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1879.-Colonel N. Prejevalsky-Patron's Medal for his successive Expeditions, route-surveys, in the years 1870-3 to Mongolia and the high plateau of Northern Tibet-unexplored country; also for his journey from Kulja to Lob-Nor in 1876-7, and for his published narratives of his travels.

Captain W. J. Gill, R.E.-Founder's Medal-for the important Geographical work along the northern frontier of Persia in 1873, and in Western China and Tibet in 1877; and especially for the traverse-survey made by him during the latter journey, and the very complete maps of his route.


Physical Geography.-MATTHEW GEORGE GRANT, Liverpool College (Gold Medal).

FRANK TAYLOR SHARPE, Liverpool College (Silver Medal).

Political Geography.-DAVID BOWIE, Dulwich College (Gold Medal).
CLAUDE L. BICKNELL, Harrow School (Silver Medal).


J. R. DAVIS (Silver Medal for Physical Geography).
MISS HELEN JONES (Silver Medal for Political Geography).


ALLAN DANSON RIGBY, Liverpool College (Silver Medal).
ERNEST EDWARD KELLETT, Kingswood School, Bath (Bronze Medal).

1880.-Lieut. A. Louis Palander-Founder's Medal-for his services in connection with the Swedish Arctic Expedition, under Prof. A. E. Nordenskiöld, in the Vega in 1878-9.

Ernest Giles-Patron's Medal-for his explorations and surveys in Australia in 1872-6.

Bishop Crowther-Gold Watch-in recognition of his services to Geography on the River Niger.

E. H. Bunbury-Vote of Thanks by the Council in acknowledgment of the value of his History of Ancient Geography.'


Physical Geography.-DAVID BOWIE, Dulwich College (Gold Medal).
ALBERT LEWIS HUMPHRIES, Liverpool College (Silver Medal).
Political Geography.-FREDERICK JAMES NAYLOR, Dulwich College
(Gold Medal).

THEODORE BROOKS, London International College (Silver Medal).


MISS A. S. WESTBURY (Silver Medal for Physical Geography).
W. HORNSBY (Silver Medal for Political Geography).



1881.-Major Serpa Pinto-Founder's Medal-for his remarkable journey across Africa, from Benguela to Natal, during which he explored nearly 500 miles of new country, defined the fluvial systems of the southern slopes of the Benguelan Highlands, and fixed the position of numerous places by a series of astronomical observations.

Benjamin Leigh Smith-Patron's Medal--for having, in a steamer built and fitted at his own expense for the purpose of Arctic exploration, made important discoveries along the south coast of Franz-Josef Land; and for his previous geographical work during three former expeditions, also equipped by himself, along the north-east land of Spitzbergen.


Physical Geography.-ROBERT GALBRAITH REID, Dulwich College (Gold Medal).

SYDNEY EDKINS, City of London School (Silver Medal).

Political Geography.-THEODORE BROOKS, London International College (Gold Medal).

CHARLES T. KNAUS, Dulwich College (Silver Medal).


GEORGE FREDERICK TINNEY, Park Grammar School, Plymouth (Silver
Medal for Physical Geography).

FREDERICK GEORGE HARRIS, Elmfield College, York (Silver Medal for
Political Geography).




(At the Anniversary Meeting, May 31st, 1880.)


THE ROYAL MEDALS of the year for the Encouragement of Geographical Science and Discovery have been awarded by the Council as follows:

The FOUNDER'S MEDAL to Lieutenant A. LOUIS PALANDER, in recognition of the services rendered by him to geography, as Commander of the Vega in the late Swedish Arctic Expedition under Professor Nordenskiöld, during which he safely navigated the ship along the unsurveyed shore of the Asiatic continent for nearly 3000 miles, and took the leading part in charting the coasts of Northern Asia.

The PATRON'S MEDAL to Mr. ERNEST GILES, for having led four great expeditions and several minor ones in Australia, chiefly between the years 1872 and 1876, and making valuable routesurveys, geological and botanical collections, and publishing descriptions of all these journeys. The two most notable explorations were from Beltana to Perth, distance from east to west 2500 miles; and from Champion Bay to the Overland Line of Telegraph, from west to east 2000 miles: according to the map by the Surveyor-General of Australia, representing Mr. Giles' four great explorations, 6000 miles were traversed, 20,000 square miles of which are coloured as newly discovered. Mr. Giles was honourably mentioned five times, for his discoveries and collections, in the Annual Addresses of the Royal Geographical Society, for the years 1873-4-5-6-7.

