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things Mr. Froude and his followers pound for differences, or neglect them; may have chosen to speculate upon and even assimilates unconsciously, by the subject ;-as if the discontented a most miserable but common delusion, murmurs of these and such as these the whole dark and heavy mass to the -be they heterodox as you please— likeness of its own vain hopes and are not themselves the attestation of wishes. Carefully retaining the imthe deep-rooted wants of Society, and passioned phrases, skilfully disguising of the need of courageous and vigo- the simple meaning, of Antiquity; imrous efforts to bring the Church on a prisoning the ardent rhetoric of oralevel with its tremendous antagonist, tors and the winged devotion of liturthe sensualism, sloth, and selfishness gies under the stiff formulas of its own of the time. The doctrine of the modern schoolmen; fortified by the Church-of the actual Church that ceaseless labours of centuries of subtle we can see, and feel, and hear—may defenders into one vast and not unbe fearfully abused ; but—in the name symmetrical system ; how dexterousof Scripture and Reason_has it no nay, could we but keep the New Tesmeaning at all ? Is the word - it tament aside for a while, how impresseems a simple word enough—to be sive a forgery is this Roman religion ! cashiered as something dangerous or And emphatic and solemn in its prounintelligible ? Scripture seems to fessed warfare against worldliness ;represent this Doctrine of the Church with its public vows of everlasting pri. as, in its due place, a mighty means vacy, its pompous abdication of pomps, for awakening, guiding, and strength- its outward dress and livery of saintship, ening, the spirits of men ; and we and within all, its restless, sleepless, fehonestly confess we had much rather verish ambition for power—which ever hear how it may be used for the sup; when suspected it knows how to gild port and consolation of ourselves and with lofty titles of spirituality—as if it our fellows, than listen to the cleverest sought but the celestial sovereignty of polemical pamphlet ever framed to unbounded beneficence,—who can wonexpose the mistakes of those who have der that it should sometimes come near tried to labour the topic for us. winning to its gaudy mimicry of an
Of the opposite party - the pro- cient system such minds as long, amid fessed revivers of this doctrine-we a heavy sensual age, for the helps of need not recapitulate what we have early discipline and the sternness of already said. What we think of them early self-conquest? But in no manly —and what we think of certain less spirit ought such attractions be powerrestricted followers of their camp- ful beyond one weak and passing mowe have spoken freely and sincerely in ment! Were the whole world to be our former comments.
combined in one magnificent union of caution requisite for these eloquent religious belief, on condition of one and imaginative votaries of catholi- minute shred of known error being city — and circumstances have fully voluntarily retained in its public proproved it to be no superfluous caution fession, to no rightly constituted mind --arises manifestly from the danger ought the alternative to occasion an ous vicinity of that vast fabric of de- instant's hesitation. Were it offered based religion whose gloomy shadow to us that one anthem of praise should darkens the whole south and west of rise from every family of mankind; Europe. The reason is obvious. that one solemn and universal liturgy Enshrining within it a fearful mass should utter the needs and thanksgivof degrading error, it yet studiously, ings of all the sons of men ; that a far more studiously than ourselves common polity should combine the presents the external organization and whole immense association into one apparatus of a fully equipped Church; spiritual republic ;-and all this on and thus becomes unavoidably more or the condition-for example—that for a less seductive to those whose thoughts single transient moment of the service are almost exclusively running in the “the mother of Jesus" should be bechannel of Church speculation. It is sought to intercede for us with her ever a perilous thing when strong desire divine Song--the proposal should be meets an object even partially resen- spurned as a Satanic temptation, and bling the true object of its longings ; the glorious vision abandoned for ever! in its impatience it is willing to com- Once suffer this principle to be enfeeVol. XXII.-No. 130.
