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Fig. 23. Very young ovulum of Ruta graveolens: a, the primine; 6, the se

cundine ; c, the nucleus. In the end, the primine extends, contracts at its

foramen, and closes over the secundine and nucleus. Fig. 24. Vertical section of an ovulum of Alnus glutinosa : a, the umbilical

cord; b, foramen; c, primine (and secundine perhaps united with it); d, nu

cleus; e, vessels of the raphe; f, place of the chalaza. Fig. 25. An oblique vertical section of the fertilised ovulum of Tulipa Ges

neriana : a, foramen of the primine (or Exostome); b, foramen of the secundine (or Endostome); c, primine; d, secundine; e, nucleus, its apex concealed within that of the secundine; f, vessels of the raphe; g, place of the

chalaza. Fig. 26. Ovulum of Lepidium ruderale; after A. Brongniart: a, umbilical

cord; b, foramen ; c, point of the nucleus seen through the primine and

secundine. Fig. 27. Half-ripe seed of the same, cut through perpendicularly; after Bron

gniart : a, the umbilical cord; b, foramen ; c, primine; d, secundine; e, nucleus; f, embryo partially formed, its radicle pointing to the foramen; 9, the

point where the nourishing vessels of the placenta expand (the chalaza). Fig. 28. A perpendicular section of the ripe seed of the same; after A. Bron

gniart. The primine and secundine are consolidated, and the nucleus is entirely absorbed by the embryo. a, Umbilical cord; b, foramen, now become the micropyle; 9, chalaza ; h, cotyledons of the embryo; i, radicle; k,

plumula. Fig. 29. Mode of fertilisation in Cucurbita Pepo ; after Adolphe Brongniart :

a, a portion of the placenta; b, ovulum; c, its foramen; d, the bundle of stigmatic tissue through which the fertilising matter is conveyed, and to which the foramen is closely applied; e, the bundle of vessels that communicates with the umbilicus; f, the commencement of the raple.

· PLATE VI. Fig. 1. A, Vertical section of the seed of Canna lutea : a, albumen; b, embryo.

-B, Embryo extracted and divided vertically: a, cotyledon ; b, plumula con

cealed within the embryo; c, radicle, with internal rudiments of roots. Fig. 2. A, Vertical section of the seed of Myrica cerifera : a, cotyledons ;

b, radicle ; c, plumula ; d, remains of foramen; e, hilum. — B, Embryo ex

tracted entire : a, cotyledons; b, radicle. Fig. 3. Vertical section of the seed of Luzula campestris : a, albumen;

b, embryo. Fig. 4. Vertical section of the grain of Bromus mollis : a, albumen ; b, embryo;

c, its plumula; d, its cotyledon; e, ils radicle, with internal rudiment of a

root. Fig. 5. Vertical section of the seed of Rheum rhaponticum: a, albumen ;

b, embryo; c, hilum; d, remains of foramen. Fig. 6. A, Seed of Triglochin palustre : a, fungous chalaza; b, raphe; C,

hilum. B, Embryo of the same : a, cotyledon; b, radicle; c, fissure, within which the plumula lies. - C, The same halved vertically: a, cotyledon;

b, radicle ; c, fissure; d, plumula. Fig. 7. A, Seed of a species of Begonia: a, hilum. B, The dicotyledonous


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Fig. 8. Coiled up embryo of Basella rubra : a, radicle; b, cotyledons.
Fig. 9. Vertical section of the seed of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum : a,

albumen; b, radicle of the embryo.
Fig. 10. Anatomy of the grain, and germination of Scirpus supinus; after

Richard. - A, Vertical section: a, albumen ; b, embryo.-B, The embryo extracted, enlarged, and halved vertically: a, cotyledon ; b, radicle. — C, The seed germinating and halved : a, albumen ; b, cotyledon ; C, plumula; d,

young root; e, sheath of the latter. Fig. 11. A, Seed of Ribes rubrum: a, chalaza; b, raphe; c, hilum. - B, The

same, halved vertically, showing the minute embryo, with two spreading cotyledons lying at the base of the albumen : b, section of the raphe; c, hilum;

d, albumen. Fig. 12. Embryo of a species of Mammillaria ; the cotyledons very small. Fig. 13. Embryo of Geranium Robertianum : a, radicle ; b, line of union of the

two cotyledons; c, one of the plaits in the latter. Fig. 14. Section of the seed of Alisma Damasonium ; after Mirbel : a, cotyledon ;

