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quarters' conversation could all be retained, though the whole story to Captain Watson's family, and what the main of it she thinks she does), she said to Mrs gown she had on, and how striped ; and that Mrs Veal Bargrave she would have her write a letter to her told her that it was scoured. Then Mrs Watson cried brother, and tell him she would have him give rings out, “You have seen her indeed, for none knew, but to such and such ; and that there was a purse of gold Mrs Veal and myself, that the gown was scoured. And in her cabinet, and that she would have two broad Mrs Watson owned that she described the gown expieces given to her cousin Watson.
actly ; 'for,' said she, 'I helped her to make it up.' This Talking at this rate, Mrs Bargrave thought that a Mrs Watson blazed all about the town, and arouched fit was coming upon her, and so placed herself on a the demonstration of the truth of Mrs Bargrave's chair just before her knees, to keep her from falling to seeing Mrs Veal's apparition. And Captain Watson the ground, if her fits should occasion it; for the carried two gentlemen immediately to Mrs Bargtare's elbow-chair, she thought, would keep her from falling house, to hear the relation from her own mouth. And on either side. And to divert Mrs Veal, as she when it spread so fast, that gentlemen and persons of thought, took hold of her gown sleeve several times, quality, the judicious and sceptical part of the world, and commended it. Mrs Veal told her it was a focked in upon her, it at last became such a task, that scoured silk, and newly made up. But for all this, she was forced to go out of the way; for they were in Mrs Veal persisted in her request, and told Mrs Bar- general extremely satisfied of the truth of the thing, grave she inust not deny her. And she would have and plainly saw that Mrs Bargrave was no hypochonher tell her brother all their conversation when she driac, for she always appears with such a cheerful air had opportunity. “Dear Mrs Veal,' says Mrs Bar- and pleasing mien, that she has gained the favour and grave, “this seems so impertinent, that I cannot tell teem of all the gentry; and it is thought a great how to comply with it; and what a mortifying story favour if they can but get the relation from her own will our conversation be to a young gentleman. Why; mouth. I should have told you before, that Mrs Veal says Mrs Bargrave, “it is much better, methinks, to told Mrs Bargrave that her sister and brother-in-law do it yourself.' 'No,' says Mrs Veal,' though it seems were just come down from London to see her. Says impertinent to you now, you will see more reasons Mrs Bargrave, “How came you to order matters so for it hereafter.' Mrs Bargrave, then, to satisfy her strangely ?' 'It could not be helped,' said Mrs Veal. importunity, was going to fetch a pen and ink, but And her brother and sister did come to see her, and Mrs Veal said, “Let it alone now, but do it when I entered the town of Dover just as Mrs Veal was ex. am gone ; but you must be sure to do it ;' which was piring. Mrs Bargrave asked her whether she would one of the last things she enjoined her at parting, and drink some tea. Says Mrs Veal, 'I do not care if I so she promised her.
do; but I'll warrant you this mad fellow (ineaning Then Mrs Veal asked for Mrs Bargrave's daughter; Mrs Bargrave's husband) has broke all your trinkets.' she said she was not at home. “But if you have a • But,' says Mrs Bargrave, “I'll get something to drink mind to see her,' says Mrs Bargrave, “I'll send for in for all that;' but Mrs Veal waived it, and said, her.' ‘Do,' says Mrs Veal; on which she left her, “It is no matter; let it alone;' and so it passed. and went to a neighbour's to see her; and by the time All the time I sat with Mrs Bargrave, which was Mrs Bargrare was returning, Mrs Veal was got with- some hours, she recollected fresh sayings of Mrs Veal. out the door, in the street, in the face of the beast. And one material thing more she told Mrs Bargrare, market, on a Saturday (which is market-day), and that old Mr Bretton allowed Mrs Veal ten pounds stood ready to part as soon as Mrs Bargrave came to a-year, which was a secret, and unknown to Mrs Barher. She asked her why she was in such haste. She grave till Mrs Veal told her. said she must be going, though perhaps she might not Mrs Bargrave never varies in her story, wbich go her journey till Monday, and told Mrs Bargrave puzzles those who doubt of the truth, or are unwilling she hoped she should see her again at her cousin to believe it. A servant in the neighbour's yard adWatson's, before she went whither she was going. joining to Mrs Bargrave's house, heard her talking to Then she said she would take her leave of her, and somebody an hour of the time Mrs Veal was with her. walked from Mrs Bargrave, in her view, till a turning Mrs Bargrave went out to her next neighbour's the interrupted the sight of her, which was three quarters very moment she parted with Mrs Veal, and told her after one in the afternoon.