bled, and there is no further security settled mind among them; as well for righteousness on earth. The con- as the mischievous affectations of some version of a world must not bribe us of their inferior literary imitators in to trifle with truth : an enthusiasm for England. We do not want to apoUnity is a noble feeling doubtless, but logize for any extravagancies in the an enthusiasm for Truth is infinitely opposite extreme of the popular disnobler! Truth-pure, unmixed, un- senting theology ; we know how mutilated Truth—is the only admissi- trying they have been to the pable basis of Church or Christian tience of rational and experienced men union ; the Lord of the Church indig- from the days of South to our own; nantly rejects every other ; and they - but all this is a miserable excuse --if any such there be—who can dream for the paltry parodies of churchman. of union upon any inferior ground, ship to which we allude. It would be cherish a guilty delusion, and have melancholy if the old practical docmistaken the very first elements in the trine of the Church-the doctrine of nature and constitution of the Church Andrews, and Hammond, and Wilson, itself,-of the Church whose excellence and Ken-were to be confounded with it is to be the embodiment and the such profitless trivialities as these. witness of truth, and which loses its For our own part, we seem to our. essential function when it loses this. selves clearly able to distinguish that
When we speak thus, we speak of a venerable (and assuredly, in such hands, danger which may be foreseen from most practically awakening) doctrine the peculiar position of the writers to equally from all exaggerations and whom we allude ; but all tendency to from all dilutions of its strong simpliwhich it is, of course, only just to add, city; and in an honest desire that that they have themselves repeatedly Truth may benefit by fair discussion, and anxiously disclaimed. As regards we should gladly hail the labours of the great mass of them—for in this free those who would undertake to set it and extensive movement there seem to forth in a style of manly and unaffected be innumerable shades of opinion—we reasoning.* do not desire to doubt the sincerity of But we are not to forget, while en. their disclaimer; vast numbers--the deavouring, according to our humble Hooks, the Mannings, the Gresleys, lights, to comment on this remarkable the Sewells—are utterly beyond the controversy; and to do so in a spirit need of it; but we must most dis- of fairness, and, above all, of hopefultinctly reprehend certain sophistical ness for the final interests of truth ; speculations of another gifted but un- that we have promised our readers a
Among those who have, in a practical way, addressed themselves to parts of the subject in that vigorous and straightforward style which is so eminently English, we may mention the name of Dr. Hook of Leeds ; a divine who has contrived to find time for a large body of useful publications amid parochial labours which must be witnessed to be conceived, and which have well-nigh succeeded in recovering the central citadel of Dissent to the Church of England. Å late Sermon on “Mutual Forbearance in Things Inditferent” is every thing one could wish; distinct, unaffected, and charitable.
A popular publication (anonymous, but from the librairie of “ L. and G. Seeley, Fleet-street,") with which we have been lately favoured by post ; (through, of course, the benevolent solicitude of the author to circulate the valuable information he has gathered :) acquaints us with the unsuspected fact, that vast num. bers of English Churchmen "pray to the Virgin and invoke the aid of the Dead;" that they publicly teach “ that man has the ability to merit his own salvation;" that "they never_so much as offer up a single prayer in the Saviour's name alone, to be heard by the Father ;" and (apparently) that “they profess that we have a chance of being released from purgatory, if the Pope or St. Peter be our friend. We should feel obliged to Messrs. Seeley's divine to be so good as to append references to his next account of the state of British theology, as we have been a good deal puzzled in looking for the productions to which he alludes.
To be serious ; we abhor the corruptions of the Roman creed; we are thoroughly alive to the incalculable evil of these corruptions ;-and yet we are not quite clear whether upon a certain Day, when the Ninth Coñmandment shall form an important document in the trial of mankind, it might not be almost as safe to bear the name of Pascal, Fenelon, or Borromeo, as that of the author of "Puseyism, and its only Effectual Remedy."
glimpse of a curiously opposite deve- minished their number. In 1822 a lopment of religious speculation—the liturgy was drawn up by some of the lofty anti-formalism of evangelical Ger- superintendents of the new body. In many.* This is of a brighter and a this the opposing systems are gently warmer tint than the cold rationalism compelled to mutual affection, and the of which Kant delivered the metaphy- scheme for suiting all parties, we unsical grounds, and which the Bret- derstand, is this. In the morning there schneiders and the Strausses have so is a service with a certain degree of courageously completed. That was pomp; candles are placed upon the all harshness, rigour, and professorial holy table, which is at that hour digconceit; this is all tenderness, elo- nified with the title of an altar ; quence, and universal sympathy. Its and the crucifix is permitted to gladden writers, accordingly, have become ex- the eyes of the devotees. In the afterceedingly popular in these countries, noon, a simpler form of worship takes whenever translated for our benefit; place, consisting chiefly of hymns, the and one of them, to whom we are recitation of the Lord's Prayer, and a about more especially to allude, and sermon. The nature of the Eucharist who is their recognised leader, is very being, as is well known, the main subcommonly considered to exemplify the ject of dispute between the inheritors of perfection of scriptural Christianity. the views of Luther and those of Calvin, Those who think so, are, of course, the appointment in the “ New United imperfectly acquainted with the views Church" is, that the consecrated of this illustrious denouncer of Church elements shall be delivered with the dogmas; but is it altogether uninstruc- simple affirmation, “ Christ said, This tive, that the unknown remainder of is my body," &c., which leaves the what we admire so earnestly should be significance of those memorable words suddenly discovered to be something to the private judgment of each reso strangely inadmissible? Is it al. ceiver. Our readers will see a fitting together prudent to indulge an un- commentary upon all this in the part bounded admiration for the practical performed by his Prussian majesty, excellencies of that foreign school,whose in the late exhibition at Cologne philosophical developments betray ten- Cathedral. dencies so unquestionably perilous ? As the Oxford movement is by its
