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things will not be of long endurance, Among the compensations for which or of a fatal issue. No, we are given the cardinal expresses a deep sense of to see great principles on their trial, thankfulness, the state of religion in tested by every agency, in every form Flanders also holds a high place. After in which a scrutiny can be applied. enduring so many novercal governThe Catholic principle which respects ments, and in which the faith might authority, antiquity, union—the Pro- often have been wrecked, it is not martestant principle which would be the vellous that a devoted son or servant safeguard of liberty, and would insist of the Church of Rome should regard on maintaining the right of private opi- with very deep satisfaction the present nion, because a paramount duty is in- estate of the priesthood in Belgium. volved in it-these, from causes which To them, it can scarcely be disputed, it is not necessary to enumerate-have the chief authority in the land has been placed for a time in a state of appa- drifted. The sovereign appears to hold rent antagonism ; but it is not in the his throne on sufferance the so-called nature of things that they can long representatives of the people are, in remain so. By character and consti- point of fact, delegates of the clergy, tution they are allies. They are of the and even that department in the state same origin, they have the same end which seems exempted from their di. and object, and it is not to be sup- rect control, is reached and governed posed that they can long be held in through their influence. Such has estrangement from each other.
been the issue of the Belgian revoluBut it is a curious subject of alarm tion. Liberals and Romanists joined by which the prudent cardinal's ex- in the experiment. Liberals were impectations are dashed. The wealth of patient of the mild control of Holthe Church of England, and its con- land, or else expected to achieve for nection with the aristocracy of the themselves higher distinctions or larger country, he imagines, will retard, if emoluments in the scramble consenot prevent, its overthrow. What a quent upon a dismemberment of the comment on the clamours raised against empire. They have realized, to their the church as a system which can never great detriment, the old story of the prove serviceable for any good until horse and the deer—the unwelcome it is released from its mundane opu. intruder upon their pastures has been lence. We do not, of course, mean chased away, but the deliverance has to deny, that wealth may be abused been accomplished at a cost and a sathat revenues may be ill distributed, crifice that infinitely outpaid it. The and that evil consequences may
result government of Romanism was a bad from a mal-administration of funds in exchange for that of Holland, and in any system or organization, secular or removing the one, Belgian liberalism religious. We are not re-opening a has established the other in authority question which we think has, for some
“ Non equitem dorso, nec frænum depulit ore." time been closed, respecting the wealth of the church, or attempting to prove But appearances are often deceptive, (a work of supererogation) that the and even cardinals may, in some rare revenues of the Anglican church are instances, be deluded by them. Belnot more than moderate; but we think gium, although at this moment a deit well to direct attention to the fact pendancy, through its priests, on the that economists in England and Ro- Church of Rome, is not held by a manists abroad and at home-(the tenure which promises permanence. Cardinal is one of many)—have pre- The prostrate party is somewhat referred the same complaints against fractory. In forming an alliance with the church-the complaint that it is liberalism, the clergy of Rome were wealthy—and that the Romanist re- under the necessity of enacting tolemonstrants assign as the ground of the rance, and a latitude was so long objection, that this wealth and splen- given to thought and expression, that dour of which they complain, increase freedom of speech and publication has, the difficulties in their assaults upon in some sort, become domesticated in an institution they would destroy, and Belgium. In consequence, books diminish the hopes which they would and
the range is not very extensive of gladly entertain of seeing it speedily those which Romanism would not prooverturned.
nounce “bad books"-swarm thick as Vol. XXII.No. 131.
Egyptian plagues, enlarging the num- already perceived that indissoluble conber of the liberal party, and confirm- nexion in all its full extent. At the end ing their prejudices. And so it fares, of the sixteenth century, popular intellithat, while Cardinal Pacca is congra
gence in Spain, and still more in Italy, tulating himself, and thanking heaven
became decidedly dwindled. Writers, for the triumphant aspect of his church
poets, artists, disappeared one after an
other; instead of the vigorous, audain Belgium, the prelates of that fa
cious generation which had departed, voured land are remonstrating in tones the new men languished in a deadly atof indignation and dismay, against the mosphere. It was no more the heroic diffusion of pestilent opinions through innovations of a Campanella or a Bruno ; their flock, and are evidently eager for
it was honied verse or insipid prosc, a return of the pious times when they spreading around, as it were, the heavy
odour of a sepulchre. But while all of could protect good Catholics against all intellectual poison by committing to
national genius was decaying, we see a
little society, that of the Jesuits, which, the flames prohibited books and the
growing perceptibly, and insinuating it. authors of them.