what ravishing conversation she had with an old friend, Mrs Veal died the 7th of September, at twelve o'clock and told the whole of it. Drelincourt's Book of Death at noon, of her fits, and had not above four hours' is, since this happened, bought up strangely. And it senses before her death, in which time she received is to be observed, that, notwithstanding all the trouble the sacrament. The next day after Mrs Veal's appear- and fatigue Mrs Bargrave has undergone upon this ance, being Sunday, Mrs Bargrave was mightily in- account, she never took the value of a farthing, nor disposed with a cold and a sore throat, that she could suffered her daughter to take anything of any body, not go out that day; but on Monday morning she and therefore can have no interest in telling the story. sends a person to Captain Watson's, to know if Mrs But Mr Veal does what he can to stifle the matter, Veal was there. They wondered at Mrs Bargraves and said he would see Mrs Bargrave: but yet it is inquiry, and sent her word she was not there, nor was certain matter of fact that he has been at Captain expected. At this answer, Mrs Bargrave told the Watson's since the death of his sister, and yet never maid she had certainly mistook the name, or made went near Mrs Bargrave; and some of his friends some blunder. And though she was ill, she put on report her to be a liar, and that she knew of Mr Brether hood, and went herself to Captain Watson's, though ton's ten pounds a-year. But the person who pretends she knew none of the family, to see if Mrs Veal was to say so, has the reputation to be a notorious liar there or not. They said they wondered at her asking, among persons whom I know to be of undoubted for that she had not been in town; they were sure, if credit. Now, Mr Veal is more of a gentleman than she had, she would have been there. Says Mrs Bar- to say she lies, but says a bad husband has crazed grave, “I am sure she was with me on Saturday her; but she needs only present herself, and it will almost two hours. They said it was impossible, for effectually confute that pretence. Mr Veal says he they must have seen her if she had. In comes Cap- asked his sister on her death-bed whether she had a tain Watson, while they were in dispute, and said mind to dispose of anything? And she said no. Now, that Mrs Veal was certainly dead, and the escutcheons the things which Mrs Veals apparition would have were making. This strangely surprised Mrs Bargrave, disposed of, were so trifling, and nothing of justice when she sent to the person immediately who had the aimed at in the disposal, that the design of it appears care of them, and found it true. Then she related to me to be only in order to make Mrs Bargrare so to demonstrate the truth of her appearance, as to how things were managed in the river, and among the satisfy the world of the reality thereof, as to what ships ; and as I had some concern in shipping, I had she had seen and heard ; and to secure her reputation a notion that it had been one of the best ways of among the reasonable and understanding part of man- securing one's self from the infection, to have retired kind. And then, again, Mr Veal owns that there was into a ship; and musing how to satisfy my curiosity a purse of gold; but it was not found in her cabinet, in that point, I turned away over the fields, from Bow but in a comb-box. This looks improbable; for that to Bromley, and down to Blackwall, to the stairs that Mrs Watson owned that Mrs Veal was so very careful are there for landing or taking water. of the key of her cabinet, that she would trust nobody Here I saw a poor man walking on the bank or with it; and if so, no doubt she would not trust her sea-wall, as they call it, by himself. I walked a gold out of it. And Mrs Veal's often drawing her while also about, seeing the houses all shut up; at hands over her eyes, and asking Mrs Bargrave whether last I fell into some talk, at a distance, with this her fits had not impaired her, looks to me, as if she poor man. First I asked him how people did theredid it on purpose to remind Mrs Bargrave of her fits, abouts ? Alas ! sir, says he, almost desolate ; all dead to prepare her not to think it strange that she should or sick : Here are very few families in this part, or put her upon writing to her brother, to dispose of in that village, pointing at Poplar, where half of rings and gold, which looked so much like a dying them are not dead already, and the rest sick. Then person's request; and it took accordingly with Mrs he, pointing to one house, There they are all dead, Bargrave as the effect of her fits coming upon her, said he, and the house stands open ; nobody dares go and was one of the many instances of her wonderful into it. A poor thief, says he, ventured in to steal love to her and care of her, that she should not be something, but he paid dear his theft, for he was affrighted, which, indeed, appears in her whole ma- carried to the churchyard too, last night. Then he nagement, particularly in her coming to her in the pointed to several other houses. There, says he, they day-time, waiving the salutation, and when she was are all dead, the man and his wife and five children. alone; and then the manner of her parting, to pre- | There, says he, they are shut up; you see a watchman vent a second attempt to salute her.
