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And hushed with buzzing night-flies to thy slumbers
Than in the perfumed chambers of the great,
Under the canopies of costly state,
And lulled with sound of sweetest melody.

-2 Henry IV., iii., 1: Shakespear. In the following we seem to hear the whisperings of conspirators :

Who rather had,
Though they themselves did suffer by it, behold
Dissentious numbers pestering streets, than see
Our tradesmen singing in their shops and going
About their functions friendly.

-Cariolanus, iv., 6: Shakespear.
And here the whisperings of fear :
A hideous giant, horrible and high.

-Facrie Queene, 1, 7, 8: Spenser, ·
Fit vessel, fittest imp of fraud, in whom
To enter and his dark suggestions hide.

-Paradise Lost, 9: Milton. When we wish to frighten a bird or animal, we often make a prolonged sound of s, and then stop it suddenly with the sound of t. Now, look at the use of st in the following to indicate motion that is checked by being frightened :

Stern were their looks like wild amazed steers,
Staring with hollow eyes and stiff upstanding hairs.

-Faerie Queene, 2, 9, 13: Spenser.

With staring countenance stern, as one astown'd,
And staggering steps, to weet what sudden stour
Had wrought that horror strange.

-Idem, 1, 8, 5.
But she fast stood.
Pallas had put a boldness in her breast
And in her fair limbs tender fear compressed,
And still she stood.

--Chapman's Tr., Odyssey.

Though death-struck, still his feeble frame he rears ;
Staggering, but stemming all, his lord unharmed he bears.

-Childe Harold, 1: Byron. P and t, because their sounds cannot be prolonged, as well as d, when pronounced like t, have also the effect of representing the stopping of movement; l.8.:

Sudden he stops ; his eye is fixed : away.
Away thou heedless boy ! prepare


Now is thy time to perish or display
The skill that yet may check his mad career.

If thou more murmur'st, I will rend an oak,
And peg

thee in his knotty entrails, till
Thou hast howled away twelve winters.

-Tempest, i., 2: Shakespear. The poetic guttural imitates any thing that grates; for example:

How the garden grudged me grass

Where I stood--the iron gate
Ground his teeth to let me pass.

-A Serenade at the Villa : R. Browning.

Besides this, it is well to notice that the chief guttural consonants, g, j, k, and ch, are all made as a result of effort, and, more than this, of effort that is internal in the sense of not being outwardly visible. They are produced by forcing the tongue against the palate, and the breath between the two. For this reason they seem to be recognized as appropriate for the representation of effort, especially of effort that is internal; for example:

Caitiff, to pieces shake,
That under covert and convenient seeming
Hast practised on man's life. Close pent-up guilts,
Rive your concealing continents, and cry
These dreadful summoners grace.--I am a man.

-King Lear, iii., 2: Shakespear.

Thou, trumpet, there 's my purse,
Now crack thy lungs, and split thy brazen pipe :
Blow, villain, till thy sphered bias cheek
Out-swell the colic of puff'd Aquilon;
Come stretch thy chest.

- Troilus and Cressida, iv., 5: Shakespear. This last quotation suggests that not only the chief guttural consonants, but b and p also, though in a less degree, may represent effort. This will not seem strange from our present point of view, when we notice that they are both produced by compressing the lips precisely as we do when we are making a strong muscular exertion :

And him beside sits ugly Barbarism,
And brutish Ignorance, ycrept of late
Out of dred darkness of the deep Abysme,
Where being bred he light and heaven does hate.

- Tears of the Muses : Spenser, Behemoth, biggest born of earth.

- Par. Lost, 7: Milton. His bursting passion into plaints thus poured.

-Idem, 9.
Their broad bare backs upheave
Into the clouds.

-Idem, 7. L and r, like the other consonants just mentioned, are formed by interrupting the flow of the breath; but in these it is not checked even for a moment, but passes outward at either side of the tongue. Both, therefore, are felt to be appropriate for imitating sounds of flowing waters or liquids, or other objects having this motion; for example:

For a charm of powerful trouble,
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble.
Double, double toil and trouble,
Fire burn, and cauldron bubble.

-Macbeth, iv., 1: Shakespear.

Some of serpent kind,
Wondrous in length and corpulence, involved
Their snaky folds.

-Par, Lost, 7: Milton.

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Pour'd forth profuse on hill and dale and plain.

-4, Idem.
O'er which the mantling vine
Lays forth her purple grape, and gently creeps
Luxuriant, meanwhile murmuring waters fall
Down the slope hills dispersed or in a lake.


R has a sound both harsher and higher than l, and is better adapted, therefore, for imitating grating and rattling noises; e.g.:

Such bursts of horrid thunder,
Such groans of roaring wind and rain, I never
Remember to have heard.

-Lear, iii., 2: Shakespear,

for this day will pour down,
If I conjecture aught, no drizzling shower,
But rattling storm of arrows barb'd with fire.

-Par. Lost, 6: Milton.

The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar,

- Idem, II.

And the villainous saltpetre
Rung a fierce discordant metre
Round their ears.

- The Old Continentals : McMaster,

And frighted waves rush wildly back
Before the broadside's reeling rack.

- The American Flag : Drake.

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L and r, too, in combination with g, k, p, b, st, and some other consonants, increase the effect of the noise made by stoppage in the flow of the articulating breath; and so they also represent difficulty or effort; for example:

Staring full ghastly like a strangled man;
His hair uprcared, his nostrils stretched with struggling ;
His hands abroad displayed, as one that grasp'd
And tugg'd for life, and was by strength subdued.
Look ! on the sheets his hair, you see, is sticking ;
His well-proportioned beard made rough and rugged.

- Henry VI., iii., 2 : Shakespear. The poetic pectoral imitates any thing that groans ; for example:

Oh, horror, horror, horror.-Tongue nor heart
Cannot conceive nor name thee.

-Macbeth, ii., 1: Shakespear. So all deep, hollow sounds are supposed to be imitated, and, as we found when considering pitch, really are imitated by this class of vowels :

All these and thousand thousands many more,
And more deformed monsters thousand-fold,
With dreadful noise and hollow rombling roar,
Came rushing.

-F. Q., 2, 12, 25: Spenser,
A dreadful sound
Which through the woods loud bellowing did rebound.

-Idem, 1, 7, 7.
So high as heav'd the tumid hills, so low
Down sunk a hollow bottom, broad and deep.

-Par. Lost, 7: Milton.
Hell at last
Yawning received them whole and on them closed.

-Idem, 6. The poetic pure tones imitate any thing that sounds thin and clear ; for example:

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