Beyond the Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and the Struggle for Authority in Genetics
The scope and significance of cytoplasmic inheritance has been the subject of one of the longest controversies in the history of genetics. In the first major book on the history of this subject, Jan Sapp analyses the persistent attempts of investigators of non-Mendelian inheritance to establish their claims in the face of strong resistance from nucleo-centric geneticists and classical neo-Darwinians. A new perspective on the history of genetics is offered as he explores the conflicts which have shaped theoretical thinking about heredity and evolution throughout the century: materialism vs. vitalism, reductionism vs. holism, preformation vs. epigenesis, neo-Darwinism vs. new-Lamarckism, and gradualism vs. saltationism. In so doing, Sapp highlights competitive struggles for power among individuals and disciplinary groups. He accepts that political interests and general social contexts may directly affect scientific ideas, but develops the stronger thesis that social interests inside science itself are always involved in the content of scientific knowledge. He goes on to show that there are no neutral judges in scientific controversies and investigates the social strategies and methodological rhetoric used by scientists when they defend or oppose a particular theory. At the same time, Sapp illustrates the social constraints that ensure the high cost and risk of entertaining unorthodox theories in the sciences.
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Chapter 1 Defining the Organism
Chapter 2 Constructing Heredity
Chapter 3 Challenging the Nuclear Monopoly of the Cell in Germany
Making Plasmagenes in America
Chapter 5 Boris Ephrussi and the Birth of Genetics in France
Chapter 6 The Cold War in Genetics
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acquired characteristics American geneticists analysis argued attempted basis Bateson Beadle biologists biology Boris Ephrussi Brachet cellular differentiation Chapter characters chemical Chlamydomonas chloroplasts chromosomes ciliate claimed Conklin Correns cyto cytological cytoplasm in heredity cytoplasmic genetic cytoplasmic heredity cytoplasmic inheritance discussed Drosophila embryo embryologists environmental enzyme Ephrussi epigenetic evidence evolution evolutionary experimental factors France fundamental genetic investigations genetic system geneticists genic action German H. J. Muller hereditary heredity important inheritance of acquired Institute investigations of cytoplasmic Jennings Johannsen Jollos Kappa L'Héritier laboratory Lillie Loeb Lwoff Lysenko Lysenkoists mechanism Mendelian geneticists Mendelian genetics Mendelism microorganisms mitochondria molecular Muller Nanney nature Neurospora non-Mendelian inheritance nuclear genes nucleus organelles organism Paramecium particles phenotype physiological plasm plasmagenes Plasmon plastids problem produced protein Rockefeller Foundation role scientific somatic cell Sonneborn Sonneborn papers specific structure T. H. Morgan theoretical toplasmic traits transmission United University wrote yeast
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The Mendelian Revolution: The Emergence of Hereditarian Concepts in Modern ...
No preview available - 1989