His Excellency Count PIPER, Swedish Minister, attended to receive the Medal on behalf of Lieutenant Palander. The PRESIDENT addressed him in these words:

"Your Excellency,-On behalf of the Council of the Royal Geographical Society, I have to ask you to do them the favour of conveying to Lieutenant Louis de Palander the Founder's Gold Medal, which the Council of the Society have awarded him, in recognition of the services rendered by him to geography, as Commander of the Vega in the late Swedish Arctic Expedition, during which he safely navigated the ship along the unsurveyed shore of the Asiatic continent for nearly 3000 miles.

"In asking your Excellency to undertake this office on behalf of the Society, I am sure, both from the interest which the King of Sweden has personally taken in the recent expedition which under the guidance of Baron Nordenskiöld has achieved the feat of making the North-Eastern Passage for the first time, and from the keen interest which you yourself, to my own knowledge, feel in the progress of Arctic discovery, the task will be an agreeable one. Lieutenant de Palander, who, I need hardly say, was invited to attend our Anniversary Meeting to-day, has been prevented from accepting our invitation for a reason which is all-sufficient. He has been called upon for active service in the Royal Swedish Navy, and such obligations supersede every other engagement.

"I shall have occasion in the Address which, in accordance with the usual custom, I shall have shortly to deliver upon the progress of geographical discovery for the past year, to allude to the voyage of the Vega. The perseverance, foresight, and high scientific qualifications of Baron Nordenskiöld are so well known and are so highly appreciated by all geographers, that I need not allude to them further than to state that the Council of the Royal Geographical Society recorded the following Resolution, which I desire to place in your Excellency's hands, with the request that you will be so good as to transmit it to Baron Nordenskiöld :


"The completion of the North-East Passage under the initiation and direction of Baron A. E. Nordenskiöld is the greatest geographical event of the year, and the name of this distinguished geographer and explorer would undoubtedly have been proposed for the award of one of the Royal Medals for 1880, had he not already, in 1869, received a Medal for the leading part he took in the Swedish expeditions to Spitzbergen of 1868 and previous years.

"In acknowledgment of the eminent services to geography rendered by Baron Nordenskiöld, it is unanimously resolved that he receive the thanks of the Council of the Royal Geographical Society, and be elected an Honorary Corresponding Member.'

"Lieutenant de Palander since 1868 has been associated with Baron Nordenskiöld in the various expeditions which culminated in the achievement of the North-Eastern Passage; the command of the Vega was confided to him at the express wish of Baron Nordenskiöld. It is due to his high qualities as a sailor and as a commander that the Vega has passed safely through her adventurous voyage. He has had the singular good fortune of bringing back his whole crew without a single death having occurred among them. The track of the Vega passed close to the shores of the Asiatic continent for nearly 3000 miles of what may be considered unknown ground; for the charts of this region were, as might have been expected, deficient in every respect: incidental dangers and obstructions by close as well as drift ice and by fogs were frequently encountered; the general shallowness of the sea, so shallow as repeatedly to hazard the grounding of the ship, and to require piloting boats ahead, added materially to the anxieties of the situation. A thorough and a bold seaman was required for the enterprise; and Lieutenant de Palander has proved himself by its success deserving a high place among modern navigators. He is an accomplished geographer as well as a skilful navigator. His modest narrative, characteristic of the man, published in Blackwood's Magazine' for last March, must commend itself to geographers as alike clear and brief, and as embracing the salient points of this memorable expedition.

"Lieutenant de Palander has received from his Sovereign the rewards to which he is justly entitled, and I beg to offer to him through your Excellency my hearty congratulations, and to express the satisfaction of the Council that we have been able to enrol his name upon the list of the Medallists of the Royal Geographical Society."

His Excellency Count PIPER, having received from the President the Medal for Lieutenant Palander, a copy of the Resolution of the Council, and the Diploma of Honorary Membership for Professor Nordenskiöld, thus replied:

"MY LORD, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN,-It is my agreeable duty to receive on behalf of Baron Nordenskiöld and Captain de Palander these tokens of high distinction which the Royal Geographical Society has awarded to them, and to express their deep gratitude for the honours conferred upon them, and their regret that unavoidable circumstances have prevented them from being present on this occasion. In reply to the eloquent words with which his k


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