self through every pore of these decayNor in France are matters in that ing states, nourishes itself with the remstate of security and repose which nant of vitality in the heart of Italy; Cardinal Pacca imagines. On the con. gathers strength and size from the sub'trary there is now pending a conflict stance of this great divided body; and between the Jesuit party and the Uni
when so great a phenomenon appears in versity of Paris, or more properly,
the world, when it predominates over
all other intellectual occurrences, and is perhaps, the patrons of secular education generally, which may put Ro
their influencing spirit, une must not manism in jeopardy, and which seems
speak of it! When I encounter, directly,
in my subject, so powerful an institubig, whatever its issue may be, with tion, one that reacts on every mind; mighty consequences.
one which comprises, which sums up the * Les Jésuites, par MM. Michelet et whole system of the south, I must turn Quinet," consists of a series of discourses away my eyes and pass on! What, delivered by the eminent and able wri- then, remains to do? To restrict one's ters whose names they bear, in the
self within the study of some sonnets, or course of the past summer, in Paris, on
of some of the amatory mythology of the character, the objects, and the prac
these ages of decline ? Agreed—but in tices of the institute of Loyola. The
spite of all this the question will not interest excited by these lectures dur.
escape us; for, after having studied
these nothings, it will be incumbent on ing the period of their being delivered us to show the deleterious influence was extreme, and the avidity with which has called them into being ; and which they were sought on their ap- all the difference resulting from our pearance in a printed form, may be postponing the discussion of Jesuitism judged of from the fact that the course
will be to inveft the order of our pro. was not concluded till the month of ceedings, and to place at the end what July, and before the end of August
have been at the commencement.
The examination of the death of a peothey appear to have gone through three editions.
ple, is, if one would seek the cause of it,
as important as the examination of their The following extract from a dis- lives. But at least,add they,might you not course of M. Quinet, who in lectures show the effect without the cause the on the literature of the south of Eu- literature and the policy, without their rope, felt it a part of his duty to con- governing principle-Italy without Jesider the Jesuit institute in its effects suitism—the dead without the living ? upon human society, will show the No, I cannot; and, moreover, I will not. spirit in which the subject of Jesuitism “ What! shall I by attentive observais taken up. To the initiated it may
tion see southern Europe consuming serve also to show more in the charac
away amid the formation and the dere. ter of the antagonist parties than meets
lopment of this establishment_lanthe eyes of the superficial.
guishing, dying under its influence; and,
while I am here especially occupied with “Why, say they, speak of the Society the people of the south, shall I not say of Jesus, in a course of lectures on what occasions the decay?-(murmurs.) the literature of the south? What Shall I tranquilly see my own country connexion have things so different invited to an alliance for which others with each other? I must have been have so dearly paid, and shall I not say, very unfortunate, and must have lost beware? Others have tried the experi. my time strangely, if you have not ment for you, the most diseased nations of Europe, those who possess the least and so universal, that it is impossible credit and authority, those who seem not to speak of it, when considering the the most abandoned of God, are those period of the revival of literature with where the society of Loyola has esta- reference to its poetry, arts, morals, poblished itself !-(murmurs, cries, shuffling litics, and institutions. I maintain that of the feet; the voice drowned for some after having seized upon the substance minutes.) Do not risk this descent, ex- of all the south, it has remained during ample shows its dangers; do not sit a century the sole living thing in the under this shade, it has benumbed and bosom of those departed societies. Even poisoned Spain and Italy during two at this moment divided into shreds, centuries—(tumult, cries, hisses, and ap- trampled on, crushed by so many solemn plause.) I ask if from these general edicts, to come to life under our eyes facts I am not to draw the obvious con- half lift itself and speak dictatorially, clusions, what becomes of all real infor- while scarcely risen from the dust; to mation on such subjects? But here, provoke, to menace, again to fling the again, my astonishment is redoubled. gauntlet at intelligence and good sense ; For what order, for what society is this those are not the acts of a narrow ge. strange privilege demanded ? Whom is
nius or a timid courage. If the world, it here wished to place beyond the reach after having extirpated Jesuits, will let of discussion or observation ? Is it them again seize on it, they do well to haply the existing clergy of France ? or try; and if they succeed, it will be one one of those peaceful and modest com- of the greatest miracles of the modern munities which need protection against world. At all events, they follow their an intolerant majority? No; it is a law, the condition of their existence, society which (we shall examine after- their destiny. I blame them not, they wards whether justly or not) has been obey their characters. All would be at different epochs expelled from every well, if, on the other side, all were true state of Europe ; which the pope has to theirs. Yes, this reaction, notwithhimself condemned; which France has standing the intolerance which it boasts cast from her bosom ; which has no ex- of, does not displease me; the future istence in the eyes of the state, or ra- would profit, if all did their duty; that ther, which is considered as dead in law is to say, if science, philosophy, and huin our country. And it is this nameless man intelligence provoked and appealed wreck which" hides itself, disguises it. to at length should accept this great self, and grows great, (en se reniant,) challenge. Perhaps we were inclined to which we are not to study, to consider, slumber in the possession of a limited to analyse in its origin and in its past number of ideas, without dreaming of
