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" If they are of sane mind, we must the head of disorder of the Memory. lay before them an explanation of such Dr. Cheyne, finding the Memory in cases. We must explain the nature of

other respects unimpaired, cannot think false perceptions, in order to show that a disordered state of the nerves, or of

it the faculty concerned : and so we the brain, or stomach, or organs of re

have in some of the cases referred to production, will account for the delu

an interruption of the Power of Exsions—more particularly of the organ of pressing thought ; and others to the sight—which harass them; that sparks,

influence of a diseased Love of Arflashes of light, halos, or, on the other rangement. hand, flies, motes, tadpoles, temporary The probability, that Dr. Cheyne's blindness, are produced by disorder of classification of the first head of cases the optic nerve or brain ; that noises of

is more correct than that of former a discordant kind, or articulate sounds,

psychologists, is increased by the fact solely depend upon accelerated circulation through the brain, or affections of

that persons who have lost the power the auditory nerves; that the senses of

of pronouncing certain letters, find a taste or smell are rendered painfully

difficulty also in spelling correctly acute or perverted by disordered condi- when they write. Instances are given tions of those parts of the brain from of a patient after recovering from which proceed the gustatory or olfac- fever, substituting, in pronunciation, tory nerves. We must inform them that

one letter for another. The strokes many of these unusual perceptions have

of letters, too, are misplaced in writbeen removed at once by cupping or a

ing, and one word employed for anmercurial purgative: we can assure the reader that we have succeeded in re

other, bearing some resemblance in lieving those who had supposed them

sense or sound. He tells us that the selves demoniacally possessed - given

power of pronouncing or writing the over to Satan—from a mountain of per

names of individuals or places is often plexity by showing them the true cause lost ; some persons have lost the power of their sufferings.”—2nd Essay, p. 76. of pronouncing their own name.“ It

is quite common to hear men, espeThe third essay is “ On disorder of cially as they advance in life, declare the mind confined to a single faculty.” they are unable to recollect the names The diversity of power in the memory of their acquaintances, and add, I is familiar to all, but we do not know suppose I shall forget my own name at any where such striking instances last. But,” adds Dr. Cheyne, “ if we collected illustrative of the state of inquire into the nature of the failure, mind, in which while facts are all recol. we shall find that it is not of Memory lected, the order of their occurrence but of Utterance, as every thing in conis forgotten, and this sometimes to nexion with the individual whose such a degree as to make it necessary name cannot be recollected—his apto deprive the person so affected, of pearance, character, circumstances are the management of property. When stored up in the mind.” We find it the whole mind is impaired, there is, hard to follow our author here, as says our author, no consciousness of assuredly the evidence seeins to be of the deficiency, but when the Judgment Memory failing in such an instance as survives the Memory, it detects the this last. We forget a name-if that failure of the other faculty, and when, name be told us, we can at once utter after a temporary cure, insanity re- is it not then the power of mecurs, the same hallucinations return. mory, and not that of utterance which From this our author would infer is interrupted ? Does Dr. Cheyne that but one faculty, and not the whole mean to say that we cannot remember intellect is impaired. In proof of this all else about a person, and forget his proposition, Dr. Cheyne says that the name ; and if he admit this to be posinstances in which Imagination is the sible, is not it, and it alone, the fact single faculty affected, are almost infi- stated? nitely diversified.

The next case stated is more to To illustrate his meaning, Dr. Dr. Cheyne's purpose. A patient of Cheyne examines two faculties or Crichton's meaning to call for bread, powers of the mind which have been would ask for his boots; when they but little attended to so little consi. were brought, he would get angry and dered as distinct faculties, that former call more vehemently for his boots or inquirers have stated the cases under shoes, meaning bread. When the pro


per expression was suggested by an- tented myself with the not very satisother he adopted it.

factory expectation that if this state Dr. Beddoes' “ Hygeia” supplies should continue I should never, all my the author with the case of Dr.

life, be able to speak or write again; Spalding, of Berlin. Dr. Beddoes

but that my sentiments and principles, had referred it-Cheyne says errone

remaining the same, would be a permaously—to the hurry of ideas preceding till my complete separation from the

nent spring of satisfaction and hope, epilepsy. He had to speak to many unfortunate ferment of the brain. I was persons in quick succession, and to

only sorry for my relations and friends, write many trifling memorandums who, in this case, must have lost me about dissimilar things, so that the for duties and business, and all proper attention was incessantly impelled in

intercourse with them, and looked upon contrary directions.

