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And hushed with buzzing night-flies to thy slumbers
-2 Henry IV., iii., 1: Shakespear. In the following we seem to hear the whisperings of conspirators :
Who rather had,
-Cariolanus, iv., 6: Shakespear.
-Facrie Queene, 1, 7, 8: Spenser, ·
-Paradise Lost, 9: Milton. When we wish to frighten a bird or animal, we often make a prolonged sound of s, and then stop it suddenly with the sound of t. Now, look at the use of st in the following to indicate motion that is checked by being frightened :
Stern were their looks like wild amazed steers,
-Faerie Queene, 2, 9, 13: Spenser.
With staring countenance stern, as one astown'd,
-Idem, 1, 8, 5.
--Chapman's Tr., Odyssey.
Though death-struck, still his feeble frame he rears ;
-Childe Harold, 1: Byron. P and t, because their sounds cannot be prolonged, as well as d, when pronounced like t, have also the effect of representing the stopping of movement; l.8.:
Sudden he stops ; his eye is fixed : away.
thee in his knotty entrails, till
-Tempest, i., 2: Shakespear. The poetic guttural imitates any thing that grates; for example:
How the garden grudged me grass
Where I stood--the iron gate
-A Serenade at the Villa : R. Browning.
Besides this, it is well to notice that the chief guttural consonants, g, j, k, and ch, are all made as a result of effort, and, more than this, of effort that is internal in the sense of not being outwardly visible. They are produced by forcing the tongue against the palate, and the breath between the two. For this reason they seem to be recognized as appropriate for the representation of effort, especially of effort that is internal; for example:
Caitiff, to pieces shake,
-King Lear, iii., 2: Shakespear.
Thou, trumpet, there 's my purse,
- Troilus and Cressida, iv., 5: Shakespear. This last quotation suggests that not only the chief guttural consonants, but b and p also, though in a less degree, may represent effort. This will not seem strange from our present point of view, when we notice that they are both produced by compressing the lips precisely as we do when we are making a strong muscular exertion :
And him beside sits ugly Barbarism,
- Tears of the Muses : Spenser, Behemoth, biggest born of earth.
- Par. Lost, 7: Milton. His bursting passion into plaints thus poured.
-Idem, 7. L and r, like the other consonants just mentioned, are formed by interrupting the flow of the breath; but in these it is not checked even for a moment, but passes outward at either side of the tongue. Both, therefore, are felt to be appropriate for imitating sounds of flowing waters or liquids, or other objects having this motion; for example:
For a charm of powerful trouble,
-Macbeth, iv., 1: Shakespear.
Some of serpent kind,
-Par, Lost, 7: Milton.
Pour'd forth profuse on hill and dale and plain.
R has a sound both harsher and higher than l, and is better adapted, therefore, for imitating grating and rattling noises; e.g.:
Such bursts of horrid thunder,
-Lear, iii., 2: Shakespear,
for this day will pour down,
-Par. Lost, 6: Milton.
The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar,
- Idem, II.
And the villainous saltpetre
- The Old Continentals : McMaster,
And frighted waves rush wildly back
- The American Flag : Drake.
L and r, too, in combination with g, k, p, b, st, and some other consonants, increase the effect of the noise made by stoppage in the flow of the articulating breath; and so they also represent difficulty or effort; for example:
Staring full ghastly like a strangled man;
- Henry VI., iii., 2 : Shakespear. The poetic pectoral imitates any thing that groans ; for example:
Oh, horror, horror, horror.-Tongue nor heart
-Macbeth, ii., 1: Shakespear. So all deep, hollow sounds are supposed to be imitated, and, as we found when considering pitch, really are imitated by this class of vowels :
All these and thousand thousands many more,
-F. Q., 2, 12, 25: Spenser,
-Idem, 1, 7, 7.
-Par. Lost, 7: Milton.
-Idem, 6. The poetic pure tones imitate any thing that sounds thin and clear ; for example: