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up its heat. This is consistent with cular substances to nourish man and the teachings of experience respecting cattle is not the same—the latter rethe fattening of cattle; for it is well quiring a larger proportion of the sacknown that this may be accomplished charine and oleaginous compounds than much sooner, if the animals are shut up is beneficial to him-especially when it in a warm dwelling and are covered is an object to cause a large quantity of with clothes, than if they are freely ex- fatty matter to be deposited in their posed in the open air.

tissues, or to be excreted in milk. Thus “ Now the condition of man may be potatoes are found to increase the proregarded as intermediate between these portion of butter in the milk of a cow two extremes. The construction of his that feeds upon them ; their starch being digestive apparatus, as well as his own probably converted into fatty matter. instinctive propensities, point to a mixed It has been also shown by recent experi. diet as that which is best suited to his ments, that the proportion of butter in wants. It does not appear that a diet the milk of a cow allowed to feed during composed of ordinary vegetables only, the day in a pasture, and shut up at is favourable to the full development of night in a warm stall, was much greater either his bodily or his mental powers ; in the morning milk than in the evening but this cannot be said in regard to a -the former containing 5.6 parts of butdiet of which bread is the chief ingre- ter in 100, and the latter only 3.7 parts. dient, since the gluten it contains ap- This was evidently due to the diminished pears to be as well adapted for the demand for the materials for respiration nutrition of the animal tissues, as does during the night, when the body was at the flesh of animals. On the other hand, rest and the skin kept warm. The exa diet composed of animal flesh alone is periment was then tried, of keeping the the least economical that can be con- cow in a shed during the day, and feed. ceived : for, since the greatest demand ing her with the same grass; and the for food is created in him (taking a man proportion of butter in her evening milk of average habits in regard to activity then rose to 5•1 parts in 100. But this and the climate he inbabits), by the ne- plan diminished the proportion of casein cessity for a supply of carbon and hy- or cheesy matter in the milk, which was drogen to support his respiration, this increased again by allowing the cow to want may be most advantageously ful- pasture in the open field. Hence it ap. filled by the employment of a certain pears that stall-feeding is most favouraquantity of non-azotised food, in which ble to the production of butter, and pasthese ingredients predominate. Thus turing to that of cheese. it has been calculated, that, since fifteen " These principles should be kept in pounds of flesh contain no more carbon view in regulating the diet of individuals, than four pounds of starch, a savage especially in certain disordered states of with one animal and an equal weight of the constitution, which require to be starch, could support life for the same treated by strict attention to diet. Thus length of time during which another there are some persons who have a re. restricted to animal food would require markable tendency to the deposition of five such animals, in order to procure fat ; and others in whom there is a mor. the carbon necessary for respiration. bid (or diseased) production of sugar Hence we see the immense advantage as in the body, which is carried off by the to economy of food, which a fixed agri. urine. In these cases, the diet should cultural population possesses over the be so regulated as to contain the least wandering tribes of hunters which still possible quantity of the saccharine or people a large part both of the old and oleaginous principles ; the food being new continents.

made to consist entirely of animal flesh, " The mixture of the azotised and with a very small quantity of bread non-azotised compounds (gluten and or still better, with bread from which starch), that exists in wheat flour, seems the greater part of the starch has been to be just that which is most useful to removed. On the other hand, there is man; and hence we see the explanation a state of the system, known as that in of the fact, that, from very early ages, which gout and gravel are liable to bread has been regarded as the staff of occur, in which there seems to be an life.' In regard to the nutritious pro- excess of azotised matter : and the diet perties of different articles of vegetable of such persons should be so regulated, food, these may be generally measured that very little or no animal flesh should by the proportion of azote they contain, be employed as food, the aliment being which is in almost every instance less made to consist almost exclusively of than that which exists in good wheat- farinaceous (starchy) substances, such flour. But it must not be forgotten that, as rice, potatoes,” &c. owing to the varieties of constitution which have been pointed out among

