
and others of that stamp-ay, and In her fourth letter we are treated pretty much on the same conditions to a trip to Windsor, the main object too. The collection of names reminds of which is, to contrast the conduct us not a little of the Irish school. and manners of American and English master's'classical authorities—"Vulcan, railroad travellers. “ No smoking is Venus, and Nicodemus;" but this we allowed in any of the carriages; there forgive, begging to assure the “ lady" are no feathery showers such as Boz that if we are severe in our strictures tells of. The English rarely open
their on America, we have at least this mouths for any purpose but to eat and much of consistency to boast of—that drink, while they travel.” How hand- we never affect to feel proud of what some he would be if he had only a we so strenuously condemn. goitre, was the exclamation of the After some remarks, much more Swiss peasant, to whom the frightful flippant than true, about the ignorance deformity from long habit had become of the lower classes in England, the a beauty in her eyes; and so with the lady remarks, "that on the west coast lady, she cannot contain her regret of 'Ireland there are a great many that no feathery showers remind her islands, and the inhabitants are as rude of the land of the west-no pleasant and as apparently uncared for, as they fumes of chewed tobacco scent the were centuries ago. How self-denying breezes, to recall the free winds of then are the British to send out America.
teachers to Tahiti, to New Zealand, to A little further on we are informed the Niger, &c. Am I deceived, dear that one of her solicitors assured her Julia, in my irony?" As in all likelishe could not be taken for any thing hood « dear Julia" will not be able to but an English lady. He intended it reply, we shall do so for her. You for a compliment," &c. With every are deceived. The islands you speak respect for a legal opinion, we beg of are the scene of the labours of one most respectfully to dissent from this, of the most remarkable men of the day,
“ an American against the the Rev. Mr. Nangle, a clergyman of the world."
Church of England, who, voluntarily Westminster Abbey and its stipen- submitting to the hardships and vicisdiary system, which we are most will. situdes of a life of the greatest privaing to condemn, open the ninth letter; tion, devotes his entire energies to the and we are gravely told, “ the Ameri- religious and moral instruction of cans as well as the British may feel these people. That you may have ennobled in Westminster; for there are heard of the islands, and not of him, the great names of a common ancestry with whose name they now are and
must for ever be associated,' might be dent in her resources, can afford to somewhat strange, but that it is per- be evil spoken of, and is pretty well fectly in keeping with the tone of in- inured to it into the bargain," a conformation in the entire volume. This fession, we own, that might be adopted is followed by a digression—for so with great success and propriety by goes on the book—as to how a writer
many calumniated individuals at the should describe America, in which the Old Bailey. The old story about the chief force lies in the exaltation and Americans speaking English with more enumeration of all the great things purity than the English, because some which America has not done-the peasants in Yorkshireare unintelligible, cities that do not exist the people scarce deserves a notice. When we talk who are not born, and the “
“giant's of a language in its purity, we mean strength and sage's wisdom;" the only that language as spoken by the educated evidences of which we have seen are classes, by whom its standard is preto be found in the practice of slavery served ; and with what truth can any and the declaration of national bank- one assert that English is so spoken in raptcy; the strength” that tyrannizes New York, Boston, or even Washing-the “wisdom” that cheats.
ton? In the very volume before us “ I think," writes the “lady,” “the too many Yankeeisms are apparent. boastfulness imputed to Americans is Whence came the word " generally a trick of manner more Who ever heard of neighbourhood as than any thing else." We confess a verb? and so on: if we took the pains, ourselves unable to say yea or nay we might string twenty similar into the doctrine, not knowing what stances. the words " trick of manner” are « The Americans intonate more de. meant exactly to imply. If merely liberately.” That they do !-con-si-dera habit—if nothing more than a pass- ably; but if they did not impart a ing tribute to conventional usage, in nasal twang to the whole, we might which nothing serious is intended, then forgive the intonation. say we, for heaven's sake abandon it. As to their proficiency in European Miserable as your long dyspeptic faces languages, it is lamentable; we scarcely make us—unhappy as we feel at the remember ever to have met an American ancouth liberties of your parts of a tolerable Frenchs cholar. We never speech-disgusted as we must be at saw but one-he was a Gottingen stu
your feathery showers"—your vain- dent—who could speak German. The glorious boastfulness is, of all your *lady,” though not sparing of French sins, the most grievous and difficult to quotations, only once ventures on emendure.
ploying a phrase on her own account; We have met them at home and and then she uses “ embonpoint" as abroad ; in their own Broadway and an adjective, page 369, the common on the continent of Europe; of every error of all who employ a French word class, from the diplomatist downwards, without knowing the language. and this one pervading feature went But enough, and more than enough. through all, rendering their conversa- The whole case of the lady is this:-tion almost unendurable, and their in- The Americans have great virtues and tercourse a “ bore ;" and here let us some faults; the former all their own, remark that nothing is more false and the latter of English origin. Selfishuntrue than to suppose that Americans fishness, vain boasting, and unamiability only meet severe criticism from the
came from England, together with English. The most cutting sarcasms purse pride and bad grammar. on their vulgarity, the heaviest cen- As regards bravery, patriotism, a sures on their ill breeding, want of tact high sense of honour, and a chivalrous and manner, we have ever heard, came feeling, they are of home origin, or to from foreigners when, speaking of the use the proper phrase, they were raised class of persons who represent the in America. “ States” at European courts.
Methinks France would be someThe lady concludes an endeavour to what astonished to hear that Quebec refate Alison's powerful and most was the true type, and Paris the false trustworthy picture of America in the last volume of his history of Europe But why dispute the point? The by remarking, “That America, confi- more they write the stronger the argu