at the door; and so of other houses. Why, says I, Now, why Mr Veal should think this relation a what do you here all alone? Why, says he, I am a reflection (as it is plain he does, by his endeavouring poor desolate man; it hath pleased God I am 'not to stifle it), I cannot imagine; because the generality yet visited, though my family is, and one of my believe her to be a good spirit, her discourse was so children dead. How do you mean then, said I, that heavenly. Her two great errands were, to comfort you are not visited ? Why, says he, that is my house, Mrs Bargrave in her affliction, and to ask her forgive-pointing to a very little low boarded house, and there ness for her breach of friendship, and with a pious my poor wife and two children live, said he, if they discourse to encourage her. So that, after all, to may be said to live ; for my wife and one of the suppose that Mrs Bargrave could hatch such an in- children are visited, but I do not come at them. And vention as this from Friday noon till Saturday noon with that word I saw the tears run very plentifully (supposing that she knew of Mrs Veal's death the down his face; and so they did down mine too, I very first moment), without jumbling circumstances, assure you. and without any interest too, she must be more witty, But, said I, why do you not come at them? How can fortunate, and wicked, too, than any indifferent per- you abandon your own flesh and blood ? Oh, sir, son, I daresay, will allow. I asked Mrs Bargrave says he, the Lord forbid ; I do not abandon them ; I several times if she was sure she felt the gown? She work for them as much as I am able ; and, blessed be answered modestly, “If my senses be to be relied on, the Lord, I keep them from want. And with that I I am sure of it.' I asked her if she heard a sound observed he lifted up his eyes to heaven with a when she clapped her hands upon her knee? She countenance that presently told me I had happened said she did not remember she did, but said she ap- on a man that was no hypocrite, but a serious, relipeared to be as much a substance as I did who talked gious, good man; and his ejaculation was an expreswith her. 'And I may,' said she, “be as soon per- sion of thankfulness, that, in such a condition as he suaded that your apparition is talking to me now, as was in, he should be able to say his family did not that I did not really see her; for I was under no man- want. Well, says I, honest man, that is a great ner of fear, and received her as a friend, and parted mercy, as things go now with the poor. But how do with her as such. I would not,' says she,' give one you live then, and how are you kept from the dreadful farthing to make any one believe it; I have no in- calamity that is now upon us all ? Why, sir, says he, terest in it; nothing but trouble is entailed upon me I am a waterman, and there is my boat, says he, and for a long time, for aught I know; and had it not the boat serves me for a house ; I work in it in the come to light by accident, it would never have been day, and I sleep in it in the night, and what I get I made public.' But now she says she will make her lay it down upon that stone, says he, showing me a own private use of it, and keep herself out of the way broad stone on the other side of the street, a good as much as she can ; and so she has done since. She way from his house ; and then, 'says he, I halloo and says she had a gentleman who came thirty miles to her call to them till I make them hear, and they come and to hear the relation; and that she had told it to a room- fetch it. ful of people at the time. Several particular gentle- Well, friend, says I, but how can you get money as men have had the story from Mrs Bargrave's own a waterman ! Does anybody go by water these times? mouth.