Botany, and the physiology of plants, different animals, the power of parti. are subjects which deservedly occupy

a considerable space in the plan before rangement, with their external characus. The choice between the Linnæan ters. and the natural system of arrange- Thus the mere assignment of a ment, is perhaps, at the present day, plant to its Linnæan class and order, less a matter of dispute than it was tells us nothing of its real nature or some time since, because the different relations ; such an assignment in the objects aimed at are now more gene- natural system, on the other hand, is rally understood, and the two systems in fact at once a description of much are not therefore regarded in the light of its character and properties; and of rivals. They have been well com- this is observed to hold good even up pared by an eminent botanist to an al. to the highest or most general result phabetical, as compared with a classed of classification. The division of all catalogue : the one eminently useful plants into monocotyledonous and difor reference; the other for giving us cotyledonous at once marks the rea real view of the objects collected. markable characteristic property of In the Linnæan system a small num- their mode of increase—the one being ber of characters, chiefly the number always endogenous, and the other exof stamens and pistils, are taken as the ogenous; the arrangement of the veins standard ; and the whole vegetable of the leaves (for the most part) parkingdom is distributed under classes allel in the one and reticulated in the and orders, according to the corres- other ; and the parts of the flowers pondences and differences among the more generally arranged in threes in several genera in these respects, no the one, and in fives or fours in the regard whatever being paid to any other. Again, whole classes under other characters. In the natural sys- this arrangement have common physitem all the characters of the genera cal properties, which are consequently are studied ; and those are united into in a great degree indicated in any inorders which present the greatest cor- stance the moment we have ascertained respondence in the characters that are the class to which a particular indiviregarded as of the most importance : dual belongs : thus the whole of the on the same principle the orders are Papaveraceæ possess narcotic properunited into classes.

ties; the whole of Ranaculaceæ are According to the Linnæan or artifi. acrid; all the Malvaceæ are destitute cial system, it cannot but follow that of unwholesome qualities. many genera, differing most widely in But without following any further their structure and physiological cha- the outline suggested by the view of racters, are often brought together the subject presented in the work beunder one denomination; while others, fore us, we have said enough to show perhaps in reality closely allied, are the importance of an easy compendious separated into the most distant groups. systematic introduction to so highly So that in fact it often happens that interesting and important a branch of under the same Linnæan genus two science, which we believe is in truth plants may have no one feature in daily becoming more popular among common beyond the number of sta- us; and the more it is attended to the mens and pistils. Such a system can more will its value be duly recognised. consequently lead us to no general Such an introduction, we think, is knowledge of the characteristic pro- here furnished to the elementary stuperties or habitudes of plants; whereas dent as will fully satisfy his wants, the natural system, grounded upon re- and afford a sufficient guide to more semblances of a far more extensive copious sources of information on the kind, and having a far more intimate various points in detail. kind of relation to the actual nature It is obvious, that, in reviewing a and distinguishing properties of the work of this multifarious character, structures, leads us to recognise much we cannot pretend to touch upon more more of the real order of nature, and than a few such points of its contents specific gradations and peculiarities o. as incidentally present themselves ; organised structures from these accom- but we trust we have said enough to panying outward manifestations, which exhibit fairly to our readers somewhat we cannot but infer are connected by of its general character and pretensome hidden train of causation, some sions, and to express our opinion (so recondite principles of order and ar- far as our examination has extended)

on its general merits and adaptation to vanism, and magnetism ; while, we its particular objects.

presume, the important and invaluable Having thus spoken of the work as practical application of physical science, already advanced, we cannot omit a in the arts and manufactures, in the word with reference to our expecta- control and adaptation of the giant tions of the parts yet to come. The power of steam, will receive a separate vast importance of

chemical science at and detailed review proportionate to the present day, and the necessity for their important and beneficial use in philosophical accuracy in the develop

