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The name family is often applied to a sub-group; thus it may be said that in Group V. the group-character preponderates over the family-character, but that the family-character is more marked than the group-character in Group VI.

Those groups in which neither character is much in the ascendancy are best suited for exhibiting the general applications of the periodic law. For this reason we shall begin our detailed study of this law by considering Group II.

The position of an element in the scheme of classification arising out of the periodic law is indicated by the use of Roman numerals to express

and Arabic numbers to express the series ; thus the positions of antimony, nitrogen, and iodine, respectively, are defined by the notation V. - 7, V.- 2, and VII. – 7.

the group,


[blocks in formation]

Melting points

(approx.) Atom. weights




spec. gravs. Colour, appear

ance, &c.


Occurrence and preparation

General chemical


White, lustrous, Whitish-yellow;abt. Clear whitish-yel- Gold-yellow; fairly

as hard as lead, very low; harder than ductile.
ductile, but becomes lead, ductile and
brittle when ham- malleable.

Not widely distri- Carbonate, phos- Carbonate and sul. Carbonate,sulphate,
buted. Oxide occurs phate, sulphate, sili- phate occur in some and silicate, occur
in a few rocks. cate, &c. very widely rocks and water, but in some rocks, water,
Prepared by reduc- diffused in rocks, not very widely and plants, but not
ing fused BeCl, by water, plants, and diffused. Prepared very widely diffused.
Na, not by electro- animals. Prepared by electrolysis of Prepared by elec-
lysis of BeCla. by electrolysis of fused SrCl2, or by trolysis of BaCl2

mixture of CaCl2 reducing SrCl, by mixed with NH C1, with SrCl2 and Zn - Na amalgam. or by reducing NH4C1, or by re

BaCl2 by vapour ducing CaCl2 by

of K.
Zn- Ña amalgam.
Not oxidised in ord. Quickly oxidises in Closely resembles Closely resembles
air; even when heat- moist air; decom- Ca; decomposes cold Ca.
ed in 0 is only super- poses cold H20 ra- H20 more rapidly, Oxide (Bao) very
ficially oxidised. pidly; burns in air Oxide (Sr0) strongly strongly basic and
Does not decompose at red heat.

basic and alkaline. alkaline.
H20 even at red Combines with CI,

Br, I, P, and S, at
Combines with CI, high temperatures.
Br, and I, at high Oxide (Cao)strongly
temps.; does not basic and alkaline.
combine directly Strongly positive
with S.

Dissolves in
KOHAq forming
Beo and H.
Oxide (Beo) basic
but not alkaline.
Distinctly metallic.



General formulae and chemical characters of compounds. (M = Be, Ca, Sr, or Ba). MO, MO H,MO, (no Be, known), MS, MS, H, (no Bes, H, known), MX, (X = F, C1, Br, I), MSO, M2NO, MCO,, &c. The only compounds which have been gasified are Beci, and BeBr..

The oxides MO may be prepared by direct combination of metal with oxygen, or by decomposing the hydroxides (MO,H) by heat (BaO H, is not decomposed by heat alone). The 'hydroxides MO É, where M=Ca, Sr, or Ba, are obtained by combining water with the oxides MO, or by precipitating solutions of salts of Mby potash or soda. Beryllium hydroxide, BeO, H,, is prepared by precipitating an aqueous solution of a salt of Be by NH,Aq, and drying at about 100°. The peroxides MO, (M = Ca, Sr, or Ba) are produced by interactions between Ho Aq and solutions of salts of M; the compounds MO,. «Ho thus obtained lose water when dried, when M = Ba the drying is conducted over sulphuric acid in vacuo, when M= Sr the hydrated peroxide is dried at 100', and when M = Ca the temperature is raised to 130°. Bao, is also obtained by heating BaO in oxygen at about 200°; the other oxides MO do not directly combine with oxygen.

The oxides CaO, Sro, and BaO are somewhat soluble in water; the solubility increases from CaO to Bao. The solutions are alkaline towards litmus paper; they interact with acids to produce salts and water; they precipitate hydrates of iron, copper, manganese, and many other heavy metals, from solutions of salts of these metals; they absorb and combine with carbon dioxide. These oxides combine with water forming hydroxides which are very stable compounds. Beryllium oxide, Beo, is insoluble in water; it does not directly combine with water. This oxide has no alkaline properties; it interacts with acids to form salts and water. None of these oxides, except Beo, is easily reduced, e.g. by heating with C, or in H or CO.