Yes, sir, says he, in the way I am employed there This thing has very much affected me, and I am does. Do you see there, says he, five ships lie at as well satisfied as I am of the best-grounded matter anchor ? pointing down the river a good way below the of fact. And why we should dispute matter of fact, town ; and do you see, says he, eight or ten ships lie
; because we cannot solve things of which we can have at the chain there, and at anchor yonder ? pointing no certain or demonstrative notions, seems strange to above the town. All those ships have families on me; Mrs Bargrave's authority and sincerity alone board, of their merchants and owners, and such like, would have been undoubted in any other case. who have locked themselves up, and live on board,
close shut in, for fear of the infection ; and I tend [The Great Plague in London.)
on them to fetch things for them, carry letters, and
do what is absolutely necessary, that they may not Much about the same time I walked out into the be obliged to come on shore ; and every night I fasten fields towards Bow, for I had a great mind to see my boat on board one of the ship's boats, and there I
sleep by myself; and blessed be God, I am preserved so she left the biscuit, which was in a little bag, and hitherto.
left a little boy to watch it till she came again. Well, said I, friend, but will they let you come on Well, but, says I to him, did you leave her the four board after you have been on shore here, when this shillings too, which you said was your week'e pay! has been such a terrible place, and so infected as it is? Yes, yes, says he, you shall hear her own it.' So he
Why, as to that, said he, I very seldom go up the calls again, Rachel, Rachel, which, it seems, was ber ship-side, but deliver what I bring to their boat, or name, did you take up the money! Yes, said she. lie by the side, and they hoist it on board ; if I did, How much was it? said he four shillings and a I think they are in no danger from me, for I never groat, said she. Well, well, says he, the Lord keep go into any house on shore, or touch anybody, no, not you all; and so he turned to go away. of my own family; but I fetch provisions for them. As I could not refrain contributing tears to this
Nay, says I, but that may be worse, for you must man's story, so neither could I refrain my charity for have those provisions of somebody or other; and since his assistance; so I called him, Hark thee, friend, said all this part of the town is so infected, it is dan 1, come hither, for I believe thou art in health, that I gerous so much as to speak with anybody; for the may venture thee; so I pulled out my hand, which village, said I, is, as it were, the beginning of London, was in my pocket before, Here, says I, go and call though it be at some distance from it.
thy Rachel once more, and give her a little more comThat is true, added he, but you do not understand fort from me ; God will never forsake a family that me right. I do not buy provisions for them here; I trust in him as thou dost : so I gave him four other row up to Greenwich, and buy fresh meat there, and shillings, and bid him go lay them on the stone, and sometimes I row down the river to Woolwich, and buy call his wife. there; then I go to single farm-houses on the Kentish I have not words to express the poor man's thankside, where I am known, and buy fowls, and eggs, and fulness, neither could he express it himself, but by butter, and bring to the ships, as they direct me, tears running down his face. He called his wife, and sometimes one, sometimes the other. I seldom told her God had moved the heart of a stranger, upon come on shore here; and I came only now to call my hearing their condition, to give them all that money; wife, and hear how my little family do, and give them and a great deal more such as that he said to her. a little money which I received last night.
The woman, too, made signs of the like thankfulness, Poor man! said I, and how much hast thou gotten as well to Heaven as to me, and joyfully picked it for them?
up; and I parted with no money all that year that I I have gotten four shillings, said he, which is a thought better bestowed. great sum, as things go now with poor men; but they have given me a bag of bread too, and a salt fish, and
[The Troubles of a Young Thief.] some flesh; so all helps out. Well, said I, and have you given it them yet?
(From the Life of Colonel Jack.] No, said he, but I have called, and my wife has I have often thought since that, and with some answered that she cannot come out yet ; but in half mirth too, how I had really more wealth than I knew an hour she hopes to come, and I am waiting for her. what to do with [five pounds, his share of the plunder); Poor woman! says he, she is brought sadly down; she for lodging I had none, nor any box or drawer to hide has had a swelling, and it is broke, and I hope she my money in, nor had I any pocket, but such as I say will recover, but I fear the child will die; but it is was full of holes ; I knew nobody in the world that the Lord! Here he stopt, and wept very much. I could go and desire them to lay it up for me ; for
Well, honest friend, said I, thou hast a sure com- being a poor, naked, ragged boy, they would presently forter, if thou hast brought thyself to be resigned to say I had robbed somebody, and perhaps lay hold of the will of God; he is dealing with us all in judg- me, and my money would be my crime, as they say
it often is in foreign countries; and now, as I was full Oh, sir, says he, it is infinite mercy if any of us are of wealth, behold I was full of care, for what to do to spared ; and who am I to repine!