our social economy. ment of those beautiful principles now But the spread of sound elementary disclosed, connected with the entire scientific information is deeply imporchanges in the nature of bodies, from tant in another, and that the highest different arrangements of the same of all respects ;—as affording the basis elementary molecules, together with for a real and sound natural theology, the vast range of inquiries recently important in itself at all times_imopened, in connection with the mys- portant, more especially in an age terious agency of light, and even of when a spirit very hostile to such an some other, perhaps unknown, ethereal application of the subject, is but too matter, are points generally appre- prevalent in an open and undisguised ciated ; and in relation to which, so form-and of tenfold importance at rapid has been the progress of dis- the present time, when that same spirit covery, that a new elementary treatise assumes the disguise of a zeal for reli. will be looked to with no small interest, gion, and masks itself under pretenas expected to embrace a comprehen- sions to a peculiar sanctity, which sive account of these extensive dis. affects to deny and condemn all exercise coveries, which it is beyond the power of the reason in the investigation of of ordinary readers to follow up in Divine truth - which denounces all detail, and which are in fact every day attempts to derive a knowledge of the multiplying upon the compiler's hands. great Moral Cause of all physical causes, In geology, again, with all its rapidly from a study of these last, and with a progressing disclosures, the greatest sort of audacity almost incredible, diligence, as well as discrimination, adopts the very language of the bitterwill be required to arrest and condense est enemies of religion, and plainly the floating materials so abundantly tells us that the more we employ our furnished by the continued progress reasoning faculties in the search, the of research. But the great boast of more difficult shall we find it to arrive the modern advance of this science has at any satisfactory conclusion, or to been found in the establishment, for assure ourselves even of the existence the first time (in our opinion,) by Mr. of a God! Nay, according to some Lyell, of the real foundations of a of these writers, there is something sound geological logic, or the true ap- sinful in the mere prosecution of those plication of the great principles of studies, and we are expressly informed, induction, in a field previously little that “men who are absorbed in physisubjected to such rigid laws.

cal or metaphysical science, or in maBut we look with more special anxiety thematics—such men are, in the sight to the manner in which the delicate and of Scripture, most immoral!" (Sewell's difficult subjects of heat and light may Christian (?) Morals.) Such are the be treated—we say anxiety, not for any views which are at this time adopted, doubt as to the capability of our author and widely inculcated by a very influto do full justice to them, but simply ential and increasing party-we deeply from our experience of the very faulty regret to add, existing and flourishing and defective manner in which those within the pale of the Established important points have been treated in Church, and the precincts of our some existing popular compendiums; “ orthodox" universities. especially the absurd spirit of parti- There is, however, something so sanship, which has seemed to us to glaringly offensive, as well as intrinsi. animate some elementary writers with cally futile in such views, that we respect to the grand question of the firmly rely on the common sense of the undulatory hypothesis. Similar re- public mind, as a sufficient barrier marks will apply to the vast range of against the general admission of them. subjects connected with electricity, gal- Still, so subtle are the argumentative arts of their advocates, and so plausi-- tion of the nature and extent of these ble the show they can make of sophis- great conclusions : this is often over. try, skilfully worked up with many looked, and where more is stated, as powerful associations, and invested the result, than the premises will with attractions of a theory, that it strictly bear, a palpable triumph is becomes the imperative duty of all afforded to the unbeliever. Let then who feel a regard for the interests of the writer or lecturer on Physical truth, and possess any means or op- Science be careful, in reference to portunities for aiding in its diffusion these sublime truths, to supply the and support, not to relax their efforts, most precise, sound, and well-weighed nor rest in indolent security on the truth information in the first instance; and of their maxim, undeniable as it is, that in the second, be rigorously distinct its cause must ultimately prevail: ulti- in explaining the exact nature, and mately it will; but the period may be keeping to the exact bounds of his lengthened, or shortened, according to deductive inferences, and the cause the supineness or zeal of the advocates will have nothing to fear, but every and disseminators of truth. Natural thing to hope at his hands. theology, and its connexion with phy- We have already remarked that the cal science, have been doubtless greatly series now before us is to be completed illustrated and brought forward in by a treatise on Natural Theology. many new and striking aspects of late Nevertheless, the author has here and years; but there is still much to be there, in the course of his work, in done in bringing these results to bear some degree anticipated the more upon popular conviction, by the adop- special objects of that treatise, by intion of means for popular instruction troducing reflections bearing on those in the principles.