me as a burden to the earth. But after

the completion of the half-hour, my head “ He had at last to draw out a re

began to grow clearer and more quiet. ceipt for interest; he accordingly sat

The uproar and vividness of the strange down and wrote the first two words re

troublesome ideas diminished. I could quisite, but, in a moment, became in

now carry through my process of capable of finding the rest of the words

thought, I wished now to ring for the in his memory, or the strokes of the

servant, that he might request my wife letters belonging to them. He strained

to come up. But I required yet some his attention to the utmost in endea

time to practise the right pronunciation vouring leisurely to delineate letter after

of the requisite words. In the first conletter, with constant reference to the

versation with my family, I proceeded

for another half hour slowly, and in preceding, in order to be sure that it suited. He said to himself that they

some measure anxiously, till at length I were not the right strokes, without

found myself as free and clear as at the being able in the least to conceive where

beginning of the day, only I had a very in they were deficient. He therefore

trifling headache. Here I thought of gave up the attempt, and partly by

the receipt which I had begun, and knew monosyllables, and partly by signs,

to be wrong. Behold, instead of fifty

dollars for half a year's interest, as it ordered away the man who was waiting for the receipt, and quietly resigned

should have been, I found in as clear himself to his state. For a good half

and straight strokes as I ever made in hour there was a tumult in part of his

my life_"fifty dollars through the sancideas. He could only recognise them

tification of the bri-” with a hyphen, as for such as forced themselves upon him

I had come to the end of the line; I

could not possibly fall upon any thing in without his participation. He endeavoured to dispel them to make room for

my previous ideas or occupations which, better, which he was conscious of in the

by any obscure mechanical influence, bottom of his thinking faculty. He

could have given occasion to these uninthrew his attention, as far as the swarm

telligible words.' ”_3rd Essay, p. 97. of confused intruding images would permit, on his religious principles ; and Our author relates an anecdote of a said to himself distinctly, that if by a person deprived of the power of speech kind of death he was extricated from robbed by a servant, who thought that the tumult in his brain, which he felt as his master was in a state of complete foreign and exterior to himself, he should

fatuity, and would never discover his exist and think on in the happiest quiet

loss. and order. With all this there was not

The master, a powerful and the least illusion in the senses.

He saw

determined man, brought the culprit and heard every thing about him with to an empty drawer in the escritoir in its proper shape and sound, but could which he kept his money, and showed not get rid of the strange confusion in him by signs that he knew by whom his head. He tried to speak, for the he was robbed, and compelled him to sake of finding whether he could bring restore the money. A physician, who out any thing connected; but however

had been secretary of some medical vehemently he strove to force together

corporation, was, at a time when he attention and thought, and though he

was unable to utter or to write two proceeded with the utmost deliberation,

words in connexion, informed by a he soon perceived that unmeaning sylla. bles only followed, quite different from

note that an important paper could the words he wished. He was as little

not be found. He repaired to the master now of the organs of speech as office of the town-clerk, put his hand he had before found himself of those of into a pigeon-hole, where he found the writing. 'I therefore,' says he, con missing muniment, and at the same

time uttered a loud and discordant others, for the purpose of arranging laugh. He was capable of receiving the various articles." information but incapable of transmitting it.

“ If we examine an extensive asylum Among other narratives given by for the insane, we shall probably discoCheyne one is "of a gentleman who

ver one or two cells kept with scrupu. lost the power of expression both by

lous attention in a state of neatness and speech and writing, while his other fa

order ; every thing will be found in its culties were uninjured, in consequence

proper place, every thing clean and

bright ; every little ornament which of a fall from his horse, by which the

may have been laid hold of by the lower and central part of the frontal pitiable tenant, ostentatiously displayed. bone was much injured. In cases The walls are decorated with prints, such as have been described, the power and if such are not attainable, little of conveying meaning or emotion by glaring frescos, representing ladies with signs, gestures, or by a change of the

plumes of feathers and long trains ; features, may be unimpaired.”. It is

peacocks with expanded tails; kings

dressed in scarlet robes, with crowns on not said in Dr. Cheyne's work that

their heads--the work of the lunaticthe part of the head injured was that

are often made to supply their place; in which phrenologists place the organ great attention being paid to the arof language or verbal memory. rangement of these works of rude art,

