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Houses that contribute to the War in 1

Money, j 88+00°

Houses that contribute towards Carriages "1

and Provisions, j 424000

Houses 1,308,000

Which are at a medium of five Per- 1 ,

sons to a House, make J G'540,ooo

I have seen another by which the Empire was divided into eighty-sour Parts, for raising the Czar's Fleet in 1697:


Each Part reckoned at — — — 10,000

Ift all, 840,000

■ ■ .1 - , . ; if


At five Persons per House, -— — 4,200,000

These Calculatious comprehend all the Muscovites and their several Colonies from Cbitff to China, and the he Sea.

As the Ground lies in most Parts untilled, and the Improvement of every Gentleman's Revenue is the* Number of his Peasants, or Subjects; it has been the old Maxim of the Muscovite Officers in all their successful Wars to carry off as many of the People as they could, and plant them on their own Estates:

Several Several Towns on the Wolga% are the Fruits of their former Expeditions in Poland, and Lithuania; and they have at present drained above one third of the Inhabitants from Ingria and Livonia, and settled whole Villages of them in the Southern Parts towards Veronitz, who finding their new Slavery easiepr than their old, the Earth more fruitful, and the Climate more gentle, would, I believe, never return back, though left at Liberty ; an irreparable Loss to the King of Sweden, if ever those Provinces should return to their former Master. Ingria has in some Measure been re-peopled by Colonies of Muscovites: Most of the great Families now in being are of foreign Extraction; as the Galliczyns, Apraxins, Narejkins, &c from Poland; the Circajkys from Tar~ tary; and the Czar prides himself in a Prussian Original.

They are divided into three Ranks, the Nobility, called Kneas; the Gentry, called PuorNins, and the Peasants.

The Kneas, or Dukes, were anciently Heads of the little Governments into which this Country was divided, but were all sub- ° dued in Time by the Princes of Volodomir, who translated their Residence to Mosco, and took upon them the Title of Wiuki Kneas, or Great Duke: The Races of these Families still retain their ancient Title, and several Poles transplanted thither, as they became considerable, assumed the fame Mark of Distinction, on Pretence of being descended from N 4 tho'w their Waywodes, or Palatines. This Title is differently respected, according to the Revenue or Employment of the Person; for those Dukes who submitted on Condition, and received Estates in Exchange for their petty Sovereignties, still continue in /ome Splendor; others have raised themselves again, by their civil or military Service, while the rest are reduced to the lowest Poverty and Contempt: And ,two Years ago, there were near three hundred Kneas common Soldiers in Prince Menzicojss Regiment of Dragoons. To remedy the Confusion of this Title, the,iC»jr has begun since his Progress to make some A4terations: His late first Minister Golowin,. and General Gordon, were made Counts by the Emperors Alexander Alenzicoff his Favourite, was made Prince of the Empire, four Years ago: But the Czar's Ambition increasing with his Success, he thought of bestowing his own Honours, and soon after created Prince Menzicoff Duke of Ingria. When Monsieur Gob/kin, his present first Minister and Great Chancellor, was made a Count by the Emperor, he received soon after the fame Title from the Czar, who has since made his High Admiral Jpraxht, and Lord Privy-seal Sotoff, both Counts, without any Recourse to the Imperial Court, and designs by Deegrees to introduce the Title of Barons and Knights; he has already instituted an Order of Knighthood in Honour of St. Andrew, who wear a blue Ribband and Star in Imitation of the Garter.

I ..: '. ■

The Duornins are Country Gentlemen, most whereof hold their Lands by Knights Service, to appear in War on Horse-back; formerly it was sufficient to send a Man well armed and mounted, but the present Czar makes them of their Sons serve in Person, if they cannot buy Interest enough with his Ministers to be excused: When they appear in the Field, they are not allowed a Servant, though they may be Masters of some hundred Peasants, and are obliged to do all the Duties of common Soldiers; but their greatest Mortification is, that such of their Peasants as will but list Volunteers, are immediately declared Freemen, and in equal consideration with their Masters, though the point of Honour has not yet prevailed so far, as to give many Instances of this Nature. Such of the Duornins as live on their Estates, and are far from Moscoy are at much ease, and give themselves great Airs, though they are againas humble and submissive to the chief Nobility and Officers; for this Country is the perfect Model of Bayes's Grand-dance, where every one has his Share of Slavery and Worship; except

The Peasants, who are perfect Slaves, subject to the arbitrary Power of their Lords, and transferred with Goods and Chatties; they r'aSam' can call nothing their own, which makes them very lazy, and when their Master's Talk is done, and a ljjtle Bread and Firing provided for the Year, the

great great Busiuess of their Life is over, the rest of their Time being idled or slept away, and yet they live content, a couple of earthen Pots, a wooden Platter, wooden Spoon, and Knife, are all their Houlhold Goods i their Drink is Water; their Food Oatmeal, Bread, Salt, Mushrooms, and Roots, on great Days a little Fish, or Milk, if it is not a Fast; but Flesh very rarely ■; thus mere Custom in them shames the pretended Austerities of Philosophy and false Devotion, and fits them admirably for the Fatigues, of War, which, if once familiar by Use and Discipline, will certainly advance far in a People, who go as unconcerned to Death, or Torments, and have as much passive Valour as any Nation in the World. ■ ,

Their Religion is the Eastern or Greek Church, still more corrupted by Ignorance and SuMtfiut. perflj£jon . fay think t0 fatjsfy the second

Commandment by allowing no carved Images, but their Churches are filled with miserable Images. pa]ntjngS w|thout Shade or Perspective, and yet some of those Dawbings, as well as the finer Strokes of the Italian Pencils, are said to be the Work of Acgels j particularly a celebrated Piece of the Virgin Mary with three Hands, which is preserved in the Monastery of "Jerusalem^ about thirty Miles from Mosco: The Respect paid to these Pictures is the grossest kind of Idolatry, and . , makes up a principal Part of their Devotion; to these they bow and cross themselves; every Child has its own Patron Saint allotted him at Baptism,


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