It is admitted that all other increasing them. It is well that the orders have had their periods of decline, truth should from time to time be disof corruption : that their spirit has been puted; it incites man to make new ac. adapted to particular epochs, after quisitions therein. If he has no fears which they have been forced to give for his heritage, he not merely does not place to others ; just as political socie- augment it, but he lets it decrease. ties, states, nations, which have had They accuse us of having been too bold. their day and their appointed duration ; I will take some blame to myself; only and the Jesuitical society is the only one I will say, that instead of having been of which, without a species of risk, we too bold, I begin to fear that we may bave may not show the meannesses, mark the been too timid. Compare, in fact, for phases of decline, the signs of decrepi- one moment, the instruction in our coun. tude ; it is blasphemy to compare its try, and that in the universities of the periods of prosperity with its days of despotic northern governments. Is it decline, since that would be attributing not in a Catholic country, in a Catholic to it the vicissitudes common to all other university at Munich, that Schelling has, institutions. To question its unchange- during thirty years, been unfolding, ableness is almost an effort of courage. with an increasing audacity, the idea of Where would this path conduct us? Is this new Christianity, of this new it that of the France of July ?-(ap- church, which at once transforms the plause.). Nevertheless, I will say my past and the future? Is it not in a deswhole mind. Yes, in this boldness there potic country that Hegel, with still more is something which pleases and attracts independence, has revived all the inquime; it seems to me now that I compre- ries relative to dogma ? And then it is hend, that I bring out the grandeur of not alone theories and mysteries which this society better than all its apologists. are freely and philosophically discussed. They would wish me not to speak of it ; It is, moreover, and on every occasion, and I pretend, on the contrary, that the letter of the Old and New Testa. this society has been so powerful, its ment to which they apply the same disorganization so ingenious and so full of engaged spirit of high criticism as to vitality, its influence so long continued Greek and Roman philology."
We are far from questioning the institution-how is the interest en. validity of the eloquent professor's de- hanced when its past is regarded as a fence, or from denying that an expo- light which warns of a very menacing sition of the character of Jesuitism was future! The Jesuit order has not, pertinent to his subject, although that perhaps, had the calm sentence of subject was literature. At the same philosophy pronounced upon it. All time, we are persuaded, that had the who have written upon its merits or spirit which animated the order of its demerits, have written like partizans Loyola been laid to rest, or were its -all have written like persons who material organization less formidable feared its power, who hated it, or who than it is, neither of those distinguish- sheltered behind it; but however died men who hold the chairs of history vided opinions may have been among or literature in Paris, would have advocates or accusers, the common hazarded the opposition or the incon- feeling of humanity seems to have venience of provoking a discussion to been pronounced in the astounding which they did not appear to be di. fact, that all countries in which the rectly and forcibly called. The truth Jesuits had obtained a settlementis, evidently, that the power of the many a country or community in which Jesuits at the present day, their pro- they were at first welcomed with love jects, their schemes, compel attention and devotion—some, wherein they were to their past history, to the spirit and from the first suspected—have come at genius of their institution. As mat- length to the same judgment, and that ter of speculation and science, such a an adverse one. The Jesuits have subject would certainly be one of very suffered expulsion from places in which deep interest; but were its interest of they had had opportunities of devea purely antiquarian or speculative loping their principles and manifesting character, it would not have called their character, in thirty-seven distinct forth the eloquence of MM. Michelet instances. “ It is not,” writes the and Quinet. These bold men cite the Abbé du Pradt, “ the facts in detail Jesuitism of the present day to answer
which it is important to prove, it is not merely for the wrongs it inflicted the spirit of those facts; when the in past times upon society, but those one is known, we know the others, which at this moment it meditates. and can only look for the same results They expose its avowed principles, from the same causes. A detailed and purposes, and acts, that they may history of the Jesuits would occupy arouse the reasonable apprehensions an immense space, more than what of their country and age against the the history of a great state would demost formidable danger by which both mand. One single trait, a trait unique are threatened.
