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it is that the progress of medical not aroused in their unwelcome science will check infant mor- companions the spirit of antality even among those of archy and revolt. Their policy African descent. Is it not, has been to leave them alone, then, more probable that black to let them work as they will should absorb white than that and mingle with others as they white should absorb black I will—to pretend, in fact, that Of the two incompatibles, the the colour of a man's skin is of lower may easily conquer the no importance. As a temporary higher in the struggle for life. expedient, this policy cannot It is the race which breeds the be impugned. It is only when faster, not the race which has we consider it in relation to the the better brain, that ulti- future of the race that it apmately survives. The invinc- pears hazardous, even if for ible Celt, for instance, imposed the moment it be convenient. his speech upon the Iberian The truth is that if you invite race which he conquered. He or compel men of an inferior imposed little else. And the race to do your work for you, mischievous Iberian still you must suffer for your love parades a name and fame of ease and progress. To carry which do not belong to him, thousands of negroes from Afand affecting an ancestry which rica to America is to incur a is not his, befogs the mind of large responsibility. You canthe people.
not repatriate them after they Therefore they look not far have lived for generations upon enough into the future who another soil and learned andeclare optimistically that the other speech. They are your black will be absorbed in the neighbours for ever, and it is white, and that there will be an your business to discover a end of it. To debase the race means of letting them live is a far greater danger than to without disgrace to yourself. debase the currency. Pros- Brazil has adopted the method perity may restore a debased of compliance and absorption ; currency to its ancient purity. the United States has adopted No triumph in policy or finance the method of repression, and will ever help us to wash away the two methods afford a lively the taint of an alien blood. contrast. Yet in one respect the Bra- Whether Brazil has failed or zilians may boast that they not the future will prove, and have tackled the problem of the future is not hopeful. That black and white with tact and the United States has failed is skill. They have bridged the plain for all to see. There is abyss between slavery and free- no doubt that in North America dom without disgrace or dis- “the nigger question " becomes aster. They have not used the yearly more acute. We hear African as a pawn in the on the one hand of outrages, political game, and they have on the other of lynchings.
There are vague rumours that that henceforth the problem the party of “physical force” could not be quietly and calmly among the negroes has an envisaged. The disputes which enormous following and a com- raged during the period of repetent leader, and if this be construction about the future true then will the Americans of the negro not only destroyed pay dearly for their changing the peace of the country, but policy. They have wavered left it to after generations to always between the "uplift” answer a question obscured by and the revolver. They have passion and resentment. The not dared to proclaim them- position of the negro was sudselves openly upon the side denly reversed. By a stroke of repression. An irrelevant of the pen he was changed sentimentality has persuaded from a slave to a ruler, The them to ask the question, in lives and fortunes of his former an hour of crisis, “Are we not masters were committed to his men and brethren ?” Even hands. Mr Louis Jennings, in in the act of professing the a forgotten book, ' Eighty Years universal brotherhood of man, of Republican Government,' the Americans denounce, right- written a year after the terly enough, the theory which mination of the Civil War. they have adopted, that black wisely summed up the situaand white are equal. Thus are tion: “If the North,” he wrote, they enslaved by their own “had been perfectly just in its past, and they cannot, if they measures on behalf of what it would, act like free men. calls “human freedom,' the ex
Though the abolition of sla- asperation of the South might very was in no sense the cause not have been so terrible. It of the war between North and boasted of its intentions to South, it was an inevitable give the negro the rights of a result of the struggle for the citizen, while it systematically Union. Lincoln himself, as all denied them to him in its own will remember, refused for division of the country. Why months to issue an Emancipa- did Connecticut, Pennsylvania, tion Proclamation; and when and Ohio, within the space of at last he consented to sign it, a few months past, refuse to dismissed it with the jest that sanction negro suffrage by overit would be of no more avail whelming majorities 9" Bethan the Pope's Bull against cause, says Mr Jennings," the the comet. And when at last Northern people at heart are the slaves were given their weary of the negro, and his freedom, all the enmities which wrongs, and his pretensions, slavery excited were violently and his champions, and all intensified. The blacks were that appertains to him. They used as so many scourges where- turn him loose in the South with to flog the whites of the that he may be a scourge to South, and it is not surprising the people who strive to do
stroy the Government; they give him licence, not because they love him, but because they wish to avenge themselves on his masters, and to hold up a fearful warning to all advocates of secession who may come hereafter.” So the unhappy negro was made the sport of the politicians. He was flattered, cosseted, and educated that the South might be punished for their contempt of the Union. But while he was a master in the Southern States, he was neither man nor brother in the North. Even when the vote was granted him, the threat of a revolver prevented the exercise of his privilege. So he grew up with all the makings of a bitter grievance at his hand, and threatens to perplex the future of the United States with an insoluble problem. Nor can he, poor devil, be blamed for the disturbance which he causes. It was not his fault that he was brought from Africa to do the work which white hands could not do. It
was not his fault that, when freedom was given him, he was set up on a pedestal to which Southern gentlemen were invited to bend the knee. But, to-day must still pay for the misdeed of yesterday, and no one will envy the United States the task of answering the most difficult question that ever perplexed a politician.
Thus while South America has solved or (if you will) evaded the problem, North America, with the passionate recklessness of the demagogue, has made it almost impossible of solution. And the experience of South and North alike warns us that it is better to keep our race pure and to depend upon the strength of our own hands, even though so doing we delay our material progress for a century. For the mere act of emancipation does not make the black man equal to the white, and ten million aggrieved negroes are not the pleasantest citizens which an enlightened democracy can cherish.
Printed by William Blackwood and Sons.
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