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The Question-negative is in like manner, and begins with non ; as,

Do not I give it you? Non velo do io ? 4. The Imperative Mood in bidding or commanding, when the Pronouns are put after the

Verb; as,

Give it me, datemelo. In the Imperative Negative, the Pronouns are put before the Verb, beginning with the Negative non ; as,

Do not give it him, non glielo date. Note. The Italians use frequently the Infinitive Mood of Verbs, instead of the Imperative, in speaking to Inferiors; as,

Do not tell this to any Man, non dir questo a

nisuno. In speaking to an Equal, the second Person Plural of the Indicative Mood, Present Tense; as,

Do not go, for you will repent of it, non an

date, che ve ne pentirete. In speaking to a Superior, the third Person Singular of the Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense ; as,

Say not so I beseech you, non dica questo per


These few Examples are sufficient for the Learner's present Observation, as the right placing of the Pronouns in general is fully explained hereafter.


Of the Auxiliary Verbs Havere to have,

and Elere to be. IT T is proper that the Learner be acquainted

with there two Auxiliary Verbs, before he proceeds in his Compositions ; for this Reason they are here set down at the Beginning : And it is recommended to him, to make himself perfect in conjugating these two Verbs, as the true Formation of all other Verts depend greatly on these two: And as few Persons set themselves to learn the Italian Tongue, without being first acquainted with the common Rules of Grammar in their own Native Tongue, or the Latin Language, I shall not take up their Time in explaining the Use of Moods and Tenfes, but only remark, that Verbs in the Italian Tongue may be conjugated with or without the Pronouns at Pleasure ; though I chuse here to set them down to make the Learner more readily acquainted with them.

HAVER E, to have.

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense, do. Sing. Io ,

I have. tu hai,

thou hast. egli ,

he has. Plur. noi abbiamo,

we have.
voi bacite,
eglino hanno,

ye lave.
tlicy huse.

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Imperfect Tense, had. Sing. Io havévo,

I had. tu havévi,

thou hadit. egli havéva, he had, Plur.' noi havevamo,

voi haveyate,
eglino havévano.

we had. ye had. they had.

The Preterit, or Definite Tense, had. Sing. To hebbi,

I had. tu bavéti,

thou hadst. egli hebbe,

he had.

Plur. noi havémmo,

we had.
voi havéste,
eglino hebbero, or ebbono, they had.

ye had.

The Future Tense, ball or will. Sing. Io haverò, or havrò, I shall or will have.

tu haverai, bavrai, thou shalt have.

egli haverà, havrà, he shall have. Plur. noi haverémo, havrémo, we shall have.

voi haveréte, havréte, shall have.
eglino haveránno, havranno, they shall have.


Imperative Mood.

Sing. Habbi, or babồi , have thou.

bábbio, or ábbia egli, let him have.

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let us have.

Plur. habbiamo noi,

babbiáte voi,
bábbiano eglino,

have ye.

let them have.

Optative, or Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense, may or can. Sing. Ch' io habbia,

that I may have. ch' tu hábbi, or hábbia, that thou may’fthave.

ch'egli hábbia, that he may have. Plur. che noi habbiamo, that we may have.

che voi habbiate, that ye may have.
ch' eglino habbiano, that they may have.

Imperfect Tense, pould, &c. Sing. To haveréi, or havrei, I should have. tu haverésti,

thou should't have. egli haverébbe,

he should have. Plur. noi haverémmo,

we should have. voi haveréste,


should have. eglino haverébbero, ha- they should have. veriano, haverebbono,

Preterit, or Definite Tense, had, might, &c. Sing.. Ch' io havéli, that I had.

che tu havéli, that thou hadst.
ch'egli havéje,

that he had. Plur. che noi havélimo, that we had. che voi havé

te, that ye had. ch cyline havésfero, that they bad.


Infinitive Mood.

Havere, to Have.
Participle Common.

Havuto, Had.


Havendo, Having.

Note, By these Tenses, Verbs Active may be conjugated, as is observed in my Rules for the French Tongue, page 47, to which I refer the Reader; And here also by the Addition of the Participle Common Havuto Had, to the Tenses above conjugated, will be formed the several other Tenfes or Parts of Time, which Grammarians frequently make use of; as will be seen in these following


Havere, to llave.

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