The love of order and arrangement, so as to evince a love of order ; every so troublesome to most persons at

print or drawing having its companion times, and of which, from the days of or its pendant. Such patients are gene. Dr. Orkborne, students and dwellers rally irascible and violent; and nothing among books have a traditional right

with more certainty produces a paroxto complain, supplies our author with

ysm of maniacal rage than intrusion

into their apartments with unscraped some amusing illustrations. He tells

shoes, unless it be an attempt to displace of persons who have stopped on a

any of their ornaments, or to remove a road to count a drove of cattle, or to print from the wall.”—3rd Essay, p. reckon the pales in a fence, and were 120. unable to resist the impulse to commence the reckoning, even when hurried The next essay is occupied with a for time, still less were they able to consideration of the disordered state stop if they once began. D'Israeli of the affections. The object is to tells of an unhappy man who, with show how actual insanity may arise the toy called the cup and ball, occu- from one of those " endowments" bepied a life in endeavouring to fix the coming much excited or depressedball on the spike, we forget how many being in a passionate or apathetic hundred or thousand of times succes- state. sively- and we fear died without ful- Instances are given of derangement filling his vocation. Cheyne mentions produced by the encouragement and a lady of rank who each night before discouragement of romantic love ; by retiring to rest never failed to visit her the desire of having children disapdrawing-room, and put every piece of pointed; and again by the absence of furniture in its proper place." Ah," parental affection – hatred usurping said a friend of hers to Dr. Cheyne, the place of love, and the father irre“she was, from her passion for order, sistibly urged to the murder of dutiful the greatest plague that ever lived.” and affectionate children, “ at a time Dr. Pritchard, in “ The Cyclopædia when the remaining faculties were unof Practical Medicine," mentions a disturbed.Then follow cases of natucase, quoted by our author, in which ral affection extinguished in the minds this tendency ended in actual insanity. of lunatics, of which fact, while the “This person,” says Dr. Pritchard, author suggests other possible causes, “ was continually putting chairs in he regards the true explanation to their places, and if articles of ladies' be, that one or more of the intellectual work or books were left upon a table, faculties is unduly excited, and thus he would take an opportunity, unob- “all interest confined, as it were, to served, of putting them in order, gene. one narrow channel of thought.” rally spreading the work smooth and The desire of possessing what we putting the articles in rows. He consider valuable property is described would steal jato rooms belonging to as that which chiefly gives their cons sistency to great undertakings. It is in bodily disease as its cause? And apt to degenerate “into covetousness, while we quite agree with Cheyne, that which is idolatry.”

fanaticism and superstition are not unThis desire is illustrated by the case likely to end in insanity-and while of the spendthrift and of the miser- we even go farther than Cheyne, in what weak in the spendthrift, till he sacrifices he says as to true religion, believing it all the purposes of honourable life for a not alone a preservative from insanity succession of momentary gratifications, but often a cure for mental distraction and strong in the miser, who deprives in its worst form, we yet cannot but himself of all the enjoyments, which acknowledge to ourselves, that a quesit is the only true object of riches to tion remains which each man will anpurchase. The collection of a splen- swêr differently to his own mind, and did library by a man of learning, or the reply to which will encourage the of valuable statues or pictures by a wildest fanatic in his worst follies, man of refined taste, is referred to when he asks himself what is true rethe same principle, which, in its abuse ligion? The wildest madman, whose leads the foolish virtuoso to crowd his disease originates in fanaticism, has rooms with Indian idols, stuffed birds, already asked himself the question, loathsome reptiles, cracked china, ca- and answered it with a sincerity, of noes of savages, old pottery, croziers, which his disease is in some degree and rings. A collector is mentioned evidence.

who, among other valuables, possessed Dr. Cheyne says, “that true religion a vial of George the Fourth's blood, has never since the Gospel was first obtained from the royal cupper. That preached, produced a single case of such folly should end in insanity does insanity.” “ Melancholy is,” he says, not seem surprising, but the process “ the usual type of religious madness ;" Dr. Cheyne describes to be this-cu- and it is impossible to regard melanpidity becomes first the ruling, and choly as “ produced by the most cheerthen the only passion. It subdues all ing proposition which was ever placed other desires which might have proved before the mind of man- Believe and correctives to it; and when it has thou shall be saved.'" completely triumphed, the mind is In this way Dr. Cheyne, to his own left in a state of incurable derange- satisfaction, gets rid of the statement ment.

of the French physicians, that before The next chapter, “On insanity in the Revolution a great proportion of supposed connection with religion," the insane in France were monks, and introduces us to what Dr. Cheyne re- of the facts, that many of our mani. gards the most important part of his acs use the language of religion. That work. “ Derangement,” he says, “may many cases, where insanity arises from originate in superstition or fanaticism," other causes, are referred to religion, but he finds a difficulty in conceiving arises, he thinks, from the hatred “ that true religion, which removes felt for religion, and a willingness to doubts and distractions, explains our attribute to it all the evil men safely duties and reconciles us to them, and He then gives half a dozen narteaches that all things work together ratives; one of

a lady of fifty, a memfor good to them that love God, and ber of a religious family, who suddenly thus not only guides but supports us affected airs of high rank, insisted on as we toil through the weary maze of the necessity of attending court drawlife ; which, in every pursuit demands ing-rooms—at last began to fancy that moderation and method, and calms when she drove out, persons of staevery rising storm of the passions, tion were waiting to deliver messages should be productive of insanity." to her expressive of surprise that she

