Cooperation Among Democracies: The European Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy

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Princeton University Press, 1995 - Political Science - 250 pages

In exploring the special nature of alliances among democracies, Thomas Risse-Kappen argues that the West European and Canadian allies exerted greater influence on American foreign policy during the Cold War than most analysts assume. In so doing, he challenges traditional alliance theories that emphasize strategic interactions and power-based bargaining processes. For a better understanding of the transatlantic relationship, the author proposes that we instead turn to liberal theories of international affairs. Accordingly, liberal democracies are likely to form the "pacific federations" described by Immanuel Kant or "pluralistic security communities" as Karl W. Deutsch suggested.


Through detailed case studies, Risse-Kappen shows that the Europeans affected security decisions concerning vital U.S. interest during the 1950-1953 Korean war, the 1958-1963 test ban negotiations, and the 1962 Cuban missile crisis--all during a span of time in which the U.S. enjoyed undisputed economic and military supremacy in the alliance. He situates these case studies within a theoretical framework demonstrating that the European influence on decision-making processes in Washington worked through three mechanisms: norms prescribing timely consultations among the allies, use of domestic pressures for leverage in transatlantic interactions, and transnational and transgovernmental coalitions among societal and bureaucratic actors. The book's findings have important repercussions for the post-Cold War era in that they suggest the transatlantic security community is likely to survive the end of the Soviet threat.

 

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Contents

Introduction and Overview
3
Cooperation among Allies Power Bargaining or Democratic Community?
12
Who Pays the Piper Ultimately Calls the Tune
14
The Big Influence of Small Allies
17
Cooperation among Democracies
24
Outpost of Our National Defense Consultation Norms and the Moderation of US Policies
42
Preventing War with China
45
Preventing the Use of Nuclear Weapons
57
Conclusions
140
A Strike on Cuba which May Lose Berlin The Europeans and the 1962 Cuban Missle Crisis
146
Allied Consultation during the Crisis
148
Support for a Deal
152
Support
157
Berlin
159
The Jupiter Missiles
162
Conclusions
176

Pushing and Pulling the US toward a CeaseFire
66
Conclusions
75
Unworthy and Unreliable Allies Violation of Alliance Norms during the 1956 Suez Crisis
83
Diverging Interests and Preferences
84
Duplicity
87
Unworthy
91
US Coercion and the Restoration of the Transatlantic Relationship
96
Conclusions
99
A Game of Golf and a Little Talk Transnational Coalitions and the 19581963 Test Ban Negotiations
105
Transnational Coalitions among Scientists and Peace Activists
107
The British Impact on Eisenhowers Nuclear Testing Policies
112
British Efforts during the Kennedy Administration
126
Dealing with French and German Opposition
134
Blowing Up New York to Save Berlin? Norms Transnational Relations and NATOs Nuclear Decisions
183
The Debate about Flexible Response
184
The Neutron Bomb Controversy
187
INF the DualTrack Decision and the Zero Option
188
Conclusions
191
Conclusions the Transatlantic Community and the European Impact on American Foreign Policy
194
Collective Identity Norms and the Big Influence of the European Allies
195
The British and Germans versus the French
210
Suggestions for Further Research
215
The End of the Cold War and the Future of the Transatlantic Relationship
218
BIBLIOGRAPHY
227
INDEX
243
Copyright

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About the author (1995)

Thomas Risse-Kappen is Professor of International Relations at the University of Konstanz, Germany, and International Relations Chair at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. He is the editor of Bringing Transnational Relations Back In.

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