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poetic form necessitates, besides the use of the long and back vowels, that of the subvowels or subtonics, like m, n, ng, 1, b, d, and v. Here are examples of the poetic orotund, indicating any thing, not provoking, which stirs one to deep feeling, or, as was stated before, to deep delight, admiration, courage, or determination, as inspired by contemplation of the noble or grand.
· Glory to God," unnumbered voices sung ;
Glory to God," the vales and mountains rung:
- Voyage of Columbus : Rogers.
Now is the winter of our discontent
-Richard III., i., 1 : Shakespear.
- Pleasures of Hope : Campbell.
Peace and order and beauty draw
--Barbara Frietchie : Whittier,
All the more impure qualities—the hiss, the guttural, and the pectoral—represent allied emotions. Therefore, in elocution, there is a tendency to combine their effects. It is the same in poetry. Notice the following:
And know not that I call'd and drew them thither,
- Paradise Lost, 10: Milton,
- Julius Cæsar, iv., 3: Shakespear,
So, too, the poetic pure and orotund naturally go together; for example:
For though the giant ages heave the hill
- Ode on Duke of Wellington : Tennyson.
Much of the representative beauty of poetry depends on a judicious alternation of these different qualities of sound. Notice this fact as exemplified in the last three
quotations, as well as in the fourth and fifth lines of the following, where the poetic orotund is introduced in the midst of an aspirate passage:
The bright sun rises to his course, and lights
-Riensi's Address to Romans : Mitfonds
EFFECTS OF POETIC QUALITY CONTINUED.
Imitative Effects of Letter-Sounds corresponding to Aspirate Quality, rep.
resenting Serpents, Sighing, Rapidity, Winds, Slumber, Conspiracy, Fear, Frightening, Checking-Guttural Quality, representing Grating, Forcing, Flowing Water, Rattling,. Effort-Pectoral Quality, representing Groaning, Depth, Hollowness-Pure Quality, representing Thinness, Clearness, Sharpness, Cutting-Orotund Quality, representing Fulness, Roundness, Murmuring, Humming, Denying, etc.These Effects as combined in Various Illustrations of Carving ; Dashing, Rippling, and Lapping Water ; Roaring; Clashing; Cursing ; Shrieking; Fluttering ; Crawling ; Confusion ; Horror; Spite; Scorn; etc.
LET us turn now to poetic effects produced by quality
corresponding to those of dramatic, as distinguished from discoursive, elocution; and first to the aspirate. In poetry, as in elocution, the repellant aspirate imitates any thing that hisses; for example :
He would have spoke,
-Paradise Lost, 10: Milton.
The acquiescent aspirate imitates any thing that sighs ; for example:
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs ;
-Othello, i., 3: Shakespear. But it is possible to go still more into detail than this. As Guest has pointed out in his “ History of English Rhythms," developing for that purpose a suggestion made by Bacon, certain letters and combinations of them seem especially adapted for the imitation of certain specific operations. Things, for instance, that fly rapidly, make sounds resembling those of the sibilants. Hence the appropriateness of the following:
How quick they wheeled, and flying behind them shot
-Paradise Reg., 3: Millon.
-Paradise Lost, 1: Idem.
-Elegy : Gray. By whispering winds soon lulled asleep.
-L'Allegro : Milton. So do nurses, fountains, and sea-waves, when lulling one to sleep :
O Sleep, O gentle Sleep,