The hydroxides MO,H,, where M = Ca, Sr, or Ba, are fairly soluble in water; the solubility increases as the atomic weight of M increases; Cao H, is decomposed by heat (to CaO +H,0) at 300°—400°; Sro,H, at a higher temperature; BaO,H, is not decomposed even at a full red heat. These hydroxides do not interact with solutions of the alkalis (potash, soda, ammonia). They form compounds with water (hydrates); the most marked of these hydrates have the composition MO,H, 8H,0. Beryllium hydroxide, Beo, H,, is easily changed by heat to Beo+H20; it is insoluble in water and has not an alkaline reaction towards litmus. When freshly precipitated this hydroxide dissolves in KOHAq or NaOHAq, but is reprecipitated on heating. The freshly precipitated hydroxide also dissolves in (NH),CO,Aq and K CO Aq; by boiling the solution in (NH),C0 Aq a basic carbonate of beryllium is precipitated. Beo, 8, forms a number of hydrates the compositions of which vary with small variations in the conditions under which they are prepared; they are all readily decomposed by heat.

The peroxides MO, (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) shew no alkaline reaction towards litmus; they are insoluble in water, but all form compounds (hydrates) with water. They are all decomposed by heat to MO+ 0; Bal, is the most stable towards heat. No peroxide of beryllium has been obtained.

The oxides and hydroxides are all white solids; BeO, H, is much more gelatinous than the other hydroxides.

The specific gravities of the oxides MO are, approximately, 3.08 for Beo, 3.15 for CaO, 4:5 for Sro, and 5.4 for BaO; of the hydroxides MO,H, 2.08 for Cao,H., 3.62 for Sro H, and 4:49 for BaO H. The heats of formation of these oxides and hydroxides, in aqueous solutions, from calcium to barium, increase as the atomic weights of the metals increase.

The sulphides Cas, Srs, and BaS are prepared (1) by 399 heating the oxides MO in a stream of carbon disulphide mixed with carbon dioxide, (2) by heating a mixture of the sulphates MSO, with charcoal; MSO, +4C = MS + 4CO.

The hydrosulphides MS, H, are usually obtained by reactions between the hydroxides, generally in aqueous solution, and sulphuretted hydrogen; thus

MO,H, + 2H S = MS,H, + 2H,0. These compounds are also formed when the sulphides MS interact with a little water;

2MS + 2H,0 = MS, H, + MO,H,. The sulphides and hydrosulphides are white, or yellowish white, solids; they are more easily decomposed by heat, and by interaction with water, than the corresponding oxygen compounds. Besides the compounds MS and MSH the following sulphides are known Cas, Cas,, Srs,, Bas Bas,.H.O.



Beryllium does not combine directly with sulphur, nor is a sulphide produced by heating Beo in carbon disulphide vapour, or by heating BeSo, in hydrogen or sulphuretted hydrogen.

The haloid compounds MX -where X =F, CI, Br, or I, and M = Ca, Sr, or Ba--are obtained by interactions between the oxides, hydroxides, or carbonates, of the metals and aqueous solutions of the haloid acids HX. The corresponding beryllium compounds, BeCl,, BeBr,, and Belg, are prepared by strongly heating an intimate mixture of beryllium oxide and finely divided carbon in chlorine, bromine, or iodine vapour, respectively; BeO+C+X, =Bex, + CO. Solutions of beryllium oxide, or carbonate, in haloid acids yield oxyhaloid compounds on evaporation, e.g. BeO.Beci,

The compounds MX, where M is Ca or Sr usually crystallise with 6H,0, i.e. the crystals have the composition MX,.6H,0; when M= Ba the compounds MX, usually crystallise with 21,0. The crystallised fluorides however of all the metals Ca to Ba seem to be anhydrous. Hydrates of BeX, crystallise from solutions of the three compounds in the haloid acids HX. The compounds MX, are white solids, which melt at high temperatures; e.g. M.P. of CaCl = 719, CaBr = 676', Cal -631"; M.P. of SrCl, = 825°, SrBr, = 630°, SrI, = 507°; M.P. of Becl, = abt. 600°. BeBr, and BeCl, have been gasified without decomposition. The haloid compounds of Ca, Sr, and Ba, with the exception of the fluorides, are very soluble in water, and are also soluble in alcohol; the Be compounds are not soluble in water. The Be compounds easily form oxyhaloid compounds of more or less complex composition expressible by the general formula «BeX, YBeO; the haloid compounds of Ca, Sr, Ba, form only a few similar compounds, which are obtained by boiling solutions of MX, with the oxides MO. Most of the haloid compounds of Ca, Sr, and Ba, absorb and combine with ammonia, generally producing compounds of the form MX,.6NH,; these are easily decomposed by heat. These haloid compounds, except the fluorides, do not shew any great tendency to combine with other haloid compounds and so produce double salts.

The salts of the metals Be, Ca, Sr, Ba, i.e. the compounds obtained by replacing the hydrogen of acids by these metals, are very numerous. The salts of Ca, Sr, and Ba, as a class are very definite and stable compounds; the oxides and hydroxides of these metals interact with most acids in aqueous


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