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poetic form necessitates, besides the use of the long and back vowels, that of the subvowels or subtonics, like m, n, ng, 1, b, d, and v. Here are examples of the poetic orotund, indicating any thing, not provoking, which stirs one to deep feeling, or, as was stated before, to deep delight, admiration, courage, or determination, as inspired by contemplation of the noble or grand.

· Glory to God," unnumbered voices sung ;

Glory to God," the vales and mountains rung:
Voices that hailed creation's primal morn,
And to the shepherds sung a Saviour bom.
Slowly, bare-headed through the surf we bore
The sacred cross, and kneeling kissed the shore.

- Voyage of Columbus : Rogers.

Now is the winter of our discontent
Made glorious summer by this son of York,
And all the clouds that lowered upon our house
In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.

-Richard III., i., 1 : Shakespear.
Daughter of Faith, awake, arise, illume
The dread unknown, the chaos of the tomb,
Melt and dispel, ye spectre-doubts, that roll
Cimmerian darkness o'er the parting soul.
Fly, like the moon-eyed herald of Dismay,
Chased on his night-steed by the star of day.
The strife is o'er—the pangs of nature close,
And life's last rapture triumphs o'er her woes.

- Pleasures of Hope : Campbell.

Peace and order and beauty draw
Round thy symbol of light and law.

--Barbara Frietchie : Whittier,

All the more impure qualities—the hiss, the guttural, and the pectoralrepresent allied emotions. Therefore, in elocution, there is a tendency to combine their effects. It is the same in poetry. Notice the following:

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And know not that I call'd and drew them thither,
My hell-hounds, to lick up the draff and filth,
Which man's polluting sin with taint hath shed
On what was pure ! till, cramm'd and gorg'd, nigh burst
With suck'd and glutted offal, at one sling
Of thy victorious arm, well-pleasing Son,
Both Sin and Death and yawning Grave, at last
Through Chaos hurled, obstruct the mouth of hell
Forever, and seal up his ravenous jaws.

- Paradise Lost, 10: Milton,
Fret till your proud heart breaks ;
Go show your slaves how choleric you are,
And make your bondmen tremble. Must I budge?
Must I observe you ? Must I stand and crouch
Under your testy humor? By the gods,
You shall digest the venom of your spleen
Tho' it do split you ; for from this day forth
I'll use you for my mirth-yea, for my laughter
When you are waspish.

- Julius Cæsar, iv., 3: Shakespear,

So, too, the poetic pure and orotund naturally go together; for example:

For though the giant ages heave the hill
And break the shore, and evermore
Make and break and work their will;
Though worlds on worlds in myriad myriads roll
Round us, each with different

And other forms of life than ours,
What know we greater than the soul?
On God and godlike men we build our trust.

- Ode on Duke of Wellington : Tennyson.

Much of the representative beauty of poetry depends on a judicious alternation of these different qualities of sound. Notice this fact as exemplified in the last three

quotations, as well as in the fourth and fifth lines of the following, where the poetic orotund is introduced in the midst of an aspirate passage:

The bright sun rises to his course, and lights
A race of slaves. He sets, and his last beams
Fall on a slave ; not such as swept along
By the full tide of power, the conqueror leads
To crimson glory and undying fame;
But base ignoble slaves ; slaves to a horde
Of petty tyrants, feudal despots, lords
Rich in some dozen paltry villages,
Strong in some hundred spearmen, only great
In that strange spell--a name.

-Riensi's Address to Romans : Mitfonds



Imitative Effects of Letter-Sounds corresponding to Aspirate Quality, rep.

resenting Serpents, Sighing, Rapidity, Winds, Slumber, Conspiracy, Fear, Frightening, Checking-Guttural Quality, representing Grating, Forcing, Flowing Water, Rattling,. Effort-Pectoral Quality, representing Groaning, Depth, Hollowness-Pure Quality, representing Thinness, Clearness, Sharpness, Cutting-Orotund Quality, representing Fulness, Roundness, Murmuring, Humming, Denying, etc.These Effects as combined in Various Illustrations of Carving ; Dashing, Rippling, and Lapping Water ; Roaring; Clashing; Cursing ; Shrieking; Fluttering ; Crawling ; Confusion ; Horror; Spite; Scorn; etc.

LET us turn now to poetic effects produced by quality

corresponding to those of dramatic, as distinguished from discoursive, elocution; and first to the aspirate. In poetry, as in elocution, the repellant aspirate imitates any thing that hisses; for example :

He would have spoke,
But hiss for hiss returned with forked tongue
To forked tongue ; for now were all transformed
Alike, to serpents all as accessories
To his bold riot : dreadful was the din
Of hissing through the hall, thick swarming now
With complicated monsters, head and tail,
Scorpion and asp, and amphisbæna dire,
Cerastes horn'd, hydrus, and ellops drear,
And dipsas ; not so thick swarmed once the soil
Bedropped with blood of Gorgon, or the isle

-Paradise Lost, 10: Milton.

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The acquiescent aspirate imitates any thing that sighs ; for example:

She gave me for my pains a world of sighs ;
She swore.-In faith 't was strange, 't was passing strange,
'T was pitiful, 't was wondrous pitiful;
She wish'd she had not heard it; yet she wish'd
That heaven had made her such a man.

-Othello, i., 3: Shakespear. But it is possible to go still more into detail than this. As Guest has pointed out in his “ History of English Rhythms," developing for that purpose a suggestion made by Bacon, certain letters and combinations of them seem especially adapted for the imitation of certain specific operations. Things, for instance, that fly rapidly, make sounds resembling those of the sibilants. Hence the appropriateness of the following:

How quick they wheeled, and flying behind them shot
Sharp sleet of arrowy showers against the face
Of their pursuers.

-Paradise Reg., 3: Millon.
Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings. As bees
In spring-time.

-Paradise Lost, 1: Idem.
The winds make similar sounds:
The breezy call of incense-breathing mom.

-Elegy : Gray. By whispering winds soon lulled asleep.

-L'Allegro : Milton. So do nurses, fountains, and sea-waves, when lulling one to sleep :

O Sleep, O gentle Sleep,
Nature's soft nurse, how have I frightened thee
That thou no more wilt weigh mine eyelids down,
And steep my senses in forgetfulness?
Why rather, Sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,
Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee,

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