secure my money I could not tell; and this held me Say'st thou so, said I ; and how much less is my so long, and was so vexatious to me the next day, faith than thine! And here my heart smote me, sug- that I truly sat down and cried. gesting how much better this poor man's foundation Nothing could be more perplexing than this money was, on which he staid in the danger, than mine; was to me all that night. I carried it in my hand á that he had nowhere to fly; that he had a family to good while, for it was in gold all but 14s.; and that is bind him to attendance, which I had not; and mine to say, it was four guineas, and that 14s. was more difwas mere presumption, his a true dependence and a ficult to carry than the four guineas. At last 1 sat courage resting on God; and yet, that he used all down and pulled off one of iny shoes, and put the possible caution for his safety.
four guineas into that; but after I had gone awhile, I turned a little way from the man while these my shoe hurt me so I could not go, so I was fain to thoughts engaged me; for, indeed, I could no more sit down again, and take it out of my shoe, and carry refrain froin tears than he.
it in my hand; then I found a dirty linen rag in the At length, after some farther talk, the poor woman street, and I took that up, and wrapt it altogether, and opened the door, and called Robert, Robert; he carried it in that a good way. I hare often since heard answered, and bid her stay a few moments and he people say, when they have been talking of money would come ; so he ran down the common stairs to that they could not get in, I wish I had it in a foul his boat, and fetched up a sack in which was the pro- clout: in truth, I had mine in a foul clout; for it visions he had brought from the ships; and when he was foul, according to the letter of that saying, but it returned, he hallooed again; then he went to the served me till I came to a convenient place, and then great stone which he showed me, and emptied the I sat down and washed the cloth in the kennel, and sack, and laid all out, everything by themselves, and so then put my money in again. then retired; and his wife came with a little boy to Well, I carried it home with me to my lodging in fetch them away; and he called, and said, such a the glass-house, and when I went to go to sleep, I captain had sent such a thing, and such a captain knew not what to do with it; if I had let any of the such a thing; and at the end adds, God has sent it black crew I was with know of it, I should have been all, give thanks to him. When the poor woman had smothered in the ashes for it, or robbed of it, or some taken up all, she was so weak, she could not carry it trick or other put upon me for it; 80 I knew not what at once in, though the weight was not much neither; to do, but lay with it in my hand, and my hand in
my bosom; but then sleep went from my eyes. Oh, most violently; then I began to think I had not so the weight of human care! I, a poor beggar boy,, much as a halfpenny of it left for a halfpenny roll, could not sleep, so soon as I had but a little money | and I was hungry, and then I cried again : then I to keep, who, before that, could have slept upon a came away in despair, crying and roaring like a little heap of brick-bats, stones, or cinders, or anywhere, as boy that had been whipped ; then I went baek again sound as a rich man does on his down bed, and to the tree, and up the tree again, and thus I did sounder too.
several times, Every now and then dropping asleep, I should The last time I had gotten up the tree, I happened dream that my money was lost, and start like one to come down not on the same side that I went up frightened ; then, finding it fast in my hand, try to and came down before, but on the other side of the go to sleep again, but could not for a long while; then tree, and on the other side of the bank also ; and drop and start again. At last a fancy came into my behold, the tree had a great open place in the side of head, that if I fell asleep, I should dream of the it close to the ground, as old hollow trees often have; money, and talk of it in my sleep, and tell that I had and looking in the open place, to my inexpressible money; which, if I should do, and one of the rogues joy there lay my money and my linen rag, all wrapped should hear me, they would pick it out of my bosom, up just as I had put it into the hole: for the tree beand of my hand too, without waking me; and after ing hollow all the way up, there had been some noss or that thought I could not sleep a wink more ; so I light stuff, which I had not judgment enough to know passed that night over in care and anxiety enough, was not firm, that had given way when it came to and this, I may safely say, was the first night's rest drop out of nuy hand, and so it had slipped quite that I lost by the cares of this life, and the deceitful- down at once. ness of riches.
