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him suddenly famous. He spent much of the next seven years in Italy, where most of his poems were written. The last of his life was spent in Greece, aiding in her struggle for liberty against the Turks. He died at Missolonghi in 1824.
Calhoun, John Caldwell (page 280), an American statesman and champion of Southern rights and opinions, was born in Abbeville District, South Carolina, in 1782. He graduated at Yale College in 1804, and was elected to the legislature of South Carolina in 1808. Three years later, he was chosen to the National House of Representatives. In 1817 he was appointed Secretary of War, and held the office seven years. From 1825 to 1832 he was Vice President of the United States. He then resigned this office, and took his seat as senator from South Carolina. In 1844 President Tyler called him to his cabinet as Secretary of State; and, in 1845, he returned to the Senate, where he remained till his death, which occurred at Washington in 1850.
Cary, Alice (page 209), was born near Cincinnati, in 1820. She began her literary career at her western home, and, in 1849, published a volume of poems, the joint work of her younger sister, Phæbe, and herself. In 1850, she moved to New York. Miss Cary was the author of eleven volumes, besides many articles contributed to periodicals. She died in 1871.
Catlin, George (page 177), was born in New Jersey, 1796. He studied law for a few years, but finally turned his attention to painting, and from 1832 to 1840 traveled through the West, gathering material for his work. This he afterward embodied in a series of several hundred pictures and scenes illustrative of Indian life and character, most of which are now the property of the government. He died in 1872.
Clark, Willis Gaylord (page 71), an American poet and journalist, was born at Otisco, New York, in 1810. Although a graceful and entertaining writer, he produced but little of permanent interest. He died in 1841.
Clay, Henry (page 154), a famous American statesman and orator, was born in Hanover County, Virginia, in 1777. While a young man he removed to Kentucky and there by his own
exertions raised himself to the first place among the lawyers and politicians of the state. He held many important positions in the government, being a member of Congress, a United States senator, a Secretary of State, and on two occasions a candidate for the presidency of the United States. His works, which are chiefly of a political character, are included in several large volumes. He died in 1852.
Cooke, John Esten (page 77), an American lawyer and author, born at Winchester, Virginia, in 1830. Besides his “Stories of the Old Dominion,” he wrote several novels of Southern life and a biography of Robert E. Lee. He died in 1886.
Cooper, James Fenimore (page 63), one of the first of American novelists, was born at Burlington, New Jersey, in 1789. He studied at Yale College, and entered the navy, but resigned upon his marriage in 1811. Thenceforth he devoted himself to literature. His first novel, “ Precaution,” was published in 1819; his best, " The Mohicans,” in 1826. He has been called the American Scott, and not unjustly merits that title. He died at Cooperstown, New York, in 1851.
Craik, Dinah Maria Mulock (page 112), an English writer, commonly known as Miss Mulock, was born at Stoke-uponTrent in 1826. At the age of twenty-three, “ The Ogilvies,” her first work, appeared; this was followed by "Olive," and in 1856 by her most admired novel, “ John Halifax, Gentleman.” Mrs. Craik wrote a pare, simple English, choosing her words with great care. She died in 1887.
Curtis, George William (page 127), was born at Providence, Rhode Island, in 1824. While a young man, he traveled in Europe and the East, and wrote “Lotus Eating” and “Nile Notes of a Howadji.” On his return to America he became connected editorially with the New York Tribune and with Putnam's Monthly. In the latter, his charming sketches composing the “ Potiphar Papers ” and “Prue and I ” first appeared. In 1854 he became editor of the “Easy Chair" in Harper's Magazine and continued in charge of that department until his death. He was also for many years the chief editorial writer for Harper's Weekly. He died in 1892.
Dickens, Charles (page 92), was born at Landport, near Portsmouth, in 1812. He was the most popular novelist of his time; and though his fame is not what it once was, there are few such beautiful creations in literature as Sidney Carton, Little Nell, and Paul Dombey; while his humorous characterizations, though sometimes bordering on the grotesque, tend to a larger and more tolerant view of life. His best work, in the opinion of many, is “David Copperfield," although the “Pickwick Papers," “ Dombey and Son,” and two or three others are almost equally popular. Mr. Dickens died in 1870.
Dimond, William (page 61), an English poet and dramatist, born at Bath in 1780. He is remembered only for his poem, - The Mariner's Dream.” He died in 1835.
Doane, George Washington (page 276), an American clergyman and bishop, was born at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1799. His writings include several collections of essays and a volume of poetry entitled, “Songs by the Way.” He died in 1859.
