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journey along the lower valley of the Sanpo for some distance beyond the easternmost point to which the Tibetan portion of this great river had been traced. By this means the survey of this river, the identification of which with the Indian Bramaputra has been so long a matter of dispute, has been carried to Gyala Singdon, a fort situated within 100 miles of the highest point to which the Dihong has as yet been ascended. In order to place the identification of the two rivers beyond possibility of a doubt, Lieutenant Harman is arranging for a number of logs of timber to be specially marked and floated down from Gyala Sindong into the Assam valley. As the intervening belt of country is peopled by wild tribes called Abors, who have always offered a determined opposition to any attempt to pass through their country, this plan is probably the most feasible method of solving the problem.

Another exploration, also in south-eastern Tibet, was made in 1875-6, by a native called L, who crossed the line of the Great Himalayas by the direct route between Sikkim and Shigatze, a line over the Kangra lama La pass, which, though it offers but few difficulties, is jealously guarded by the Tibetans, who maintain a fort. at Ganpa Jong, just beyond the frontier. From Shigatze the explorer proceeded down the valley of the Sanpo, surveying as he went a previously unknown section of the course of that river as far as the town of Chetang. Eastward of that point he was told that it would be impossible to proceed without an escort, so he turned southwards, and with a slight deviation followed the route traversed by the Pundit Nain Sing, as far as Towang. But at this town he was seized and detained, and eventually sent back to Shigatze, from whence he made his way to Darjiling by the way followed by Captain Turner in 1783.

The last piece of geographical exploration on the part of a native deserving mention is an adventurous journey performed by "the Mullah," an intelligent Mahomedan, whose previous travels had revealed to us a considerable part of the geography of the Kunar and Indus Valley, and of the country about Yassin, all lying in the independent region between Afghanistan and Kashmir. His more recent investigations were carried on in the Swat Valley, which is now mapped out for us for the first time, as well as the Kandia Valley and the north-western part of the Indus Valley where that great river winds its course through independent ground before rejoining the British frontier near Amb. This region is one characterised by considerable wealth of timber, a peculiarity apparently

due to the copiousness of the rainfall which is deposited in great quantities south of the great range running south of Mastuj and Yassin, but very sparsely beyond it. In the districts to the north of that chain, Major Tanner successfully carried on a survey embracing an area of about 2000 square miles, about Gilgit and the course of the Hunza River. Hopes are entertained that with the co-operation of our Resident at Gilgit, Kunjut, Shimshal, and the unknown tracts lying about the western Muztagh may soon be examined by Major Tanner, and that officer may eventually be enabled to enter Kafiristan by way of Gilgit and Chitral, in preference to the more hazardous and difficult way from the Kabul Valley.

This review of the Indian Survey operations may be appropriately closed with a brief reference to the Indian tidal operations which have now been organised on a far more extended scale than previously. Under the superintendence of Captain Baird, tidal instruments were at work during the year 1878-79 at Bombay, Karáchi, Karwar, Madras, Vizagapatam, Paumben, and Beypur, and with the aid of the excellent tide-calculating machine recently constructed for the Secretary of State for India, by Mr. E. Roberts, of the Nautical Almanac Office, tide-tables for these ports, computed according to the Harmonic Analysis method, will, as it is anticipated, soon be available for the use of navigators in Indian waters.






[PUBLISHED JUNE 24, 1881.]

I.-The Fifty Years' Work of the Royal Geographical Society. By CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, C.B., F.R.S., Secretary.



THE Royal Geographical Society completed the fiftieth year of its existence on the 16th of July, 1880, and its fiftieth anniversary meeting took place on the 31st of May, 1880. In order to celebrate this auspicious event, and also to supply a useful means of reference to Fellows, I have been commissioned by the Council to write the present brief history of the Society. My plan is to give, in four introductory chapters, a condensed view of the ways and means by which the work undertaken by the Society was performed previous to the date of its formation, and of the circumstances which immediately led to its being brought into existence. The fifth chapter contains a history of the original formation of the Geographical Society. The sixth and seventh chapters are devoted to memorial accounts of the Presidents, Secretaries, and other leading members of the governing body. The eighth and ninth review the career of the Geographical Society with reference to the expeditions which it has helped, or actively promoted, including grants-in-aid, and awards in recognition of the services of eminent geographers and travellers. The history of the various publications of the Society, of the rise and progress of the library and map-room, and of the educational measures adopted by the Council, forms the subject of the tenth chapter; and the eleventh reviews the progress of the Society as regards members, finances, places of meeting, and



house accommodation. A comparative view of geographical knowledge when the Society was founded in 1830, and in 1880, with a notice of the work that still remains to be done, illustrates its career of laborious usefulness, and forms a fitting conclusion of the work.

