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ander had appointed governor of Babylon, being disgusted with his master's cruelty, and ambitious of power himself, went over into Greece, with immense sums which he raised from the plundered prisoners of Persia. He had credit enough to assemble a body of six thousand soldiers, and with these he landed at Athens; money, at that time being thought all powerful in Greece, he lavished immense sums among the mercenary orators, whose business it was to inflame the minds of the people.

83. Of all those, Phocion alone, to whom he offered seven hundred talents, preserved his well known integrity, and remained inflexible ; his disinterestedness had long been the object of admiration, even in the time of Philip. Being offered a great sumi of money, it not for his own acceptance, at least for the benefit of his children, “ If my children," cried Phacion,"resemble me, the little spot of ground, with the produce of which I have hitherto lived, and which has raised me to the glory you mention, will be sufficient to maintain them; if it will not, I do not intend to leave them wealth, inerely to stimulate and heighten their luxury."

84. Alexander having likewise sent hin an hundred talents, Phocion asked those who brought them, why Alexander sent him so great a sum, and did not remit any to the rest of the Athenians ? " It is,” replied they," because Alexander looks upon you as the only just and virtuous man." Phocion rejoined, “ let him suffer me still to enjoy that character and be really what I am taken for." This, therefore, was not a character to be corrupted ; on the contrary, he used all his influence to prevent the success of Harpalus, who being ordered by the assembly to depart the city, lost all hopes of success.

85. This commotion was scarcely quelled, when another ensued, in consequence of a declaration, by which all the Macedonians, who from their age or infirmities were unable to bear the fino tigues of war, should be sent back to Greece. They with seditious cries unanimously demanded to be entirely discharged from his service, murmuring against him as a despiser of his bravest troops, and as a cruel king, who wanted not their absence but their des. truction; Alexander however, acted with that resolution upon this occasion, which always marked his character. Being scated on his tribunal of jastice, he rusbęd among the principal mutineers, seized thirteen, and ordered them to be immediately punished.

86. The soldiers amazed at his intrepidity, withheld their complaints, and with downcast eyes seemed to beg for mercy. . Fou desired a discharge," cried he; “ go then and publish to the world that you have left your prince to the mercy of strane gers; from henceforth the Persians shall be my guards." This urnace served only to increase the misery and the consternatio

of his troops; they attended him with tears and lamentations, till at last softened by their penitence, he once more took them into favour and affection.

87. Now secure from insurrection, he gave himself up to mirth and feasting; his army was followed by all the ministers of pleasure; he spent whole nights and days in immoderate drinking, and in one of these excesses, Hephæstion lost his life. This courtier was the most intimate friend of Alexander. Craterus, alone of all the Macedonians seemed to dispute this honour with him. “ Craterus," as the king used to say, “ loves the king, but Hephæstion loves Alexander, The death of this favourite threv the monarch into excessive sorrow, he seemed to receive no consolation; he even put to death the physician who attended him, and the extraordinary funeral honours celebrated at his arrival in Babylon, marked the greatness of his affliction.

88. After various combats, conquests, cruelties, follies and excesses, Alexander arrived at Babylon : the Chaldeans who pretended to foresee future events, attempted to persuade him not to enter that city. The Greek philosophers, on the other hand displayed the futility of their predictions. Babylon was a theatre for him to display his glory in, and ambassadors from all the nation's he had conquered were there in readiness to celebrate his triumphs. After making a most magnificent entry, he gave audience to the ambassadors, with a grandeur and dignity suitable to his power, yet with the affability and politeness of a private courtier.

89. At that time he wrote a letter which was to have been read publicly in the assembly at the Olympic games, whereby the several cities of Greece were commanded to permit all exiles to return into their native country, those excepted who had committed sacrilege, or any other crimes deserving death, ordering Antipater to employ an armed force against such cities as shouli refuse to obey. This letter was read in the assembly. But the Athenians and Etolians did not think themselves obliged to put orders in execution which seemed to interfere with their liberty.

90. Finding Babylon, in extent and conveniency, superior to all the other cities of the East, he resolved to make it the seat of his empire, and for that purpose was desirous of adding to it al the ornaments possible. "But though he was much employed in projects of this kind, and in schemes even beyond human power to execute, he spent the greatest part of his time in such pleasures as this magnificent city afforded. He was often present at new banquets, where he drank with his usual intemperance.

91. On a particular occasion, having spent the whole night in a debauch, a second was proposed; he accepted the invitation, and drank to such excess, that he fell upon the floor, dead so

316 THE HISTORY OF GREECE. appearance; and in this lifeless manner was carried a sad specta. cle of debauchery to his palace. The fever continued, with some, intervals, in which he gave the necessary orders for the sailing of the fleet, and the marching of the land forces, being persuaded he should soon recover. But at last, finding himself past all hopes, and his voice beginning to fail, he gave his ring to Perdiccas, with orders to convey his corpse to the temple of Ammon.

92. He struggled, however, with death for some time, and raising himself upon his elbow, he gave his hand to the soldiers, who pressed to kiss it; being then asked to whom he would leave his empire, he answered, “ To the most worthy." Perdiccas inquiring at what time he should pay him divine honours, he replied, “ When you are happy.With these words he expired, being thirty-two years and eight months old, of which he had reigned twelve, with more fortune than virtue.

98. In whatever light we view this monarch, we shall have litile to admire, and less to imitate. That courage for which he was celebrated, is but a subordinate virtue; that fortune which still attended him, was but an accidental advantage; that discipline which prevailed in his army, was produced and cultivated by his father; but his inteinperance, his cruelty, his vanity, his passion for useless conquests were all his own. His victories, however, served to crown the pyramid of Grecian glory; they served to show to what degree the arts of peace can promote those of war.

94. In this picture, we view a cambination of petty states, by the arts of refinement, growing more than a match for the rest of the world united, and leaving mankind an example of the supe riority of intellect over brutal force. After the death of this monarchi. Greece was rather considered as a seminary for the education and promotion of the laws of other nations, than a confederacy for enforcing and promulgating their own.

95. The successors of Alexander seized upon particular parts of his extensive empire, and what he gained with much fatigue and danger, became a prey to men who sheltered their ambition under the sanction and glory of his name. They had been taught by him a lesson of pride; and as he would never suffer an equal, his numerous successors could not think of admitting a superior.

96. They continued their disputes for dominion until in some measure they destroyed each other; and us no governments were ever worse conducted than theirs, so no period of history Was ever let in such darkness, doubt, and confusion


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