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coloring, the soft whispering aspirate ; next, with an intellectual coloring, the pure quality; and last, with an emotional coloring, the orotund. Of these six forms of quality, the first four are classed in a general way as impure, because there is in them more breath or noise than vocal tone or music; and the last two are classed as pure.

The first three again refer to what one wishes to repel; the hissing aspirate indicating feelings like affright, amazement, indignation, and contempt; the guttural, as has been said, hostility; and the pectoral, awe or horror. The last three refer to what, if not wholly satisfactory, at least, excites in one no movement aimed against it. The soft whisper indicates feelings like surprise, interest, or solicitude ; the tone termed distinctively the pure represents gentle contemplation of what may be either joyous or sad; and the orotund, deep delight, admiration, courage, or determination, as inspired by contemplation of the noble or grand.

All these different qualities can be given by good elocutionists when vocalizing almost any of the consonants or vowels; but the poet for his effects must depend upon the sounds necessarily given to words in ordinary pronunciation. For instance, certain consonants, called variously aspirates, sibilants, or atonics, viz. : h, s, , w, sh, wh, th, p, t, f, are aspirate in themselves; that is, we are obliged to whisper when we articulate them. Therefore in poetic effects, considered aside from those that are elocutionary, the aspirate must be produced by using words containing some of these consonants; and, if it be the repellant aspirate or the hiss, by using also consonants giving guttural effects, like 8,j, ch, and r. Here, for instance, is the poetic aspirate of amazement, affright, indignation, contempt.

Out of my sight, thou serpent ; that name best
Befits thee with him leagued, thyself as false
And hateful ; nothing wants but that thy shape
Like his and color serpentine may show
Thy inward fraud.

-Paradise Lost, 10: Milton.
What's the business
That such a hideous trumpet calls to parley
The sleepers of the house ? speak ! speak !

-Macbeth, ii., I : Shakespear.

You souls of geese
That bear the shapes of men, how have you run
From slaves that apes would beat.

-Coriolanus, i., 4: Shakespear.

Ay, in the catalogue ye go for men ;
As hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs,
Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves are clep'd
All by the name of dogs.

- Macbeth, iii., 1: Shakespear,

And here the poetic aspirate of surprise, interest, and solicitude.

What ? keep a week away ? seven days and nights ?
Eightscore eight hours,--and lover's absent hours,
More tedious than the dial eightscore times ?

-Othello, iii., 4: Shakespear,
The red rose cries, "She is near, she is near" ;
And the white rose weeps,

" She is late";
The larkspur listens, “I hear, I hear";
And the lily whispers, "I wait.”

-Maud : Tennyson.
Jul.-Sweet, so would I ;
Yet I should kill thee with much cherishing.
Good-night good-night ; parting is such sweet sorrow,
That I shall say good-night till it be morrow.
Rom.-Sleep dwell upon thine eyes, peace in thy breast-
Would I were sleep and peace so sweet to rest.

-Romeo and Juliet, ii., 2: Shakespear.

The aspirated sounds do not depend upon the use of the vowels. But this is not true of the other qualities. In the poetic guttural and pure tones, front * or else short vowel-sounds like those in the words pin, met, hat, fur, and far, among which we must include also the long and front * ones in me and ale usually predominate. In the poetic pectoral and orotund, long and back* vowel-sounds like those in moor, more, cow, boil, all, among which we must include the short but back* sound of u in but, usually predominate. Besides this, for the guttural, certain palatic and lingual consonant-sounds, like those of 8, j, k, ch, 1, and, at times, especially when used in combination with other consonants, dental and labial sounds, like those in b, d, and v, are essential. Here are examples of the guttural indicating, as has been said, hostility.

Thou cream-faced loon,
Where gottest thou that goose

look?
-Macbeth, V., 3: Shakespear,

Despised by cowards for greater cowardice,
And scorned even by the vicious for such vices
As in the monstrous grasp of their conception
Defy all codes.

-Marino Faliero, V., 3: Byron.

But the churchmen fain would kill their church,
As the churches have killed their Christ.

-Maud : Tennyson.

Till I, with as fierce an anger, spoke,
And he struck me, madman, over the face,
Struck me before the languid fool,
Who was gaping and grinning by.

-Idem.

The elocutionary pectoral, with its hollow tones, always suggests more or less of a breathing quality. Therefore the poetic pectoral requires, in addition to the use of the

* See page 97.

long and back* vowel-sounds like those of long, 0, 00, ou, oi, broad a, and short u, that of the aspirate consonants like h, s, %, w, sh, wh, th, 1, p, t, f, and sometimes b, d,

Notice the preponderance of these letters in all of the following expressions of awe or horror :

For a charm of powerful trouble,

Like a hell-broth boil and bubble, All.-Double, double toil and trouble ;

Fire burn and cauldron bubble.

and v.

*

All. Seek to know no more.
Macb.--I will be satisfied : deny me this,

And an eternal curse fall on you ! Let me know

Ist Witch.-Sbew!
2d Witch.-Shew !
3d Witch.-Shew !
All-Shew his eyes and grieve his heart !

Come like shadows, so depart.
Macb.- Thou art too like the spirit of Banquo; down !

Thy crown does sear mine eyeballs :- and thy hair
Thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first.

-Macbeth, iv., 1: Shakespear.
And with blood for dew, the bosom boils ;

And a gust of sulphur is all its smell ;
And lo, he is horribly in the toils
Of a coal-black giant flower of hell.

- The Heretic's Tragedy: R. Browning. So wills the fierce avenging sprite,

Till blood for blood atones.
Ay, though he's buried in a cave,

And trodden down with stones,
And years have rotted off his flesh,-
The world sball see his bones.

- The Dream of Eugene Aram : Hood.
A dungeon horrible, on all sides round,
As one great furnace, flamed ; yet from those flames
No light but rather darkness visible,

* See.page 97.

Served only to discover sights of woe,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes.

- Paradise Lost, 1: Milton.

Ghastly dethronement, cursed by those the most
On whose repugnant brow the crown next falls.

-Epilogue : R. Browning.

Notice the rhymes, too, in the following:
“ Dust and ashes.” So you creak it, and I want the heart to scold.
Dear dead women, with such hair, toowhat's become of all the gold
Used to hang and brush their bosoms? I feel chilly and grown old.

-A Toccata of Galuppi's : R. Browning. The poetic pure tone necessitates, as has been said, the use of the short or the front vowel-sounds. In connection with these almost any of the consonants, except the guttural, may be used to any extent. Here are examples of the poetic pure quality, representing, as already intimated, gentle contemplation with feelings, not too strong, of what may be either joyous or sad.

All night merrily, merrily,
They would pelt me with starry spangles and shells,
Laughing and clapping their hands between,
All night merrily, merrily.

- The Merman : Tennyson. She sleeps : her breathings are not heard

In palace chambers far apart.
The fragrant tresses are not stirred

That lie upon her charmed heart.
She sleeps ; on either hand upswells

The gold-fringed pillow lightly pressed.
She sleeps, nor dreams, but ever dwells
A perfect form in perfect rest.

- The Day Dream : Tennyson. The orotund, as contrasted with the pure tone, has a slightly husky as well as hollow effect. Therefore its

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