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Pronouns Poffeflive are Six in Number, and always take an Article before them, though not expressed in English or French.


il tuo


Plural. My,

il mio M. la mia F. i miei, le mie.

M. la tua F. i tuoi, le tue. His, her, it, il suo M. la sua F. i suoi, le sue,

il nostro M. la nostra F. i nostri, le nostre. il vostro M. la vostra F, i vostri, le vostre. il loro M. la loro F. i loro, le loro.

Our, Your, Their,


Sing. Masc. Plural Masc. My Book, il mio libro, i miei libri. Thy, your Hat, il tuo cappello,

i tuoi cappelli. His Horse, il suo cavallo, i suoi cavalli. Our Prince,

il nostro Prencipe, i nostri Prencipe. Your King, il vostro Ri, i vostri Re. Their Country, il loro paese,

i loro paese.

The like of the other Pronouns Poffeflive, Masculine and Feminine, Singular and Plural : Where it may be noted that loro their, never changes its Number or Gender, but is diftinguilhed only by the Article before it, as, il loro, la loro, &c.

To render the Declension of thefe Articles with the Pronouns more plain and easy to the Learner, the following Examples are here let down.

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my Book.


Singular Number.
Nom, il mio Libro,
Gen. del mio Libro,

of my Book.
Dat. al mio Libro,

to my Book. Abl. dal mio Libro, from my Book.

Nom. i miei Libri,
Gen. de' miei Libri

of my Books.
Dat. a' miei Libri

Books, Abl. da' miei Libri, from my Books.

my Books.

to my

my Servant.

to my


Nom. la mia Serva,
Gen. della mia Serva,

of my Servant.
Dat. alla mia Serva,

dalla mia Serva, from my Servant.

Nom. le mie Serve,
Gen. delle mie Serve, of my Servants.
Dat. alle mie Serve, to my Servants.
Abl. dalle mie Serve, from my Servants.

my Servants.

Note. I. The Article il is not put to the Pronouns, before Nouns of Quality or Kindred; for we say, Your Majesty, vostra Maesità, not, la vostra Maesià. Of your Majesty, di vostra Maestà, not, della vostra


Also, Also, My Husband, mio Marito, not, il mio Marito. To my Husband, a mio Marito, not, al mio

Marito. From my Husband, da mio Marito, not, dal mio


II. That if these Nouns of Quality or Kindred be of the Plural Number, the Definite Article i or le is detained ; as, Their Highneffes, le Altezze loro, or, le loro Al

tezze. Your Brothers, i vostri Fratelli, or, i Fratelli vostri. Of your Sisters, delle vostre Sorelle.

Pronouns Demonstrative, This, That, Thele, Those, are so called, as they serve to shew or demonstrate any Person, or the Thing spoken of; as,

This Man, questo, or, quefto qui.

This Woman, questa, or, questa qui. Costui Mar. and costei Fem. Colui Maf. and colei Fem. This Man or Woman, are also Pronouns Demonstrative, and used only when speaking of a Man, Woman, or other living Substance; and that without any Substantive joined to them, and at the End of a Speech only, and never at the Beginning or Middle; as, 'Tis for this Man, do not give it to that, è per costui, non lo date à colui. Pay this Woman, send that away, pagate ccflei, è rimandate colei. And note, these Pronouns are chiefly used when speaking to Persons in a Nighting

Costui and coftii make costoro Plur. Colui and colei make coloro Plur. Masc. and Fem.



Pronouns Interrogative serve to ask Questions ; as, Who? What ? IVhich ? chi ? che ? quale.

Who is it? chi è?
Who told you so ? chi v detto questo?
What Book is this ? che libro è ?
What are you doing? che fate?

What House is it? quale è la casa? Note. For the greater Beauty of Expression, che is often put for quale; as,

What Man is that? che uomo è ?

Pronouns Relative, That, Who, Which, Whoje, or, Of whom, are expreísed by che, chi, quale, and di cui, or, di chi.

Obferv. I. The Pronouns Relative, that, who, which, or what, are expressed by che, instead of quale, quali, il quale ; as,

The Bcok that teaches, il libro che insegna. II. Boccacio, Davilla, and other the best Authors use cui whose, with the Article il, in the following manner of speaking ; Whose fair Visage, il cui bel viso, or, il di cui

bel vile. Whose Beauties, le cui beilezze, or, le di cui

bellezze. To whose Brother, al cui fratello, or, al di

cui fratello. And the like. III. Eso he, himself, or, it, Maf. is a Pronoun Relative, as expressed in the Table of Pronouns ; and note, that efo, is for greater Elegance of Ex

pression pression put with con and noi, voi, loro, lei, &c. as, Along with us, con eso noi ; along with them, con eso loro ; along with him, con efo feco; along with me, con el meco, &c.


General Observations concerning the

PRONOUNS in Speaking. ·

HE Affirmative, by which we affirm

the Thing spoken of, when the Italians put the Pronoun before the Verb; as,

I give it you, velo de. But if the Verb be of the Infinitive Mood, or a Participle with two Pronouns, the Pronouns are put after the Verb, and commonly joined to it, by cutting off the last Letter of the Verb; as,

For to thew it to him, per mostrarglielo.

Having seen them, vedutili, or vedutele. 2. The Affirmative-negative, when the Pronouns are put before or after the Verb, as in the simple Affirmative, putting non for not; as,

I do not give it you, non velo do. 3. The Question, when the Verb, if joined to a single Pronoun, is followed by the Pronoun ; as,

Dces he go? Va egli ?

But if there be two or more Pronouns, the two last are put first, and the Personal Pronoun ), &c. is placed last; as, Do I give it you? Velo do io?


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