“ The New Prussian Evangelical adversaries held to be an undue exaggeUnited Church” is a curious study ration of formalism, so the schools of for the ecclesiastical historian. It con- Berlin, &c. may fairly be accepted as stitutes the last form of the junction, the exaggeration of spiritualism. The so often attempted, of the Lutheran partizans of either development of and Reformed bodies. In 1817 this Christianity may be instructed by comjunction was recommended by a pro. paring this counterpart. That both clamation from the throne ; and un- are capable of exaggeration will, we fortunately much persecution was em. suppose, be scarcely denied in a counployed to accomplish the union. Oftry in which (as if for the very purnearly nine thousand congregations, all pose of warning) the chapel of the but about one thousand two hundred at Roman priest and the meeting-house length acceded ; and the simple ex- of the Quaker assembly front each pedient of quartering the army on the other at either side of the same street. recusants is said to have largely di- Now Quakerism is precisely the same
• There is too much reason to class French Protestantism with German in our present criticism. When Napoleon, in 1802, restored the Reformed worship in France, it was furnished with no definite creed; and since that period became infected with the neologism and socinianism of its neighbours. There are at present something over 400°French pasteurs, we believe, who receive an income from the state; of whom not one half are reputed to be sound. The Lutheran ministers of France are said to be in a still worse state. It is unnecessary to mention Geneva. Indeed we do not at this moment well know where to look for perfectly safe Protestantism beyond the range of the British Isles, and the churches that have sprung from British parentage. Of course we do not deny that many worthy ministers and congregations exist in the various continental bodies; we speak of the character and condition of the communities en massé.
exaggeration of the confidence in indi- Great Britain for the full developvidual guidance that Romanism is of ment of very dangerous religious the confidence in church guidance ; the tendencies in any direction. Our pro. one claims personal, exactly as the other vidential possession of a liturgy of corporate, inspiration. Awake as we great beauty, antiquity, and authority, are (or think ourselves) to the phi- serves to keep the wildest spirits losophy of Romanism, it is amazing among us tolerably well within bounds. how utterly the philosophy of Quaker. Moreover, it is scarcely the British ism has escaped us. In truth, the genius to feel impatient until abstract principles of that Society form one of principles are realized in their fullest the most interesting theological inves- extent. We are apt to feel the comtigations in the world; not merely in pressing power of circumstances; and reference to the great real worthiness thus to be very well contented with what of multitudes of its members, but in our trans-Rhenane neighbours would reference to the theory of religion contemptuously term half-truths. Nor, upon which the whole is based - a indeed, are almost any of our relitheory whose principles (we do not gious writers, or 'ordinary religious hesitate to concede it to our many ex- men, deep thinkers about the fundacellent friends in the society) are con- mental principles of their own views. stantly assumed with utter unconscious- Contented with the practical life (which ness by those who would be astounded balances itself unconsciously) they are if they were informed that they were not very solicitous about the speculawalking in the footsteps of the Bar. tive. And thus often they might be clays, the Gurneys, and the Penns. startled with observing to what a Our present instance is, however, point remote from themselves minds a somewhat different development ; of a more reflective cast are carried, arising out of a restless spirit of in- by the very principles which they have quiry and habits of literary and phi- known only in their daily practical aplosophical pyrrhonism, such as Quaker- plication. But in Germany, under the ism, from various circumstances, has absolute freedom of thought and pubnever yet fostered. It will be observed lication in matters theological, every we do not now refer to the thinly- theoretical tendency travels rapidly to veiled infidelity of the avowed deniers its goal ; and those who have modesty of all inspiration ; or the infidelity, and wisdom to do it, can, in innumerawithout even the decency of a veil, ble instances, instruct themselves as to of such teachers as Dr. Strauss ; we the possible termination of their own speak of men of the highest rank in course, whatever that may be, by the estimation of the religious world, direct observation. men who are universally accepted as It will be evident that the danger the champions of what Mr. Isaac of what may be called ultra-spiritual. Taylor calls “Spiritual Christianity;" ism in religion-the tendency so long we speak--for one example is worth observable in the better religion of a score descriptions--of such men as Germany— will ever be an impatience the illustrious and gifted Dr. Augus- of every thing which has not some di. tus Neander, Ordinary Professor of rect and immediate reference to the Theology in the University of Berlin, state of mind of the worshipper, and Consistorial Councillor of the province that reference such as to be at once of Brandenburg, &c. &c. Dr. Neander intelligible on simple psychological is the author of a great variety of principles. The whole scheme of Reworks, chiefly on the history of the demption being understood as a syschurch and of its more eminent mem- tem solely intended by the revelation hers. The last which has come under of certain truths to produce certain our notice is his account of the “ Train- feelings in the mind of him to whom ing and Planting of the Christian it is made known, every thing which Church by the Apostles," which has does not directly tend to this object been recently translated into our Eng. is either openly rejected or silently lish tongue--a tongue which, if the overlooked. Nothing properly and 'translator be not in fault, seems some- wholly “mysterious”--that is, of whose times exceedingly puzzled to transmit grounds and reasons (at least) we can. Dr. Neander's meaning.