I was but a child, and I rejoiced like a child, for I As soon as it was day, I got out of the hole we lay hollowed quite out aloud when I saw it; then I ran in, and rambled abroad in the fields towards Stepney, to it and snatched it up, hugged and kissed the dirty and there I mused and considered what I should do rag a hundred times; then danced and jumped about, with this money, and many a time I wished that I ran from one end of the field to the other, and, in had not had it; for, after all my ruminating upon it, short, I knew not what, much less do I know now and what course I should take with it, or where I what I did, though I shall never forget the thing; should put it, I could not hit upon any one thing, or either what a sinking grief it was to my heart when I any possible method to secure it; and it perplexed me thought I had lost it, or what a flood of joy overso, that at last, as I said just now, I sat down and whelmed me when I had got it again. cried heartily.
While I was in the first transport of my joy, as I When my crying was over, the case was the same; have said, I ran about, and knew not what I did; I had the money still, and what to do with it I could but when that was over, I sat down, opened the foul not tell: at last it came into my head that I should clout the money was in, looked at it, told it, found it look out for some hole in a tree, and see to hide it was all there, and then I fell a-crying as violently as there, till I should have occasion for it. Big with this I did before, when I thought I had lost it. discovery, as I then thought it, I began to look about me for a tree; but there were no trees in the fields
[Advice to a Youth of Rambling Disposition.] about Stepney or Mile-end that looked fit for my purpose ; and if there were any, that I began to look nar
[From • Robinson Crusoe.') rowly at, the fields were so full of people, that they Being the third son of the family, and not bred to would see if I went to hide anything there, and I any trade, my head began to be filled very early with thought the people eyed me, as it were, and that two rambling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, men in particular followed me to see what I intended had given me a competent share of learning, as far as to do.
house education and a country free school generally This drove me further off, and I crossed the road at go, and designed me for the law: but I would be Mile-end, and in the middle of the town went down satisfied with nothing but going to sea ; and my ina lane that goes away to the Blind Beggar's at Beth- clination to this led me so strongly against the will nal Green. When got a little way in the lane, I nay, the commands--of my father, and against all found a footpath over the fields, and in those fields the intreaties and persuasions of my mother and other several trees for my turn, as I thought; at last, one friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in tree had a little hole in it, pretty high out of my that propension of nature, tending directly to the life reach, and I climbed up the tree to get it, and when of misery which was to befall me. I came there, I put my hand in, and found, as I My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious thought, a place very fit ; so I placed my treasure and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my there, and was mighty well satisfied with it; but design. He called me one morning into his chamber, behold, putting my hand in again, to lay it more where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated commodiously, as I thought, of a sudden it slipped very warmly with ine upon this subject. He asked away from me, and I found the tree was hollow, and me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclimy little parcel was fallen in out of my reach, and how nation, I had for leaving my father's house and my far it might go in I knew not; so that, in a word, my native country, where I might be well introduced, and money was quite gone, irrecoverably lost ; there could had a prospect of raising my fortune by application be no room so much as to hope ever to see it again, and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He for 'twas a vast great tree.