It would not be becoming of us to did not visit them; then showed such do much more in reviewing Dr. decided symptoms of entire madness Cheyne's book than give an account as rendered it necessary to separate of its contents; yet we cannot forbear her from society,—losing all sense of asking, is not the admission that insa religion. This, Cheyne says, was not nity may originate in superstition or religious insanity, as we suppose it fanaticism, an admission fatal to the was called, otherwise whytell the story? argument, that what is called mental -but “ vanity sweeping away every derangement is always to be looked for trace of religious feeling." Then


comes a narrative of a religious cler- finds there is no wine in the chalice gyman, swearing like a trooper at a presented to her. She interprets this as woodranger who provoked him. It poor Cowper interpreted his dream of does not appear that the clergyman the gates of Westminster Abbey being became insane, but he had a brother closed against him, and madness fol. who did, and Cheyne states this as lows. The other examples are not un“a monomaniacal explosion, in which like in character to this. What is most aristocratic pride, much fostered du important is, that no one of them is ring the youth of this member of a

the case

a person who could be noble family, was roused by cerebral fairly described as religious in any excitement, and for a time resumed sense in which religion can be regarded its original ascendancy." The reli- as a principle regulating conduct; and gious, during insanity, lose all sense of we protest, we think, that the orgies of religion, which returns when the par- a bacchanal, or the frantic rites of a oxysm is over. Cheyne, to illustrate worshipper of Jaganaut might as fairly this, tells of a brave and generous mi- be given in evidence of true religion litary man, who was occasionally in disordering the mind as any one of the sane, and during the disease was op- cases cited. In Haslam's book on inpressed with fear, and became selfish. sanity, he thinks the cases of religious He then mentions an imprudent specu- insanity are confined to those who lation of a widow lady, involving con- cease to follow, as true, the form of siderable expenditure, and likely to religion in which they have been end in bankruptcy. As pecuniary dif. brought up.

brought up. This, as a general proficulties increased, her religious opi- position, involving as a consequence nions became more enthusiastic. “We the risk of endangering the right of witnessed,"says Cheyne,“her first overt exercising a judgment on religious act of insanity, in a composition, on subjects, is shown by Cheyne to be which some of her friends probably untrue ; but we have little doubt looked with admiration, namely a that a more sane exercise of the scheme of the Gospel, which she understanding is exhibited by those caused to be printed in the form of two who seek to see what is good in the inverted pyramids, which met at their religious societies in which they find pointed ends.” She soon after pro- themselves placed, than by the restless claimed the millennium, and retired to spirits who seem to learn nothing from a lunatic asylum. Cheyne refers this the teaching of any instructors; and case to imprudence in an enthusiasti- we have no doubt whatever, that the cally religious woman.

statistics of religious insanity in many not,” he says, “ the moral constitution asylums were calculated to suggest of the individual who would aver that Haslam's observation. The reception this, the effect of enthusiasm, was a of any doctrines believed without discase of insanity from religion." Cheyne putation is little likely to endanger the complains, not unreasonably, of the re- mind. In most cases, too, it should turns from establishments for the in- be remembered, that without fulfilling sane, classing with “insanity from the practical duties of life, there is not religion,” the disease of persons, who only no true religion, but a state worse becoming insane under. circumstances than infidelity, and that a habit of disnot likely to suggest religious insanity, putativeness can scarcely exist without as their disease, during the course of interrupting almost everything that is their lunacy fix, among their other good. One of the evils of the cir. wanderings of mind, on some religious cumstances in which society is now dogma, which they first pervert, and placed is, the vast multitude of sects, then incessantly rave about.

and the almost necessary consequence of A case (Perceyal's) to which we doubtful disputations on points which have before adverted, is then discussed, would not be felt of the same interest, and our author proceeds to examine if they did not form the boundary walls the cases of religious madness, given between different denominations of in Burrowes's work on insanity.

Christians. We believe the best hope The first is that of a lady of the of a cure for this evil is the increased Established Church, who listens to study of the Scriptures themselves, the doctrines of Swedenborgh; is with the distinct recollection, that exabout to receive the sacrament, and cept as influencing conduct, religion

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