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happily the Rights of a whole People were more facted'here than the Persons of foreign Ministers. The Cesar's Memorials urged the Queen with the Satisfaction which flie had extorted herself, when only the Boat and Servants of the Earl of Manchester had been insulted at Venice. That State had broken through their fundamental Laws to content theQueen of Great Britain. How noble a Picture of Government,-when a Monarch that can force another Nation to infringe its Constitution, dare not violate his own! One may imagine with what Difficulties our Secretaries of State must have laboured through all the Ambages of Phrase in Engli/h, French, German and Ru/s, to explain to-Muscovite Ears and Muscovite Understandings, the Meaning of Indictments, Pleadings, Precedents, Juries and Verdicts [z]; and how impatiently Peter must have listened to Promises of a-Hearing next Term! With what Astonishment must he have beheld a great Queen, engaging to endeavour to prevail on her Parliament to pass an Act to prevent any such Outrage for the future! What Honour does it reflect on the Memory of that sce her not blush to own to an arbitrary Emperor, that even to appease him She dared not put ihe meanest of her Subjects to Death uncondemned by Law!" There are," fays she [a], in one-of her Dispatches to him, "insuperable Difficulties with

lag] Mr. Dayre/Ies in.his Letter to the RttJJian Emtaslador, March 10, 1705, gives him a particular Account of the Trial before the Lqrd Chief Justice Mit.

Vide Motley*!'/.(/Sr vf t>eter I. Vol. II. p. 57.

[u] Hid. p, 67.

M 4 «« respe&

respect to the ancient and fundamental Laws of "the Government of our People, which we fear do ** not permit so severe and rigorous a Sentence to be H given, as your Imperial Majesty at first seemed, "to expect in this Cafe: and we persuade our Self, ** that your Imperial Majesty, who are a Prince" «' famous for Clemency and for exact Justices will "not require us, who are the Guardian and Prois tefirtss of the Laws, to inflict a Punishment upon « our Subjects, which the Law does not empower «' us to do." Words so venerable and heroic, that this Broil ought to become History, and be exempted from the Oblivion due to the filly Squabbles of Embassadors and their Privileges. If Anne deserved Praise for her Conduct on this Occasion, it reflects still greater Glory on Peter, that this ferocious Man bad Patience to listen to these Details, and had Mode/a. tion and Justice enough to be persuaded by the Rea* son of them. r; "/

Mr. Whitviorth had the Honour of terminating this Quarrel. In 1714, he Was appointed Plenipotentiary to the Diet of Aujbourg and Ratijbon; in 1716, Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the King of Prussia. In 1717, Envoy Extraordinary to the Hague. In 1719, He returned in his former Cha* racter to Berlin; and in 1721, the late King rewarded his long Services and Fatigues, by creating him Baron fVIAtuiorth of GaitOay in the Kingdom of Ireland,'the Preamble of his Patent enumerating many of his Virtues and Labours, being as follows:

CUM y^VM Æ^pnunesre^Jia dari incfyfaw fe/e Nobis >T tomrnendairerint, haud minorem tat/ieq vcl fibimet gloriam qcquirere, vdRegnis no/iris utj/itatem conserve tos egiftimamus, qui res, noftras apud principes.Jiatusque txUros prudenter,feliciterqne administrapt. Inter host quidem eminet plurimum turn longinquo usu atque exercitatione, turn solertid quadam stngulari fidelis & diletlus nobis Whitworth jfrmiger. Variis in aulis externis perfunilis muneribus fe/e antece£oribus no/iris glorioste, memeria, Qulielmir Terti* Regi> Reginaque Anna perfpe&um imprimis camprobatumquc reddidit. In Comitiis Ratijbonensibut, in Aula Casareo-Germanicd, atque,apud Czarum Muscovite ternporibus difficillirnis res maxims momenti semper,, turn hude traclavit, ac meritis suis eximiis summos honores rerum exterarum curatoribus tribui solitos% legati scilicet axtraordinarii et Plenipotentiarii character em consecutus e/l. It a ornoturn, ita commendatum nos turn accepimus, ac proinde ejus opera in arduis compluribus negoeiis tantt cum noflro commodo tantoque omnium plausu usi sumus, ut tejlimonio aliquo illuslri ejus liirtutes, intemeratam pracipui fidem et constaniiam, remururandas esse censuerimus; et cum Majeslatem imperii nojbri deceat, turn rebus tra£!andis pondus aliquod adjiciat nobilitatis splendor atque amplitude, nospradi£lum Carolum IVhitvuorth, quern legati nojlri exlra^rdinarii ac plenipotentiarii titulis infignivimus ad trac'tatus pads in congressu Brunjvicenst proximo celebrandos, <qui in Aula Berolinenst, atque apud Ordines Generates Uniti Belgii, plena potentid res nostras procurat, ad dignitatem gradumque Baronis in Regno nojlro Hiberpromivendum elsesiatuimus: Sciatis igitur, &c.


The next Year his Lordship was entrusted with the Affairs of Great Britain at the Congress of Cambray, in the Character of Embassador Extraordinary and Plenepotentiary. He returned Home in 1724, and died the next Year at his House in Gerard-Jlreet, London. His Body was interred in Westminster Abbey.

These short Memorials, communicated to me by his Family without any Ostentation, are all I have been able to recover of a Man so useful to his Country; who, besides the following little Piece, which must retrieve and preserve his Character from Oblivion, has left many Volumes of State-letters and Papers in the Possession of his Relations. One littlt Anecdote of him I was told by the late Sir Luke Schaub, who had it from himself: Lord Whitvuorth had had a personal Intimacy with the famous Czarina Catherine, at a Time when her Favours were not purchased nor rewarded at so extravagant a Rate ai that of a Diadem. When He had compromised the Rupture between the Court of England and the Czar, He was invited to a Ball at Court, and taken out to dance by the Czarina. As they began the Minuet,. She squeezed him by the Hand, and said in a Whisper, Have you forgot little Kate?

It is to be lamented that so agreeable a Writer as Lord IVhitworth, has not left us more ample Accounts of this memorable Woman. Even his Portrait of her Lord is not detailed enough to satisfy <Jur Curiosity. How striking a Picture might an Author

of of Genius form from the Contrast exhibited to £«ripe by four extraordinary Men at the fame Period! Peter recalled that Image of the Founders of Empires, of whom we read with much Satisfaction and much Incredulity in ancient Story. Charles the Twelfth, of those frantic Heroes of Poesy, of whom we read with perhaps more Satisfaction and no Credulity at all. Romklus and Achilles filled Half-o'lir Gazettes, while Lewis the Fourteenth was treading to Universal Monarchy with all the Pomp and Policy of these latter Ages. William the Third was opposing this modern Xerxes with the fame Arts; and (with perhaps a little of Charles's Jealousy) had the good Fortune to have his Quarrel confounded with that of Europe. While Peter tamed his Savages, raised Cities, Invited Arts, converted Forests into Fleets, Charles was trying to recall the Improvements of War to its first Principle, brutal Strength j fancying that the Weight of the Turkijh Empire was to be overturned by a single Arm, and that heroic Obstinacy might be a Counterpoise to Gun-powder.

A Philosopher in these four Men saw at once the great Outlines of what the World had been, and of what it is.

Lord Wbitworttis MS. was communicated to me by Richard Owen, Cambridge, Esq. having been purchased by him in a very curious Sett of Books, collected by Monsieur Zolman, Secretary to the late Stephen Poyntz, Esq. This little Library relates solely to Ruffian History and Affairs, and contains in


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