told me it was only men of desperate fortunes on one As young as I was, I was now sensible what a fool hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other, I was before, that I could not think of ways to keep | who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by entermy money, but I must come thus far to throw it into prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings a hole where I could not reach it: well, I thrust my of a nature out of the common road; that these hand quite up to my elbow, but no bottom was to be things were all either too far above me, or too far found, nor any end of the hole or cavity ; I got a stick below me; that mine was the middle state, or what of tlie tree, and thrust it in a great way, but all was might be called the upper station of low life, which one; then I cried, nay, roared out, I was in such a he had found, by long experience, was the best state passion; then I got down the tree again, then up in the world--the most suited to human happiness ; again, and thrust in my hand again till I scratched not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour my arm and made it bleed, and cried all the while and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, novelist or essayist. He was born in Holland in 1670, and envy, of the upper part of mankind. He told but seems early to have come to England, where me I might judge of the happiness of this state by he practised as a physician. After some obscure this one thing, namely, that this was the state of life works, Mandeville produced, in 1723, his celebrated which all other people envied ; that kings have fre- Fable of The Bees, or Private Vices Made Public quently lamented the miserable consequences of being Benefits, which was soon rendered conspicuous by born to great things, and wished they had been placed being presented by the grand jury of Middlesex, on in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean account of its immoral and pernicious tendency. and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony Bishop Berkeley answered the arguments of the to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he Fable, and Mandeville replied in Letters to Dion. He prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
also published Free Thoughts on Religion, and An InHe bade me observe it, and I should always find quiry into the Origin of Honour, and the Usefulness of that the calamities of life were shared among the Christianity in War, both of which, like his Fable, upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle were of questionable tendency. He died in 1733. station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed The satire of Mandeville is general, not individual; to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of yet his examples are strong and lively pictures. He mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many describes the faults and corruptions of different prodistempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, fessions and forms of society, and then attempts to as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and exc show that they are subservient to the grandeur and travagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of worldly happiness of the whole. If mankind, he necessaries, and mean or insuficient diet on the other says, could be cured of the failings they are naturally hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural guilty of, they would cease to be capable of forming consequences of their way of living; that the middle vast, potent, and polite societies. His object was station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, cliefly to divert the reader, being conscious that and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty mankind are not easily reasoned out of their follies. were the handmaids of a middle fortune ; that tem: Another of the paradoxes of Mandeville is, that perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all charity schools, and all sorts of education, are inju. agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were rious to the lower classes. The view which he takes the blessings attending the middle station of life;. of human nature is low and degrauling enough to that this way men went silently and smoothly through have been worthy the adoption of Swift ; and some the world, and comfortably out of it; not embarrassed of his descriptions are not inferior to those of the with the labours of the hands or of the head ; not sold
dean. For example: to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace
(Plattery of the Great.) and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for If you ask me where to look for those beautiful great things — but in easy circumstances, sliding shining qualities of prime ministers, and the great gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the favourites of princes, that are so finely painted in sweets of living without the bitter; feeling that they dedications, addresses, epitaphs, funeral sermons, and are happy, and learning, by every day's experience, inscriptions, I answer, There, and nowhere else. Where to know it more sensibly.
would you look for the excellency of a statue but in After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most that part which you see of it? 'Tis the polished affectionate manner, not to play the young man, or to outside only that has the skill and labour of the precipitate myself into miseries, which nature, and sculptor to boast of; what is out of sight is untouched. the station of life I was born in, seem to have pro Would you break the head or cut open the breast to vided against ; that I was under no necessity of seek look for the brains or the heart, you would only show ing my bread ; that he would do well for me, and your ignorance, and destroy the workmanship. This endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life has often made me compare the virtues of great men which he had been just recommending to me; and to your large China jars : they make a fine show, that, if I was not very easy and happy in the world, and are ornamental even to a chimney. One would, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder by the bulk they appear in, and the value that is set it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, upon them, think they might be very useful ; but having thus discharged his duty, in warning me look into a thousand of them, and you will find noagainst measures which he knew would be to my thing in them but dust and cobwebs. hurt. In a word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle at home as
[Society Compared to a Borl of Punch.) he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my mistortunes as to give me any encouragement to
Abundance of moderate men I know that are enego away; and, to close all, he told ine I had my mies to extremes will tell me that frugality might hapelder brother for my example, to whom he had used pily supply the place of the two rices, prodigality and the saine earnest persuasions to keep him from going avarice; that if men had not so many profuse ways into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his of spending wealth, they would not be tempted to so young desires prompting him to run into the army, many evil practices to scrape it together, and consewhere he was killed; and though he said he would quently that the same nunber of men, by equally not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say aroiding both extremes, might render themselves to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would more happy, and be less vicious without than they not bless me--and I would have leisure hereafter to could with them. Whoever argues thus, shows him. reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there self a better man than he is a politician. Frugality might be none to assist in my recovery.
is like honesty, a mean starving virtue, that is only
large stirring nation, you may have soon enough of BERNARD MANDEVILLE, author of The Fable of it. 'Tis an idle dreaming virtue that employs no The Bees, was a nervous and graphic writer, who hands, and therefore very useless in a trading country, squandered upon useless and lax speculations powers where there are vast numbers that one way or other that would have fitted him admirably for being a must be all set to work. Prodigality has a thousand