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Demand without reply, unsolved enigma,
It was in the summer of 1830, I believe, that the young pair who inspired the poet with the above lines, arrived at the Cheval Blanc, at Montmorency: They passed two days as he has described—the third, missed in their usual wanderings, their chamber door was opened, and they were found dead—the discharged pistols beside them. Both were extremely young, and the girl very beautiful.
THE SAILOR'S GRAVE.
Composed on seeing the grave of a young sailor, who had been shipwrecked, and was unknown, in a
churchyard close to the seashore.
“ Tears for the weary ones who keep
Long watch beneath the sun;
Their heritage is won."-FRANCES Browx.
Perhaps a tender mother's mournful eye
Is oft-times fix'd upon the deep blue wave,
For him who sleeps within this foreign grave.
Perhaps--perhaps each home returning sail
Brings light to eyes from weary watching dim,
When the dread query comes—“Does it bring him?"
Perchance his name_his dear familiar name
Is utter'd oft, without one boding tear,
“ Ere summer gilds the hills he will be here !
“ Ere summer's breath brings back the roses bloom,
Ere summer's stars in midnight's sky shall burn,
That wraps her now—the rover will return !"
Weep not for him--the stormy strife is o'er,
The “ bubbling cry" is hush'd, the tempest past,
Where worn and weary hearts will rest at last !
Weep not for him-he lies in sweet repose
His lullaby the murmurs of the main ;
ALICIA JANE SPARROW.
CROWN FEDERALISM.--THE LATE BRITISH COLONIES IN AMERICA.
Πολλά δε και άλλα ίτι και νύν όντα και του χρόνω αμνηστούμενα και οι άλλοι Έλληνες ευκαι ορθώς οΐονται: ούτως αταλαίπωρος τους πολλούς, η ζήτησης της αληθείας, και επί τα έτοιμα padov rimontal.Thucydides, b. i. c. 20. It was remarked by Leland, that Ire- either servile submission or bloody land had never a philosophical his- resistance to the sovereign authority; torian. The period which has elapsed and that the only means by which states since that observation was made, has so related can continue free, is an indone nothing to remedy his complaint. corporating union, or a complete sepaThe Clio of Irish history still holds ration. a magic-lantern, of which the light is As the menace of American power little, but the magnifier large : through has been used, and the influence of it slide after slide is passed, exhibiting American names has been employed distorted and exaggerated, but, at the to aid the recoil of European civilisame time, fleeting and evanescent zation, which the repeal of the union pictures of the crimes and miseries of would certainly produce, we purpose departed ages.
Sir Richard Mus. in this paper to glance at the constitugrave, on the one hand, having kindled tional history of the United States ; the torch of his history at the fire of and it will be seen incidentally, that to Scullabogue, cast a lurid glare upon the opinions of Tyler and Van Buren, the wickedness and barbarism of the and to the form of government they Celts. Mr. O'Connell, on the other advocate for the British Islands, is part, has, more recently, disinhumed opposed the authority of Washington, the buried recollection of Saxon cruelty Franklin, Madison, Hamilton, Morris, and oppression, that their putrid re- Adams, and every other name illustri. mains, by causing a moral miasma, ous in the revolutionary history of may pollute the political atmosphere, America ; not excepting the apostle of and make it a fit medium to propagate anarchy, Jefferson, hiniself. the contagion of Repeal.
The quo warranto proceedings, in From the productions of these com- the reign of James II., against the pilers, written, though they be, in the chartered rights of the Americans, style of the proces verbal of an execu- the tradition of despotism which the tioner, one valuable inference may be line of Stuart received from the Spadrawn, one important conclusion may nish branch of the house of Austria, as be deduced, viz. :—that the history of the means of assailing freedom, deIreland, whilst she was united to stroyed the union of the colonies,t England by that peculiar species of " which was generally known, and had federalism, which was formed by the been frequently avowed to be essential connecting link of the crown, is a re- to their safety, their greatness, and cord of alternate periods of despotism their prosperity, long before the late or anarchy, of the convulsion of passion, revolution, or the claims of the British or of the paralysis of despair.
parliament, which produced it," and But it is not Ireland alone that ex- left them equally exposed to internal hibits the disastrous consequences of oppression and foreign force, to the such a connection ; the experiments tyranny of Andros, which they exmade in the European dominions of perienced, and the cruelty of Kirk, the Spanish monarchy, in Castile, Arra- which they narrowly, but fortunately, gon, Catalonia, Biscay, and the Nether.
escaped. $ The revolution of 1688 lands ; in the kingdoms of England restored representative government to and of Scotland ; in the British-Ame. the colonies; and, although the former rican colonies, prove that it causes intimate union among them was not
* God forbid we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion (i. e. a rebellion for the purpose of cancelling debts). Jefferson's Letter to Colonel Smith, November, 1787. Jefferson's Letters, vol. ii. p. 268. | Kent's Commentaries on American Law, vol. i. p. 203.