in the annals of the world, one trait As matter of abstract inquiry, we belonging alone to the history of Jesuscarcely know any subject of more ex- itism, is the subjoined* list of the exciting interest than that of the Jesuit pulsions the Jesuits have undergone
• List of the expulsions endured by the Jesuits :From Saragossa in 1555 From Bohemia,
1618 the Vateline in
Naples and the Low Coun-
1622 England 1579, 1581, and 1586 Malta,
1676 and 1823 Hungary and Transylvania, 1588 Savoy,
1759 all France,
Spain, the 2d of April,... 1767
1767 the city of Tournon, 1597
lies, 3d Nov. Bearn,
Duchy of Parma, 8th Feb. 1768 England again in 1601
22d the same,
Rome and all Christendom, 1763 Venice,
1606 and 1612 Partial or general expulsions, 37. Kingdom of Amara or Japan, 1613
throughout the world. What then the light by which faithful men stuhas been the nature of that society died it, held all human authority in which has constrained all countries disesteem. These would reduce the and all governments alike to expel faith and discipline of the church to it? Thirty-seven expulsions under- the standard which should be set up gone by one single religious body! by Scripture and right reason. There What! the thirty-nine monastic orders was, if such a term may be employed, cited above have not drawn upon them- the ecclesiastical aristocracy, who selves, collectively, one similar mark would uphold the right and authority of disapproval—it is a privileged stamp of general councils, and would insist reserved for Jesuitism alone."
that whatsoever these august assemblies That a society like that of the Je. changed should be reformed at their suits should continue to exist, against decree, that whatsoever they declared which humanity seemed so unequivo- fixed should remain, at their command, cally to protest, and that it should ap- unaltered. And there were the advopear, notwithstanding so many shocks cates of that mighty monarchy, the and disasters, to be gathering strength papal power, who insisted, that the for new efforts to attain dominion over claims put forth on the part of the mankind, is one of those rare pheno- chair of St. Peter-claims of univermena which the least curious among sal dominion over all estates, spiritual reflecting men might naturally desire and temporal, should be acknowledged to investigate. It seems alınost to just and legitimate. For centuries realise the idea which ascribed to the the principles thus represented, had original particles of matter such a been at issue. Popes, and councils, consistency as rendered them impe- and reformers, had been contending rishable and unchangeable; indicat. for their respective ends. Controing, that wherever a solitary Jesuit versy, and war, and persecution, had survived, his order lived in him, and been their instruments. In the age he became, as it were, a kind of in. of the Reformation, the struggle besoluble and infrangible centre, around came gigantic; and, after a crisis of which an order reconstructed itself interest unequalled in human history, anew. It is a marvellous story-that the aspect of society became changed, of the fortunes of Jesuitism; not of and the condition of the church essenits fortunes only, but of its bold and tially altered. The Church of Rome subtle devices, the artifices by which it emerged from the struggle, with its baffled power, the disguises under ancient forms, and a new faith. The which it escaped detection, the deceits Reformers separated, bearing with and equivocations by which it evaded them the faith of primitive and aposthe authority to which it pretended tolic times, and holding this faith unqualified submission and obedience. amidst forms which bore not the
The order of Jesuits was thrown stamp of so venerable an antiquity. up into existence, the reader need not In effecting this mighty change, the be informed, in the age of mighty pro- influence of Loyola was not less effecductions, the era of the Reformation. tive than that of Luther. If ProLuther and Loyola were the action and testantism had its champion in the reaction of that time of giants. These Reformer, the Jesuit is, not less two men issued forth into the world plainly, the architect of modern Ro. out of the same system—the Catholic manism. The Council of Trent was Church-a church, in their day, fallen the instrumentality through which the into a state of chaos, where a true transformation of the Church of Rome faith was yet preserved, but amidst, was effected, and the agency which and often underneath, fictions by directed the change was Jesuitism. which it was opposed or superseded. It was a change vast in its nature and The limits of the church were exten- its consequences. It constituted the sive enough to comprehend within bishop of Rome an absolute monarch. them great parties representing the It annulled the privileges of all orders, spirit of the times, and strongly dis- communities, individuals, in his comcriminated from each other. There munion; and it had the prospective were the Reformers, who upheld the effect of prohibiting for ever the assemsovereign authority of Scripture, and, bling together of those great assemblies, in comparison with its pure word and which, in old times, in the primitive and