The original objects of the Society were to collect, digest, and publish interesting and useful geographical facts and discoveries; to accumulate a collection of books on geography, voyages, and travels, and of maps and charts; to keep specimens of such instruments as are most serviceable to a traveller; to afford assistance, instruction, and advice to explorers; and to correspond with other bodies or individuals engaged in geographical pursuits.

It is obvious that as soon as the people of England began to foster and encourage maritime enterprise and the discovery of unknown countries, the need for some provision or other through which these objects might in part at least be attained would be felt and, to some extent, supplied. The record and preservation of the history of adventure and discovery, the utilisation of results, and the instruction of explorers by land and sea, became necessities so soon as England commenced her glorious career as a nation of discoverers and explorers. When Sebastian Cabot began to make the history of English maritime and inland discovery, it would have been strange indeed if some man or body of men had not arisen, at the same time, to write its first pages. The very fact that we can now enjoy the perusal of those early efforts of our countrymen is a proof that there was not wanting the will to perform, even then, the duties since undertaken by our Society. The fathers of English geography, the forerunners of the Geographical Society, who, during nearly three centuries, performed our work with zeal and ability, though often with insufficient resources and scant encouragement, ought not to be forgotten by their successors. In truth, the history of the Society properly commences with the efforts of those industrious geographers who did our work amidst many difficulties, from the time when Englishmen first began to emulate the adventurous deeds of the Portuguese and Spaniards who preceded them in the field of discovery.

Richard Eden is the Father of English Geography. He it was who first conceived the idea of performing, single-handed and with inadequate means, the duties which our Society proposed to itself more than two centuries afterwards. He it was who first collected together the records of geographical work, and provided the means of instruction to explorers and travellers. Coming up to London from Cambridge, where he had been a pupil of Sir Thomas Smith at Queen's College, young Eden

was a spectator of the gorgeous public entry of Philip and Mary. He describes himself as nearly lifted out of selfcommand by the excitement of the scene. He beheld the union of the Sovereign of the Indies with his own Queen, and he resolved, on the spot, to set about some work which might fitly commemorate the event.

Eden wrote his Decades of the New World' in 1555-a little black-letter volume, which he found great difficulty in getting printed, but which is a laborious and very precious collection of the geographical work of his day. He was the first Englishman who supplied to his countrymen the means of studying, in a collected form, the marvellous history of discovery which was then exciting the wonder and admiration of the age. Eden desired that England should emulate the deeds of those who were first in the field. He gave his countrymen translations from Peter Martyr, Oviedo, Gomara, Ramusio, Pigafetta; and added the earliest narratives of English voyages to Guinea and to the north. His laudable object was that "some memory thereof might remain to posterity, if contempt of knowledge should hereafter bury in oblivion so worthy attempts." Eden was the intimate friend of Sebastian Cabot, and attended him in his last moments; and he also knew the Arctic navigators Chancellor and Borough. It was at the request of Stephen Borough that Eden designed his translation of the Art of Navigation by Martin Cortes, "for the increase of skilful pilots whereof then there were very few." So that he strove to do the work now undertaken by the Geographical Society, both by preserving the records of accomplished work and by providing the means of performing efficient service, and of receiving instruction. A new edition of his 'History of Travayle' was published with additions by Willes in 1577, and his translation of Cortes went through ten editions between 1561 .and 1615.

The mantle of Eden fell upon a better known but not more zealous and conscientious worker in the cause of geography. Richard Hakluyt came of an old Herefordshire family, was educated at Westminster School, and elected a student of Christ Church in 1570. He very early took a deep interest in voyages and travels, and in all things connected with the naval glory of his countrymen, and he was indefatigable in collecting information." His genius," says old Fuller, "inclined him to the study of history, and especially to the marine part thereof, which made him keep constant intelligence with the most noted seamen of Wapping, until the day of his death."

Hakluyt, like Eden, has given us an interesting account of the origin and growth of his love for geography. "I do

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