Hutchison's History of Massachusetts.
revived, yet there are instances to be colonies, though much superior to them found of associations for their safety. in point of numbers, and easily break A congress of governors and commis
å rope of sand.” sioners was occasionally held to make The instinct of the savage and the arrangements for the more effectual wisdom of the philosopher alike reprotection of the internal frontiers ; volted from a form of government and one of these assembled at Albany which induced such results; and at the in 1722 ; but a more interesting con- instance of the Indians,f who openly gress was held there in the year upbraided the English for their divi1754.
sions and indolence, a congress of The British dominions in America, deputies from the different colonies at that period divided into eleven sepa- was, by the order of the lords of trade, rate states, exclusive of Georgia and appointed to meet the chiefs of the Nova Scotia, were exposed along the six nations at Albany, in 1754, to con. whole line of their frontier to the attacks cert a scheme of common defence. The of hordes of Indian warriors, the most legislature of Pennsylvania, although cruel and treacherous of the human they did not like to treat out of the race, and of the army of the hostile province, agreed to the recommendacolony of Canada ; thus having com. tion of the governor, to appoint the bined against them the skill of civilized speaker, Mr. Norriss, Mr. Secretary and the craft of savage man.
The Peters, and Dr. Franklin, to act as English inhabitants, though numerous, their commissioners. On the road to were scattered over a vast tract of Albany, Dr. Franklin projected and country; and if some of their towns drew up a plan for the union of all the were thickly inhabited, their settle- colonies under one government, so far ments in the country were at a great as might be important for defence and distance from each other. The Indians, all other general purposes. At New from their migratory habits, were per
York he consulted on the subject Mr. fectly acquainted with all the lines of James Alexander, and Mr. Kennedy, communication, the number of the two gentlemen of great experience and population, and their means of defence; knowledge in public affairs ; confirmed but the English knew little of the in his opinion by their approbation, he immense forests by which they were laid his proposal before the congress. surrounded, and which covered from It was then discovered that several observation the red man, until the mo- other commissioners had formed simiment he began to discharge the rifle, or lar plans. A committee was therefore to use the tomahawk; and supplied to appointed to examine and report on him, in the event of defeat, a sure the various proposals, and after inplace of refuge. In each of the co- vestigating them, they preferred the lonies nothing of importance could be scheme of Dr. Franklin. By this plan transacted without the consent of their was proposed a general council of derespective assemblies, and it was im legates, to be triennially chosen by the possible to unite them in any plan of provincial assemblies, and a presidentgeneral defence; they appeared insen- general to be appointed by the crown. I sible to impending danger, when an In this council, subject to the immediimmediate junction became necessary ate negative of the president, and the for their common safety. A cotempo- eventual negative of the king in council, rary writer said, * “ that it was easy to was the right of war and peace in conceive that a large body of men, part respect to the Indian nations, and the of them regular troops, (the French confederacy was to embrace all the army in Canada,) with the assistance existing colonies from New Hampshire of the Indians scattered through the to Georgia. The council were to have continent, upon the back of all the authority to make laws for the goBritish settlements, might reduce a vernment of new settlements, upon number of disunited and independent territories to be purchased from the
1114, PP: History of the British Dominions in North America from 1497 to 15, 16. London: Strahan. 1772.
Ibid. p. 22.
Memoir of the Life and Writings of B. Franklin, LL.D., by his Son, vol. i. p. 203,
Indians, to raise and build forts, and “ The manner of forming and esta. even to equip vessels of force to guard blishing this union was the next point. the coast, and to protect trade upon
“ When it was considered that the the ocean, as well as the lakes and
colonies were seldom all in equal danrivers. They were likewise to make
ger at the same time, or equally near
the danger, or equally sensible of it; laws, to lay and levy imposts, duties, and taxes, for these necessary pur.
that some of them had particular inter.