b, radicle; c, plumula. Fig. 15. Part of the seed of Olyra latifolia; after Richard : a, albumen; b, back

cotyledon ; c, front ditto; d, radicle; e, plumula. Fig. 16. Embryo of Ruppia maritima; after Richard : a, plumula; b, coty

ledon. Fig. 17. Vertical section of the seed of Pekea tuberculosa; after Richard :

a, radicle; b, collet; c, cotyledons. Fig. 18. Embryo and ruminated albumen of Eupomatia laurina (a vertical sec

tion); after Ferdinand Bauer. Fig. 19. Spiral twisted embryo of Cuscuta europæa. Fig. 20. Half the embryo of a bean (Vicia Faba); after Mirbel : q, one of the

cotyledons; b, plumula; c, radicle; d, scar from which the other cotyledon

has been cut. Fig. 21. Germination of Lachenalia serotina: a, albumen ; b, cotyledon; c,

plumula; d, radicle. Fig. 22. Germination of Calla æthiopica ; after Mirbel : a, exterior elongation

of the cotyledon ; b, seed; c, front leaf of the plumula; d, radicle. Fig. 23. Germination of Allium Cepa : a, albumen; b, embryo elongated beyond

the testa.
Fig. 24. The same further advanced: a, seed; b, base of the cotyledons; c,

radicle or young root; d, plumula.
Fig. 25. Germination of Baptisia australis; after De Candolle: a a, cotyledons.
Fig. 26. Germination of Cercis Siliquastrum; after De Candolle; a a, cotyledons.
Fig. 27. Thecæ, or Sporangiola, of Erysiphe adunca ; after Greville.
Fig. 28. Sporules of Phascum crassinervium; after Greville.
Fig. 29. Asci, or Thecæ, of Sphæria tubæformis ; after Greville.
Fig. 30. Thecæ of various Lichens; after Von Martius,

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In this Index the numbers refer to the pages. Those numbers which' are preceded by a *

indicate the page where the subject referred to is most copiously treated of; the other references
are either incidental or less important.

Abnormal, 455.
Abruptè pinnatus, 464.
Absolute, 255.
Acaulis, 85.
Accisus, 460.
Accrete, 490.
Accumbent, 256.
Acerosus, 456.
Acetabuleus, 453.
Acetabuliformis, 453.
Acetic acid, in seeds, 361.
Achænium, 234. 236.
Acicula, 153.
Aciculated, 468.
Acid, acetic, seeds, 361.

-, carbonic, in seeds, 359.

prussic, 424.
Acies, 449.
Acinaciformis, 449.
Acinus, 227, 228.
Acotyledons, 250.
Acrogens, 260.

-, compound organs in, 258.
Acrosarcum, 240.
Aculeatus, 468.
Acuminatus, 459.
Acuminose, 459.
Acute, 459.
Acute-angled, 449.
Adductores, 266.
Adelphia, 173.
Adherent, 164.
Adhering, 490.
Adhesion, mode of, 489.
Adnascentia, 83.
Adnascens, 77.
Adnata, 83.
Adnate, 178. 275. * 490.
Adnatum, 77. 83.
Adversus, 488.
Æqualivenium, 132.
Æquatus, 468.

Æquilaterus, 458.
Æruginosus, 479.
Æstivation, 152.
Aggregate, 234. 237.
Aggregatus, 493.
Aiguillons, 65.
Air-cells, * 39. 91. 301.
Akena, 240.
Akenium, 296. 240.
Alæ, 168.
Ala, *73. 170.
Alabastrus, 152.
Alabastrum, 152.
Alaris, 490.
Alatus, 451.
Albescens, 477.
Albidus, 477.
Albumen, 244. * 249. 516.
Alburnum, 94.
Albus, 477.
Algaceæ, 272.
Alsinaceous, 168.
Alternate, 113. 238. * 491.
Alternately pinnate, 464.
Alternative, 485.
Alutaceous, 472. 479.
Alveolatus, 467.
Amalthea, 237.
Ambitus, 455.
Amentum, 155.
Ammonia, 387.
Amnios, 246.
Amphanthium, 154.
Amphigastria, 268.
Amphigenous, 491.
Amphisarca, 234. *239.
Amphispermium, 231.
Amphitropal, 256. *489.
Amphitropous, 215.
Amplexa, 485.
Amplexicaulis, 489.
Amplectans, 489.
Amylaceous granules, 43.

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