sublime and momentous topics, when In proportion as the foundation is the subject in hand seemed more disecurely laid in a sound and luminous rectly to lead to them. Our limits 'exposition of the principles of science, will not allow us here to enter further so will the final and crowning conclu- upon such topics, than just to refer sion of the great inferences of Divine our readers for specimens of such retruth be irresistibly and triumphantly fections, to the Vegetable Physiology, established. There is also another p. 264, the Astronomy, p. 565, and point, of scarcely less importance, to the Mechanical Philosophy, p. 113. be attended to, the distinct exposi

LETTERS FROM GERMANY.

From the Rhine,

It is said that the king, in one of his August 1, 1843.

latest cabinet orders, has expressed a LIEBER LORREQUER— The weather has decided wish that the open procedure been so cold and unfavourable for the

and viva voce examination, should be last month, that serious apprehensions introduced in the eastern Prussian prowere entertained for the rye and wheat vinces. It is well known that Mullen, harvests. The corn merchants forced the minister of justice, has long inteup the prices of corn so high that the rested himself in favour of these meapoorer classes suffered severely, and

sures. the bakers in many places, as at Cologne Political writings are increasing and at Rastadt, in the Duchy of

daily in number ; one sees almost in Baden, shut their ovens and refused to

every newspaper announcements of bake; the scarcity was so great that new books forbidden by the censor. government were obliged to bring a These works are for the most part large parcel of corn up the Rhine from

published in Switzerland, at Zurich; Holland, and the commissariat ovens and notwithstanding the prohibition, were set to work for the poorer classes. are brought into Germany in great Although there is every prospect of numbers. It is almost a fortunate saving the corn harvest, the scarcity is circumstance for an author to have his still great, as the western part of Ger- book prohibited, as it is for that many exported to Belgium last year

very reason, whether good or bad, more corn than they could spare, and more extensively read. These politiit will require all the present crop to cal brochures are for the most part exrestore the balance. The price of tremely violent, and crammed with the meat has also risen, and is now for

most erroneous and absurd political beef from fourpence to fourpence half- doctrines. penny per lb. There is this year grass Two numbers of Bauer's “ Liberale enough, but unfortunately there is a

Bestrebungen, in Deutschland," have deficiency of stock, as last year's scar

appeared ; the one entitled the East city of forage, compelled people to Prussian, the other the Badisch-opposisacrifice their half-fed animals. I tion. A long chain of argument in can assure you that there is little like

one of these concludes with the fol. lihood that any portion of south-wes- lowing sentence:-“ You will have tern Germany or Belgium, will have

now clearly perceived that the existence either corn or beef to export this of a government is antagonist to the year ; let this be a consolation to your development of freedom.” This pas. agricultural friends.

sage shows pretty clearly what kind of There are but few English on the freedom these people wish to attain. Rhine this year, and the hotel keepers The “true history of the German," are beginning to exclaim against the published anonymously, but supposed repeal agitation, which they suppose to be from the pen of Held, is a very keeps the people at home. Archbi

witty and amusing little book. It shop Droste von Vischering, of “mixed- gives the following account of the marriage notoriety," passed through

birth, parentage, and education of here on his way from Ems to Munster.

Michael, a name applied to the GerArchduke Stephen, of Austria, was man peasant, as John Bull is to the also here for two days on a tour which English: he was making of the Rhine provinces. " There was in the olden time a cer. King Leopold comes on the 3d, en tain Miss Teutonia, who seems to have route to Weisbaden, and the King of been but indifferently brought up, as Hanover on the 8th, on his way to she passed most of her time in wanHanover.

dering through the forests which The rejection, by the Rhenish diet, abounded in her country. During one of the new criminal code is, as I anti- of these rambles she formed a rather cipated, likely to produce important too intimate acquaintance with a vagaresults in the other Prussian provinces. bond heathen god, whose morality was

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