ests to manage, with which an union poses. This plan was recommended
might interfere; and that they were to the crown and the various legisla- extremely jealous of each other : it was tures, for the following “reasons and thought impracticable to obtain a joint motives" :
agreement of all the colonies to an
union, in which the expenses and burthen • The commissioners from a number
of defending any of them should be of the northern colonies being met at divided among them all; and if even Albany, and considering the difficulties acts of assembly in all the colonies could that have always attended the most be obtained for that purpose, yet as any necessary general measures for the com
colony on the least dissatisfaction might mon defence of the country, or for the repeal its own act, and thereby withannoyance of the enemy, when they draw itself from the union, it would not were to be carried through the several be a stable one, or such as could be departicular assemblies of all the colonies pended on : for if only one colony should, or councils, and the several branches of
on any disgust, withdraw itself, others the government not on terms of doing might think it unjust and unequal, that business with each other-others taking by continuing in the union, they should opportunity, when their concurrence is be at the expense of defending a colony wanted, to push for favourite laws, which refused to bear its proportionable powers, or points, that they think at part, and would therefore one after other times could not be obtained, and another withdraw,till the whole crumbled so creating disputes and quarrels; one as- into its original parts ; therefore the sembly waiting to see what another will commissioners came to another resolu. do, being afraid of doing more than its tion, viz. : That it was necessary the union share, or desirous of doing less, or refus. should be established by act of parliament. ing to do anything, because its country is " It was proposed by some of the not at present so much exposed as others, commissioners to form the colonies into or because another will reap more imme- two or three distinct unions; but, for diate advantage ; from one or other of these reasons, that proposal was dropped, which causes, the assemblies of six (out even by those who made it :of seven) colonies applied to, had granted “ I. In all cases where the strength no assistance to Virginia when lately of the whole vas necessary to be used invaded by the French, though pur- against the enemy, there would be the posely convened, and the importance of same difficulty in degree to bring the the occasion earnestly urged upon them several unions to unite together, as now —and considering that one principal en- the several colonies, and consequently couragement to the French, in invad. the same delay on one part, and advaning and insulting the British American
tage to the enemy. dominions, was the knowledge of our * II. Each union would be separately disunited state, and our weakness arising weaker than when joined by the whole, from want of union; and from hence obliged to exert more force, be opdifferent colonies were at different times pressed by the expense, and the enemy extremely harassed, and put to great less deterred from attacking it. expense, both of blood and treasure, “III. Where particular colonies have who would have remained at peace if to the Indian trade and land; or being the enemy had cause to fear the draw. less exposed, being covered by others, as ing on themselves the resentment and selfish views, as New York with regard power of the whole the said commis- New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut, sioners, considering the present en. Maryland; or have particular whims croachment of the French, and the mis. and prejudices against warlike mea. chievous consequences that may be ex. sures, as Pennsylvania, where the Quapected from them, if not opposed by our kers predominate; such colonies would torce, came to a unanimous resolution, have more weight in a partial union,
That an union of the colonies is absolutely and be better able to obstruct and opnecessary for their preservation.
pose the measures necessary for the
* Kent's Commentaries on American Law, vol. i. p. 203.
general good, than when they are swal- two thirds of the officers, including the lowed up in the general union.
commander, General Braddock, having “It was also thought, that by fre- been slain. I quent meetings together of the commis
Pennsylvania and Maryland, aroused sioners or representatives of the colonies, the circumstances of the whole would
at last from their apathy, had appropribe better known, and the good of the
ated money for their defence; but not whole better provided for ; and that the
inclined to unite to Virginia or to each colonies by this connection would learn other in any concerted measure, they to consider themselves, not as so many were contented to expend their subindependent states, but as members of stance in fortifying their own borders. the same body; and therefore be more If a more liberal policy had been ready to afford assistance and support adopted, if these colonies had smothered to each other, and to make diversions in
their local jealousies, and looked only savour of even the most distant, and to join cordially in any expedition for
to their common interest, they might the benefit of all against the common
by a single combined effort have driven enemy."*
the French from Ohio, and remained
quiet during the remainder of the " Its fate," says Dr. Franklin,
There being no hope of such singular; the assemblies did not adopt a result, it was foreseen by the Virit, as they all thought there was too ginians, that the most strenuous exermuch prerogative in it; and in England tions would be requisite to defend their it was judged to have too much of the
long line of frontiers against the indemocratic. I am still of opinion that it would have been happy for both sides,
road of the savages. Colonel Washif it had been adopted. The colonies
ington repaired to his head-quarters 80 united would have been sufficiently
at Winchester ; a few only were stastrong to have defended themselves, and tioned there, the regiments being disthere would have been no need of troops persed at different parts in the interior, from England; of course the subsequent so situated as to afford the best propretext for taxing America, and the tection to the inhabitants. The enemy bloody contest it occasioned, would have were on the alert ; scarcely a day been avoided."
passed without new accounts of depre
dations and massacres by the Indians. The war commenced, the British
The scouting. parties and even the government having been left to defray
forts were attacked, and many of the the expenses of offensive operations, soldiers and some of the best officers each state depended on its own resources
killed; so bold were the savages, that for individual defence, and relied on
they committed robberies and murders its own strength for its peculiar pro
within twenty miles of Winchester, tection. Events rapidly demonstrated
and serious apprehensions were enterthe dreadful consequences of the folly
tained for the safety of that place. of those colonies which refused to
The feelings of the commander (Washcombine to be free, and unite to be
ington), deeply affected by the scenes safe. The disaster of the Great
he witnessed, and his inability to exMeadows, after which Colonel Wash.
tend relief, are vividly portrayed in a ington had to capitulate, on conditions letter to the governor :of surrendering his artillery and prisoners to the French, and to agree
“Your honour may see,” said he, "to not to build any more establishments what unhappy straits the distressed inon that place, or beyond the moun
habitants, and myself, are reduced. I tains (Alleghany), for the space of a
am too little acquainted, sir, with pa
thetic language, to attempt a descripyear, was followed by the defeat at
tion of the people's distresses, though I Monongehala, the most terrible re
have a generous soul, sensible of wrongs verse, considering the numbers en
and swelling for redress. But what gaged, thatever was suffered by British can I do? I see their situation, I know soldiers, one half of the army and their danger, and I participate in their
• Life and Writings of Franklin. Albany Papers, pp. I to 4. | Memoir of the Life of Franklin, vol. i. p. 202.
The Writings of General Washington. By Jared Sparks. Vol. i. p. 67. Boston: Andrews. 1839.