Drake, Joseph Rodman (page 254), an American poet, was born at New York in 1795. He studied medicine and took his degree when about twenty years of age. Most of his published writings were produced during a period of less than two years. The best known of his poems are “The Culprit Fay” and the “ American Flag." He died in 1820 at the early age of twenty-five.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (pages 175, 332), an American philosopher and poet, was born at Boston in 1803. He was educated at Harvard College. After teaching a few years he was ordained minister of the Second Unitarian Church at Boston, but soon abandoned the pulpit. Not long afterwards he retired to Concord, where he continued to reside, living the life of a man of letters, until his death in 1882.
Everett, Edward (page 235), was born at Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1794, and died in 1865. During his long life he occupied many important positions under the government, was professor of Greek in Harvard College, and was editor of the North American Review for a number of years.
His present fame, however, rests chiefly on his orations, which were carefully prepared, and are models of style.
Finch, Francis M. (page 145), was born at Ithaca, New York in 1827. He was educated at Yale College, and in 1881 was elected an associate judge of the court of appeals of the state of New York. He wrote several poems, but “The Blue and the Gray” is the only one that achieved popularity.
Geike, Sir Archibald (page 215), a Scottish geologist, was born at Edinburgh in 1835. He was for many years professor of geology in Edinburgh University. His works, which are numerous, include a Student's Manual of Geology,” and a “ Memoir of Sir Roderick I. Murchison."
Goldsmith, Oliver (page 99), was born at Pallas, Ireland in 1728. He received his education at several schools, at Trinity College, Dublin, at Edinburgh, and at Leyden. In 1756 he became a resident of London, where he made the acquaintance of several celebrated men, among whom were Dr. Johnson and Sir Joshua Reynolds. His writings are noted for their purity, grace, and fluency. He died in 1774.
Grady, Henry W. (page 142), an American journalist and orator, was born in Georgia in 1851. He was editor of the Atlanta Constitution and achieved great popularity as a public speaker. He died in 1889.
Green, John Richard (page 241), a distinguished English historian, was born at Oxford in 1837. After taking his degree at Jesus College he was ordained as a clergy man of the Church of England. He was afterwards appointed librarian to the archbishop of Canterbury and devoted his leisure to historical research. In 1875 he brought out his “Short History of the English People,” probably the most popular work of the kind ever published. He afterwards wrote several other works of similar character. He died in 1883.
Grimké, Thomas S. (page 326), an eminent lawyer and scholar, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1786. He graduated at Yale in 1807, and died near Columbus, Ohio, in 1834. He gained considerable reputation as a politician, but is best known as an advocate of peace, Sunday Schools, and the Bible.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel (pages 81, 229), the most famous of American novelists, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1804.
He was educated at Bowdoin College; served in the Custom House at Salem; was appointed United States consul at Liverpool; and finally settled at Concord, Massachusetts. His first book, “Fanshawe," published in 1828, was a failure; and “ Twice Told Tales,” published in 1837, waited long for the recognition which was its due. In 1854 appeared the “Scarlet Letter,”
,” “a romance of intense interest, and exhibiting extraordinary powers of mental analysis and graphic description"; and a year later “The House of the Seven Gables,” one of his most popular books, but inferior to the “Scarlet Letter” in literary finish and in the development of plot. Hawthorne died at Plymouth, New Hampshire, in 1864.
Henry, Patrick (page 147), an American statesman and orator, was born in Virginia in 1736. After having failed in mercantile business, he studied law and at the age of twenty-four was admitted to the bar. He was a delegate to the Congress of 1774, and in 1775 in Richmond, Virginia, made the famous speech of which our selection is a portion. During the Revolution he was for several years governor of Virginia. He died in 1799.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell (page 165), a distinguished American writer, was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1809. He was graduated from Harvard College in 1829, having for classmates several men who have since become distinguished. In 1838 he was appointed professor of anatomy and physiology in Dartmouth College. He remained there but a short time, and then returned to Boston and entered on the practice of medicine. In 1847 he was appointed professor at Harvard, filling a similar position to the one held at Dartmouth. He discharged the duties of his professorship for more than thirty years with great success. Literature was never his profession; yet few American authors attained higher success, both as a poet and as a prose writer.
Hunt, Leigh (pages 159, 219), an English poet and miscellaneous writer, was born near London in 1784. He began to write for the public at a very early age. He was intimate with Byron, Shelley, Moore, and Keats, and was associated with