not give some very plain intelligible We cannot (fortunately) look to account—is conceived to have any real business in a religion of this kind. daring teachers boldly reject all miHence the Atonement (for example) is raculous narratives ; but such as these received mainly because, and so far as, need little concern us; the truly paina reason can be given for it; the mys. ful part of the matter is, to see the tery being thus lightened and rendered struggles of worthy and pious men rationally adınissible. And so of the who have been infected with this other mysterious truths of Chris. miserable sort of theological philosotianity; they are brought into a form phy. Their point of view is a pecuin which the mystery is almost wholly
They think the dignity evaporated, and in that form they are of Christianity endangered by these received and taught. Thus, in real details. To them miracles seem a truth, it is not the doctrine that is poor and inferior kind of machinery preached, so much as the explanation for a high spiritual religion; and it is of the doctrine ; is not the creed but too lamentably evident that they so much as a system of grounds and are in heart sincerely ashamed of them. reasons infinitely various) for the And as they never dream of respectcreed. The mysteries are held to ing the transmitted belief of the church be little more than divine symbols of at large, and more especially regard great moral truths ; to deliver them Christian antiquity with utter conin their naked and simple incompre- tempt, seeming to consider that Chrishensibility is, to lose their whole real tianity is meant to present a new and value to mankind-to offer the shell unsolved problem for every successive without the kernel. The Ancient Church generation, there is nothing left to was wont to do this, and showed check the most eccentric excursions thereby its contracted superstitious of critical hypothesis with regard to temper, the shadow of coming popery. the forgery of the sacred books, or 'Athanasius wandered an exile from the mistaken notions and narrow prehis Alexandrian throne, to transmit to judices of even the apostles who wrote us the one true immutable interpreta- them. tion of the Scripture notices of the
How far this description is exaggeSon and the Spirit ; he had better rated will appear when we have given have spent his time preaching plain our readers some idea of the views proGospel serions to his people, than pounded by the oracle of orthodox setting the world in a blaze with his Protestantism on the Continent- the metaphysical jargon of Homovusios excellent (for such he truly is, as to and Ilypostasis, of which not a word disposition and practical piety,) and is said in the Bible. And who can very learned Dr. Neander. They will tell what men, who betray such utter be pleased to remember that we
are not want of judgment and often such now adducing the writings of a prodoubtful honesty as these old writers, fessed rationalist, but of a professed may have done with the Scriptures opponent of that sceptical school; we themselves ? Assuredly there never are about to show them what the most lived worse judges of the genuineness admired evangelical divine of a book, or critics more easily im- Continent considers to be abjuring posed on.
From this the step is easy “ human systems,” opposing ancient to resolutely rejecting everything errors, and securing the interests of which could by any possibility be an that true Christianity, of which in this interpolation, as being certainly such. country he is so often cited as an acStill, there are some peculiarities of complished exponent. revelation in which this process is “ The Gospel," says Dr. Neander, nearly impossible ; and on those all in a letter quoted by his translator, the exegetical ingenuity of these di. “rests on an immovable rock, while vines is expended. Such are those human systems of theology are every marvellous connexions between the where undergoing a purifying process. material and the mental that are every We live in the time of a great crisis." where described — or implied – in And the translator further informs us Scripture ; all which, wherever the that Dr. Neander“ is completely at imputation of interpolation would be issue with the advocates of certain too flagrant, are by some other device views which have lately been gaining explained away, because the literal a disastrous prevalence in this counsense would be no better than Chris. try;" which may lead us to conjecture tian “magic.” Some of the more that “the circumstances which ren.